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Full text of "Illinois Catholic Historical Review (1918 - 1929)"

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Illinois 

Catholic Historical 

Review 



CONTENTS AND INDEX 
VOLUME X 



Published by 

The Illinois Catholic Historical Society 

Chicago, III. 



9414 

i^OYOLA UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 

5 



CONTENTS AND INDEX— VOLUME X 



ARTICLES 

Page 
Bishop England's Correspondence with Bishop Rosati, Eev. John Bothen- 

steiner 59 

Bishop Muldoon 's War and Reconstruction Service, Charles Mahon 295 

Book Reviews: 

Elizabeth Seton by Madame de Barberey (Rev. Joseph Code, M. A.), 

Bev. J. B. Culemans 282 

George Rogers Clark — His Life and Public Services (Temple Bodley), 

John V. McCormick, J. D 68 

Joliette-Marquette Expedition — 1673 (Francis Borgia Steck, O. F. M., 

Ph.D.), Bev. Ambrose Smith, O.P., S. T. Lr 396 

Letters of a Bishop to His Flock (His Eminence George Cardinal Mun- 

delein), F. J, R 283 

Shin-To (Geo. Schurhammer, S. J.), W. E. Shields, S.J 397 

The Bridge to France (Edward Hurly), John V. McCormick 173 

The Pageant of America (Ralph Henry Gabriel), Dorothy C. Kleespies.. 286 
United States — A History (Wm. Kennedy and Sister Mary Joseph), 

John V. McCormick 174 

Universal Knowledge, "Vol. 1 71 

Christmas Day, 1865, in Virginia City, Montana, Bev. Francis Xavier Eup- 

pens, S.J 48 

Chronicle: 

Cornerstone Laying of Springfield Cathedral 277 

Finnigan, Bishop George J., C. S. C 276 

Rohlman, Bishop Henry P 276 

St. John the Baptist Church, Jecmette M. Smith 175 

Colonel Francis Vigo and George Rogers Clark, Cecil E. Chamberlain, S. J. . 139 

Editorial Comment 167 

George Rogers Clark in Ohio, Bev. Laurence J. Kenny, S.J 248 

Gleanings from Current Periodicals, William Stetson Merrill 65, 169 

History in the Press, Compiled by Teresa L. Maher: 

Alton Planning River Side Park to Replace Ruins, Associated Press 78 

American Catholic Historical Association 76 

Bishop Muldoon Resigns from N. C. W. C. Administrative Committee 73 

Bourbonnais Was the First Village on Kankakee River 77 

Cairo Has New Hope for Great City, Associated Press 79 

Catholic War Records, N. C. W. C. Bulletin, May, 1927 74 

Splendid Organization of National Council of Catholic Women Effected 

in Belleville Diocese 74 

The Catholic Order of Foresters 75 

Illinois: The Cradle of Christianity, Joseph J. Thompson, LL.D 3, 83, 379 

John England, Bev. P. W. Browne, Ph.D 239 

Letters of Bishop Benedict Joseph Fenwick of Boston to Bishop Rosati of 

St. Louis, Bev. John Bothensteiner 145 



4 ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW 

Necrology : 

Muldoon, Rt. Rev. Peter J., D. D 272 

Nash, Thomas 274 

Smyth, Rev. P. Smith, LL. D 272 

Young, John P 275 

Zurbonsen, Rev. Anthony, Rev. C. Krekenbei g 62 

Right Reverend Peter James Muldoon, D. D., First Bishop of Rockford, J. 

Allen Nolan 291 

Samuel Finley Breese Morse and the Anti-Catholic Political Movements in 

the United States (1791-1872), Bev. Francis John Connors, A.F.M 8-3 

The American Federation of Catholic Societies (Continued), Anthony Matre, 

K.S.G 38, 261 

The Dark and Bloody Ground, Bev. Paul J. Foik, C. S. C, Ph.D 364 

The Early Irish of Illinois, John P. McGoorty 26 

The Purpose of a Catholic Historical Society, Bev. Giliert J. Garraghan, H. J. 15 
Travel Literature as Source Material for American Catholic History, Bev. 

Joseph Paul Byan, A.F.M 179, 301 

William Lamprecht, Artist, Bev. Henry S. Spalding, S.J 54 



FRONTISPIECE 

Muldoon, Rt. Rev. Peter James, D. D Opposite 291 



CONTRIBUTORS 

Browne, Rev. P. W., Ph. D. 239 

Chamberlain, Cecil H., S. J 139 

Connors, Rev. Francis John, A. F. M 83 

Culemans, Rev. J. B 282 

P. J. R 283 

Folk, Rev. Paul J., C. S. C 364 

Garraghan, Gilbert J., S. J 15 

Kenny, Rev. Laurence J., S. .7 248 

Kleespies, Dorothy C 286 

Krekenberg, Rev. C 62 

Kuppens, Francis Xavier. f^. T 48 

Lamprecht, Artist 54 

Maher, Teresa L 73 

Matre, Anthony, K. S. G 38, 261 

McCormick, John V., J. D 68, 174 

McGoorty, J. P 26 

MeMahon, Charles A 295 

Merrill, William Stetson 65 

Nolan, J. "Allen 291 

Ryan, Rev. Joseph Paul, A. F. M 179, 301 

Rothensteiner, Rev. John 59, 145 

Shields, W. E., S. J 397 

Smith, Jeannette M 176 

Smith, Rev. Ambrose, O. J ' 396 

Thompson, Joseph J., LL. IJ 3, 123 



GENERAL INDEX— VOLUME X 



"Abbey Chronicle" of St. Bene- 
dict, Louisiana, Excerpt from. 171 
Abbeyville, S. C, reference to ... . 32 
Abbott, James, Governor of Vin- 

cennes 35, 69, 70 

Abel, Rev., Charge against Catho- 
lics of the United States 
Church at St. Louis, reference 

to 316 

Abenakies, Indians, Father Rale 

and 229, 230 

Abdy, E. S., "Journal of a Resi- 
dence and Tour in the United 

States" 307-329 

Abyssinia 72 

Acadians, Settlement in Maryland 

of 207 

In New Orleans 210 

Tragic Day of 171 

A. C. H. A., reference to 76 

Acquaroni, Father M 310 

Adams, James Truslow, Historian, 

reference to 180 

Adams, John, Contributor to Cath- 
olic Church in Boston 228 

Adams, John Quincy, Attack on 

Church by 246 

Adventures in the Wilderness, Vol. 

I, "Pageant of America"... 286 
Agonstat, Chief of the Onontagues 

and Friend of M. de La Salle 383 

Ainoves, lowas 381 

Akansas, Nation of 126 

Ako, Mitchel, of the Province of 
Poictou, Companion of Father 

Hennepin 127 

Alabama 60 

Alaska 72 

Albany, Report on Church of 236 

Albion, New, Site of 1S9 

Albrinck, Vicar General J., D. D. 

of Cincinnati 38 

Alder Gulch 51 

Alibamon Indians, Father Le Roy 

and 204 

Alleghany Mountains 28, 140 

Clark 's Journey over 248 



Allighin (Ohio), reference to 134 

AUouez, Rev. Claude Jean, S. J. . . 387 
The Miami Indians and 6 

Allston, Washington, American 

Historical Painter and Poet . . 93 

Almonaster, Don Andre, reference 

to 347 

Althoff, Rt. Rev. Henry, D. D., 

Bishop of Belleville 74 

Alton, Illinois 32, 62, 63, 78 

Alvord, Quotation of 31 

"America," Editor of, quoted 247 

' ' American Bottom, ' ' reference 

to 32, 34 

American Catholic Church History, 

reference to 19 

American Catholic Historical Asso- 
ciation, Seventh Annual Meet- 
ing of 76 

"American Commonwealth, The," 

reference to 107 

American Federation of Catholic 

Societies 261- 272 

American Legion, reference to 6Q 

American Protective Association, 

reference to 83, 114, 120 

' ' American Quarterly Review, ' ' 
reference to 213 

"American Social History as Re- 
corded by British Travelers," 
by Dr. Allen Nevins, reference 
to 179 

American Spirit in Art, Vol. XII, 

"Pageant of America" 287 

American Spirit in Architecture, 
Vol. XIII, "Pageant of 
America" 287 

American Spirit in Letters, Vol. 

XI, "Pageant of America". . 287 

Ampere, Reference to Electro-Mag- 
net 101 

Anabaptists, reference to 302 

Anastasius, Recollect Father, ref- 
erence to 392, 394, 395 

Anathontantas (Ottoes), Indians. 381 

Anburey, Author of "Travels 
Through Interior Parts of 
America " 205 



6 



ILI.INOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW 



Andre, Don Almonaster y Roxaa, 

and New Orleans 227 

Annales de 1 'Association de la 

Propagation de la Foi 33 

Annunciation Church of New York 55 
Andover, School of Mr. Foster 

at 90- 92 

Anti-Catholic Political Movements, 

reference to 83 

Anti-Masonic Party, Minor Party 

from 1831-1832 113 

Anti-Saloon League 271 

Antonelle, Cardinal, reference to . . 88 
Antwerp, Belgium, Immigrants 

from Ill 

Arbor Croche, Bishop Fenwick of 

Cincinnati at 52 

Argentina, reference to 72 

Arkansas River 388 

Arkansas, State of 60, 388 

Armond, Rev. Abraham, at Hono- 
lulu 212 

Artois, Bethune in the Province of 127 

Arundel, William 31 

Asapista, Chief of the Illinois 

Indians 382 

Ashby, Rev., Residence of 212 

Ashe, Thomas, Author of "Trav- 
els in America" 180, 238 

Report of Catholic Settlements 

by ." 223 

Ashland, reference to 62, 63 

Associated Catholic Charities of 

Chicago, Organization of 284 

Assumption Church of New York. 55 
' ' Athenaeum Head, ' ' Portrait of 

Washington, by Stuart 94 

Aubry, Lieutenant, Builder and 

Namer of Fort Asencion .... 26 
Auguel, Anthony, "Picard du 
Gay," Companion of Father 

Hennepin 127 

Augusta, Maine, reference to 157 

" Auxoticiat," To the Ottawa; 
Radisson 's Famous Third 

Voyage 66 

"Awful Disolosuie of Maria 
Monk, ' ' an Anti-Catholic 
Publication, by President 
Dwight ." 93, 102 

B 

Babylon, Long Island City 55 

Bachelot, Rev. Alexis, Prefect 



Apostolic at Honolulu 162 

Bachelot, Rev. M., Missionary at 

Oahu 162 

Bacourt, A. F. De, ' ' Souvenirs 
D'un Diplomate; Letters In- 

times Sur L 'Amerique 

333-339, 356, 357 

Badin, Rev., and Gallipolis 226 

Bailey, Richard, Loyalty of 282 

Bailey, Elizabeth Ann, Struggles 

of 282 

Bakewell, Robert A., Editor of 
"The Shepherd of the Val- 
ley" 150 

Baltes, Bishop P. J 62 

Baltimore, Lord, Proprietor and 

Governor of Maryland 

202, 207, 221 

Baltimore, Maryland, reference to. 

98, 335 

Church in 216 

Baltimore, Diocese of, reference to 88 

Bancroft, George, Historian ISO 

Bangen, Rev. H., of Aurora, 111. . . 62 
Bangor, Maine, Fenwick, Attempt 

at Catholic Colonization near. 162 

Bannock, reference to 49 

Barber Family, Conversion of 96 

Barber, Jerusha 96 

Barber, Mrs. Daniel 96 

Barber, Virgil Horace, Episcopal 

Minister 96 

Barberey, Madame de. Author of 

' ' Elizabeth Seton " 282 

Bardstown, Bishop of ...236, 237, 245 
Barlow, Joel, and Gallipolis Col- 
ony 225 

Barrens, Institution at 35, 60 

Barrois, Secretary of Count Fron- 

tenac, reference to 132 

Barry, Rev. F. J 261 

Bayagoulas, Visited by Mission- 

" ary '. 194 

Beaubois, Father Nicholas de, 
Founder of Missions in Louis- 
iana 197 

Bedini, Archbishop, Disgraceful 

Treatment Meted Out to II 9 

Beocher, Harriet, Daughter of Ly- 
man Beecher 151 

Beecher, Henry Ward, Son of Ly- 
man Beecher 151 

Beecher, Dr., Virulent Foe of 

Catholics 332 



ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW 



Beecher, Lyman, Author, reference 

to 102, 154 

Belgium, Catholic Immigrants 

from Ill 

Belknap, Dr 90 

Belleville, Diocese of 74 

Bellfontaine, reference to. 388, 390, 392 

Belloc, Leadership of 286 

Beltrami, Quoted by Chateaubri- 
and 213, 214 

Beltrami, G. C, "A Pilgrimage in 

Europe and America " . . 307- 310 
Benedict, Mother, Superior of Ur- 

suline Convent 158 

Benedictine Fathers in Newark, 

N. J 54 

Bericht der Leopoldenen Stiftung. 18 
Berkeley, Governor of Virginia, 

reference to 189 

Bernard, John, Author of "Re- 

tropections of America " 

210, 220, 238 

Bernhard, Carl, Duke of Sax Wei- 
mar, "Travels through North 

America" 311,314 

Bethune, Convent of 127 

Bienville, Settlement of Louisiana 

by 197 

Building of New Orleans by 198 

Big Knife, reference to 70 

Bib Rock, La Salle 's Expedition at 7 
Bird, Captain Henry, Raid in the 

West by 252, 256 

Black Swamp, Northeastern Ohio, 

reference to 169 

Blair, George 35 

Blanc, Rev. Antoine, reference to. . 

154, 156, 158 

Blane, William H., "An Excur- 
sion in the United States and 

Canada" 306- 307 

"Bloody Monday," reference to.. 119 

Blue Licks, Disaster at 254 

Bocquet, Rev. Simplicius, Recollect, 

Pastor of Detroit in 1767 204 

Bodley, Temple, "Recent History 
of 'George Rogers Clark,' 
'His Life,' and 'Public Serv- 
ice' " 29, 68 

Boisbyillard, M. Dugue de, Com- 
mander of Fort Chartes 193 

Boismenue, Mrs. Louise 74 

Boisrondet, Francis de. Signature 

of 135 

Boisrondet, Sieur de 380 



Bonaparte, Hon. Chas., reference 

to 45 

Bond, Shadrack, Sr 34 

Bonn, reference to 397 

"Book of Ceremonies," reference 

to 150, 152, 153, 154, 156 

Boone, Daniel, First Settler of 

Kentucky 254, 364 

Boonesborough, reference to 364 

Bosseron, Captain, reference to . . 70, 71 
Bossu, Captain, Author of "Trav- 
els in that Part of North 
America Formerly Called 

Louisiana " 

193, 196, 198, 204, 209, 354 

Boston, Diocese of, Comprised all 

New England States 145 

"Boston Hibernian Lyceum, 

The," reference to 114, 117 

Boston, Mass., reference to 

91, 102, 119 

Visited by Jesuits 191, 192 

First Church of 228, 238 

Anburey Prisoner at 205 

Robin's Report of 206 

Intolerance in 206 

Report of Catholics in 232 

Botetourt County, Virginia 34 

Bottnard, Sweden, Birthplace of 

John Printz 188 

Boucherville, Rev., and Bishop 

Plessis 234, 235 

Bourbonnais, First Village on the 

Kankakee River 77 

Bourbonnais, Francis, Sr 77 

Bourdon, Jean, Signature of 135 

Bourne, E. G., Remarks of 203 

Bouton, Dr., quoted 95 

Bowdoin College, reference to 94 

Boy Scouts at Cornerstone Laying. 277 

Brady, Thomas 31, 32 

Bradburg, Judge, reference to 91 

Bradford, William, Artist 94 

Bradshy, William 34 

Breed's Hill, Charlestown, Mass.. 90 
Breese, Elizabeth Ann, Mother of 

S. F. B. Morse 90 

Breese, Samuel, Ancestry of S. F. 

B. Morse 90 

Briand, Bishop, reference to . . 204, 230 

Bristol, R. I., reference to 91 

British Ascendancy in Illinois.... 31 
British Flag Hoisted over Vin- 

cennes 140 



8 



ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW 



Brosius, Abbe, in Boston 234 

Brossait, Vicar General of Coving- 
ton, Ky 38 

Browne, P. W., Author of "John 

England" 247 

Brownlee, Parson 102 

Brownson, Orestes, Convert of 

Bishop Fenwick 145 

' ' Brownsou 's Quarterly Review, ' ' 

reference to 245 

Brush, George de Forest, Illustra- 
tions by 286 

Brute, Bishop of Vincennes 

. .15, 17, 23, 24, 144, 160, 161, 320 

Bruvas, Rev., at Oneida, reference 
"to 204 

Bryce, James, quoted 107 

Buckingham, James S., "America: 
Historical, Statistic, and De- 
scriptive. Eastern and West- 
ern States of America. Slave 
States of America "..339-348, 354 

Builders of the Republic, Vol. 

VIII, "Pageant of America" 287 

Bulfinch, Charles, Plans for First 

Church in Boston Made by. . . 228 

Bunker Hill Monument, reference 

to 103 

Burgoyne, General, Anburey Offi- 
cer under 205 

Burgundy, Province of 127 

Burke, Rev. John J., C. S. P., 
S. T. D., First President of 
the National Catholic War 
Council 295 

Burke, Rev., English Missionary. . 240 

Burlington, Mission of 236 

Bumaby, Andrew, Author of 
' ' Travels through the Middle 
Settlements in North Amer- 
ica," Biography of 198- 200 

Burstadt, Albert, Artist 94 

Byrne, Rev. Patrick, of Boston.. 145 



Cahokia, Captured by Clark 

31, 35, 74, 140, 193, 198, 252 

Cairo, 111., Court of 30 

Caldwell, William, Leader of In- 
dians 254 

Callaghan, P. E 75, 79, 80 

Calvert, Charles, Governor of 

Maryland, 1661 190 

Calvin, reference to 90 



Calvinism in Boston 148 

Campbells — Town 365 

Canada, reference to.. 14, 127, 128, 392 

Canadian Province, Extent of.... 250 
Canibas Indians in Maine Mis- 
sions 230 

Cannon, Mr. Thomas H. of Chi- 
cago, High Chief Ranger of 
the Catholic Order of Forest- 
ers 44, 46, 47, 75, 272 

Capuchins, First Monks in New 

Orleans 196 

Carlton, Guy, Governor under the 

English Crown 27 

Carlyle, Quotation from Letter to 

Emerson 196 

Carney, Captain, an Officer of 

Clark 28 

Carolina, reference to 388 

Carroll, Charles, of Carrollton .... 

202, 221, 238 

Carroll, Bishop Charles, St. Mary's 

Church at Annapolis. 315, 316, 357 

Carroll, Bishop John 

87, 89, 91, 143, 185, 207, 208, 209, 
210, 211, 212, 215, 216, 231, 241, 
242, 316. 

Carroll, Rt. Rev. John P., Gradu- 
ate of Columbia College 276 

Carthusians, Missionaries among 

Ilurons 203 

Carver, Jonathan, Author of 
"Travels Through the Inte- 
rior Parts of North Amer- 
ica" 203, 213 

Casey, Zadoc, Lieutenant Governor 

of Illinois 36 

Catholic Central Verein of St. 

Louis, reference to 36 

Catholic Chapel in Cahokia 302 

Catholic Church Extension Society 75 

Catholic Emancipation Bill 315 

Catholic Encyclopedia Quoted.... 162 

Catholic Press, Removal of, to St. 

Louis 149 

Catholic Press of Hartford, News- 
paper 150, 316 

"Catholic Repository," by Bishop 
Benedict J. Fenwick, refer- 
ence to 148 

Catholic Telegraph of Cincinnati, 

reference to 15, 316 

Catholic University of America, 

Washington, D. C 75 



ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW 



Catholic War Records 74 

Catholics, Roman, In United States 

in 1795 217-222 

Catholicism in the U. S. after 

Archbishop Carroll 's Death . . 301 
Cauchois, Jacques, Signature of . . 135 
Cavalier, Abbe Jean, Brother of 

de La Salle 389, 394 

Cavalier, M., La Salle's Nephew.. 394 
Cecilia, Sister, Visitandine Nun . . 159 

Chacuanons, Indians 388 

Chahouanons, Indians, Chief of . . . 392 
Challoner, Bishop, Report of 1765 

of 200 

Chamberlain, Cecil H., S. J., Au- 
thor of ' ' Colonel Francis Vigo 
and George Rogers Clark"... 144 
Channing, Historian, reference to. 180 

Chaouanon, Indians 308, 355 

Charles I of England and Plowden, 

reference to 189 

Charles X, Emperor of Austria, 

reference to 109, 110 

Charleston, South Carolina 

98, 151, 208, 242, 243 

Charlestown, Mass., Birthplace of 

S. B. Morse 90, 103, 155 

Charlevoix, Francis Xavier, Jesuit, 
Author of "Histoire de la 

Nouvelle France " 

192, 203, 209, 213, 308, 355 

Chartres, Fort 26, 193 

Chassagouache, Indians 386,388 

Chateaubriand, Author of "Voy- 
ages en Amerique, en France 
et en Italie" and "Le Genie 
du Christianisme"...213, 214, 308 
Checagou (Fort Creve Coeur) .... 123 

Cherokees, Indians 372, 374 

Cheverus, Bishop 

..90, 91, 96, 232,234, 242, 305, 355 

Chicacon, Fort 388 

Chicago, reference to 

35, 36, 47, 75, 252 

Chicago River, reference to 133 

Chicago Road, from Detroit to Chi- 
cago 169 

Chicagoumemant River 381 

Chickaehas 134 

Chickemogoes, Indians 372, 374 

ChiUicothe, Ohio 35, 253 

Choiseul, Sending of Pontleroy by 200 
Chouanons 134 



"Christ Healing the Sick," Paint- 
ing by West, reference to 94 

Chronicle 175, 276- 279 

Chuckagona (Ohio) 134 

"Church in Virginia," by Dr. 

Guilday, reference to 239 

Chicago, Nation of 126 

Cincinnati, First Structure at. 253, 254 

Cincinnati, reference to 45, 54 

Cincinnati Catholic Telegraph, ref- 
erence to Bishop Brute's Let- 
ters 18 

Ciquard, Rev., Missionary, refer- 
ence to 231 

Circleville in Pickaway County, 

Clark at 250 

Civics Catechism on the Rights 
and Duties of American Citi- 
zens 297 

Civil War, references to 20, 80, 119 

Clancy, Bishop, as Coadjutor 247 

Clark, Francis, a School Teacher 

in Illinois 33 

Clark, General George Rogers, ref- 
erence to 27, 

28, 29, 31, 68, 71, 139-141, 248-260 
"Clark, George Rogers, in Ohio," 
by Lawrence J. Kenny, S.J. 

248, 260 

Clark, Richard H., "Lives of De- 
ceased Bishops, "by 154 

Clarkville 365 

Clay, Henry, Secretary of State, 

Appeal to 241 

Clerc, Monsieur le, French Chap- 
lain in Acadia 208 

Cloyne, Death of the Bishop of . . 243 
Cobb, Sanford, "Rise of Religious 

Liberty in America," by.... 85 
Code, Rev. Joseph, Translation by. 282 
Colbert River (Mississippi) .. .134, 382 
Colden, Cadwallader, Portrait of, 

by Matthew Pratt 94 

College Point, Queens Co., N. Y., 

reference to 55 

Colonial History, Published by St. 

Mery 215 

Colorado 45 

Concanon, Bishop, Death of.. 234, 235 

Condon, Peter, reference to 103 

"Confessions of a French Catho- 
lic Priest," Morse Editor and 
Publisher of, reference to ... . 105 



10 



ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW 



Congregational Church in Charles- 
town, Mass 90 

Congregationalism, Introduced by 

Pilgrims, reference to 91 

Congregationalists, Spirit of 206 

Connecticut Gentleman 's Descrip- 
tion of Kentucky 368, 369 

Connolly, Bishop of New York, 

reference to 235, 238, 356 

Connors, Rev. Francis John, A. F. 
M., "Samuel F. B. Morse," 

by 122 

"Constitution of the Diocese," by 

England 244 

Constitution of the United States, 

First Amendment to 258 

Continental Congress, Resolutions 

of Ohio sent to 250 

Convent Inspection Bill of Massa- 
chusetts, reference to 119 

Conwell, Bishop, Consecration of. 

244, 304, 310, 312, 357 

Coolidge, President, Signing the 
Missouri River Bill, reference 

to 65 

Cooper, James Fenimore 310- 311 

Coppinger, Statement of 242 

Corbett, William and John Pal- 
mer 's Voyage 301 

Coroaa, reference to 134 

Corrigan, Archbishop, Death of.. 272 

Cosme, Father 75 

Coyle, Hon. John J 46 

Crawford, Hugh, Travels of 27 

Creeks, Indians 374 

Creoles, reference to 140, 141 

Creve Coeur, Fort, reference to... 
6, 8, 123-125, 128, 129, 131, 
380, 381. 
Croghan, Colonel George, Diplo- 
macy of 27 

Culemans, Rev. J. B., Author of 
Book Review on "Elizabeth 
Seton" 283 



D 



Dakotas, States, reference to 77 

"Daily American Tribune," Ex- 
tract from 276 

Dalouez, Rev., S. J., reference to . 392 

Dalton, Lieutenant 28 

Damariscotta, Me., reference to... 91 
Dana, James F., Professor at Co- 
lumbia College 97 



Dankers, Jasper, and Peter Sluy- 
ter, Authors of "Journal of a 
Voyage to New York in 1679- 

1680" 189, 191, 209 

Daperston, reference to 29 

Dartmouth College, reference to... 95 

Dauphin, Lake 381 

David, Bishop, Criticism by 244 

Davis, Bishop James, Successor of 276 

Davis, Rev, E. A 38 

Davis, Mayor George, of Alton, 

lU 78 

Davis, Stephen, Protestant Minis- 
ter "Notes of a Tour in 

America " 325-327, 353 

Day, Jeremiah, Professor of Nat- 
ural Philosophy at Yale 93 

Dearborn, Fort 36 

Delaware, Delegates from 45 

Delaware Indians and Lorimier. . . 255 

Delunais 77 

I)emocratic Party, reference to . . . 86 
Democratic-Republican Party un- 
der Jefferson, reference to... 113 
De Smet and Father F. X. Kup- 
pcns, Founders of the Catho- 
lic Missions in the West .... 48 

Detroit, Michigan 

68, 69, 152, 203, 238, 251, 254, 389 
De Villiers, Captain, MacCarthy'a 
Successor in Command of Fort 

Chartres 26 

Dickens, Charles, the Novelist, 

"American Notes" 352- 353 

Didier, Don, Monk of St. Maur.88, 226 
Digges, Rev. Thomas, S. J., Supe- 
rior of Maryland Mission 1750 

to 1756, Account of 201 

Dilhet, Rev., reference to 220 

Dinnies, Mr., reference to 161 

D'Lhut, Daniel Greysolon 123 

Dobie Town 60 

Doutrcleau, Rev., Missionary in 

New Orleans 197 

"Downfall of Babylon, The," by 
Samuel Smith, reference to . . . 

102, 103 

Doyle, John, an Early School 
Teacher and Founder of Col- 
ony near Old Town of Kas- 

kaskia 33 

Draper, Lyman Copcland, of the 

Wisconsin Historical Society. 21 
Drumm, Rt. Rev. Thomas, refer- 
ence to 276 



ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW 



11 



Dubois, Bishop of New York, suc- 
ceeded by John Hughes 158 

DuBourg, Bishop, Obstacles Con- 
fronting the Sacred Ministry 

of 20, 60, 308, 309, 313 

Dubuque, reference to 67 

Duchesneau, Intendant, and La 

Salle 8 

Duer, Secretary of the United 

States, GaUipolis and 226 

Duffy, Daniel, of Pottsville, Pa. 47, 272 

Dulignon, Jean 135 

Duluth, Origin of Name 123 

Duncan, Joseph, Fifth Governor 

of Illinois 27 

Dunmore, Lord, Governor of Vir- 
ginia, Organization of Army 

by 249 

Dutch Seminary Begun at New 

Brunswick 92 

Dutton, Rev. F. X 38 

Duverger, Missionary at Cahokia 

in 1745 198 

Dwight, Timothy; Friend, Corre- 
spondent and Counselor of Dr. 

Morse 92, 93 

Dyer, Mr., Convert to Catholic 

Church 155, 156, 159 



E 



East St. Louis (Illinoiston) 31 

Eau Claire, Wisconsin 66 

Edgar, John 35 

Editorial Comment 167, 168 

Edison, reference to 173 

Edwards, Hon. Clarence E., Let- 
ter from 267 

Effingham, 111., Parish Activities 

Service of 170 

Egan, Kev. Mgr., and the Mis- 
sions 234, 246 

Elder, Most Rev. Wm. Henry, 
D. D., Archbishop of Cincin- 
nati 38, 261 

Electro-Magnetic Telegraph Sys- 
tem, reference to 106 

Emancipation Act Passed by Eng- 
lish Parliament 97 

Emergency Fleet Corporation .... 173 
Emery, Rev. M., and the Missions 

234, 246 

England, Bishop John, of Charles- 
ton 59, 239- 247 

England, Conquest of 26, 35 



English and the Iroquois, Warpath of, 
with the French 389 

English, William H., Author of 
"Conquest of the Northwest" 
28, 252 

Epic of Industry, Vol. V, "Pag- 
eant of America " 286 

Eucharistic Congress 284, 285 

Everett, Edward, reference to 302 

"Expostulator" or "Youth's 

Catholic Guide" 146 

Extension Magazine, May, 1927, 

Issue, quoted 74 

F 

Fabacher, Lawrence, of Louisiana 47 

Fallon, Rev. John J 74 

Farmer, Rev., Assistant at St. 
Joseph's Church in Maryland, 

reference to 199, 207 

Federalists, First Party Govern- 
ment under the Constitution . . 

86, 113 

Feehan, Archbishop, Resolution of 

Condolence on Death of 272 

Feke, Robert, Painter of Portraits 

at Philadelphia 94 

Fenney, Fort, near the Miami 369 

Fenwick, Bishop Edward, of Cin- 
cinnati 152 

Fenwick, Bishop Benedict 

96, 103, 150, 162, 306, 314, 320, 
332 
Letters of, to Bishop Joseph 

Rosati, St. Louis 145- 167 

Ffrench, Rev. Charles P., 0.P 96 

Filson, "Kentucky," the History 

of, quoted 369 

Finley, John 364 

Finley, Rebecca, Ancestry of S. B. 

Morse 90 

Finley, Samuel, President of the 
College of New Jersey and 

Ancestor of S. B. Morse 90 

Finnegan, Bishop George J., Con- 
secration of, by Bishop Hurth 276 

Fischer, Rev. Father 175 

Fiske, John, Historian, reference 

to 180 

Fitzgerald, Judge Thomas W., 

New York 44, 46 

Fitzsimmons, Rev. M. J 261 

Fitz Simmons, Rt. Rev. Mgr., of 
the Holy Name Cathedral, 
Chicago 58 



12 



ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW 



Flaget, Bishop of Bardstown, ref- 
erence to . .29, 234, 303, 314, 316 
Flannery Family, Settlers in the 

American Bottom 32 

Fleming, Rev., English Missionary 240 

Florida 60. 252 

Florissant, Jesuits at 60 

Foik, Rev. Paul J., C. S. C, Ph. D., 
"The Dark and Bloody 

Ground" 364- 378 

Fontana, Cardinal, and Bishop 

England 244 

Ford, Athanasius, and Smyth's 

Journey 210 

"Foreign Conspiracy against the 
Liberties of the United States, 
Revised and Corrected, with 
Notes by the Author," by 

Mr. Morse, reference to 104 

Forest, Francois Dauphine, de 

la 130. 132 

Forester, Catholic Order of 75 

Forsythe, Robert 35 

Fort Wayne, reference to 25 

Fountain Creek, Water-mill on... 33 

Fowler, J. W 272 

France 26, 109, 115, 138, 210 

Franchere, Mr. Gabriel, of Illinois 47 

Franciscan Fathers 62, 26 

Fraser, Charles 93 

Franz, Rev. John, at Cornerstone 

Laying 277 

Fredericksbourg, Virginia, 

Churches in 208 

Frenchtown, Maryland, Settle- 
ment in 21o 

Fries, Mr. Henry J., of Erie, Pa., 
Supreme President of the 

Knights of St. John 

38, 47, 267, 272 

Froideveaux, Henri, Professor of 

Modern History, Paris 72 

Frontenac, Fort 

4, 7, 8, 124, 130, 132, 379 

Frontenac, Governor of New 

France 4. 132 

Frontenac, Lake 379 



G 



Gabriel, Ralph Henry, Author of 
Vol. Ill, "Pageant of Amer- 
ica" 286 

Gage, Fort, Illinois, Capture of... 250 
Gale, Edward C, Writer 66 



Galena, reference to 130 

Gallicanism in America 242, 245 

Gallipolis, Account of Settlement 

of 88, 222-225, 238, 355 

Ganss, Rev. H. G., Report of, on 

Indian Missions 267 

Garraghan, Rev. Gilbert J., S. J., 
' ' The Purpose of a Catholic 

Historical Society " 15-25 

Gasquet, Cardinal, "Parish Life 

of Medieval England" 19 

George III, King of England .... 68 

Georgia, Delegates from 45 

Georgetown, College of, reference 

to 18, 158, 242, 303 

Germany Ill, 115 

Ghent, Peace Commission at.. 257, 258 

Qibault Hall, reference to 15 

Gibault, Pierre, Pioneer Priest in 

Indiana 15. 17 

Reference to 

69, 70, 71, 75, 139-141, 143 

Gibbons, Cardinal, reference to... 

45. 285, 295, 296 

Gibbons, Mr. G. W., of Pennsyl- 
vania 47 

Gilmartin, Mgr. Chas 74 

Giorda, Father 49, 50, 52 

Girardeau, Cape, Founding of.... 255 
Girten, Hon. M. F., Chairman of 

Convention. .261-263, 272, 280, 281 
Gleanings from Current Periodi- 
cals 280. 281 

Gonner, Mr. Nicholas, reference to 

47, 264, 267, 272 

Good Shepherd Chapel, Brooklyn, 

N. Y 56 

Gorman, Rt. Rev. Daniel M., Grad- 
uate of Columbia College 278 

Gosti, Partner in Fur-Trading 

Firm of St. Louis 139 

Gower, Fort, in Revolution 250 

Graham, Hon. James, at Comer- 
stone Laying 277 

Grand Seminary, Montreal, Canada 62 
Grant Fork, near Highland, 111.. . 62 
Gravier, Father Jacques, Later 

Head of the Illinois Missions. 389 
Greaton, Rev., Jesuit, Reference to 
Building of First Church in 

Philadelphia 196 

Green Bay, Wis 5, 132, 169 

Gregorian Music 164, 165 

Griffin, Rt. Rev. J., Springfield, 

HI 63. 277 



ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW 



13 



Griswold, Miss Sarah Q., Second 

Wife of Morse 121 

Grund, Francis J., ' ' The Ameri- 
cans in Their Moral, Social 
and Political Relations ".332- 333 

Guilday, Doctor, Author of "Life 
and Times of John Carroll" 
and "Life and Times of John 
England".. 84, 104, 123, 138, 
212, 239, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247 



H 



Hailandiere, Celestian Rene Law- 
rence De la, Coadjutor for 

Vincennes 161 

Haiti, Republic of, and Bishop 

England 246 

Haldiman Papers, Letters of Bird 

in 252 

Halpin, Rev. Dennis 38 

Hamilton, Alexander, reference to 

112. 113 

Hamilton, Colonel of the British 

Regulars .68-70, 140, 141, 250- 256 

Hamilton, James, Artist 94 

Hamilton, Thomas, reference to . . 180 
Hamlin, T. F., Author of Vol. 

XIII, "Pageant of America" 287 
Hamtramck, Major, at Detroit... 143 

Hanover, N. H 95 

Harding, Rev., Pastor of St. Jo- 
seph 's Church in Maryland . . 199 
Harmon, Rev. John C, S. J., St. 

Francis Xavier Church, N. Y. 58 
Harold, Rev. William Vincent, O. 

P., Document of 241, 242 

Harrison, Governor William Henry 

143, 144 

Harrod, James, Colonization of, 

near Louisville 364 

Hartford, Conn... 55, 91, 101, 107, 150 
Harvard College, reference to ... . 93 
Hasse, Rev. B., Petersburg, 111. . . . 62 

Haut, M. M. du 394 

Hawaiian (Sandwich) Islands. . . . 162 
Hazard, Postmaster-General in 

New York, quoted 90 

Healy, Patrick J., Ph. D 72 

Heckemac, (Haakemak) Virginia, 

Plowden's Expedition from.. 189 
Heilbron, Father John, Pastor of 
Holy Trinity Church, Philadel- 
phia 88 

Heiss, Archbishop Michael, refer- 



ence to 62 

Helena, Montana 48, 276 

Henderson, W. J., Author of Mu- 
sic in "Pageant of America" 287 
Henderson and Company, Certifi- 
cates of Surveys Issued by . . 364 

Henneberry, Rev. Frank 291 

Hennepin, Rev. Louis, and La 

Salle 's Expedition 

4, 8-14, 122, 123, 279 

Hennonville, M. 'd. Chief Gover- 
nor of New France 391 

Henry, Cape, Plowden's Expedi- 
tion near 189 

Henry, Patrick, Governor of Vir- 
ginia 29 

Herald, Catholic Newspaper, ref- 
erence to 147 

Hill, Thomas, Artist 94 

Hinging Maw, Indian Chief .... 374 
Historical Review of the Mississ- 
ippi Valley 22 

Historical Survey of Illinois 22 

"History of the Catholic Church 
in the U. S.," by Gilmary 

Shea, reference to 85, 154, 239 

Hocking River, Site of 250 

Hodge, Rev. Jordan, Sturbridge, 

Mass 373 

Hogan, Schism in Philadelphia . 245, 356 

Holy Alliance, reference to 109 

Holy Cross Church, Boston, refer- 
ence to 233, 302 

Holy Cross Church Dedicated by 

Bishop Carroll 91 

Holy Cross Convent, Dominican 

Sisters, Brooklyn, N. Y 55 

Holy Name Cathedral, Chicago, 

111 56, 252 

Holy Name Society 277, 285 

Holy Redeemer Church, New York 55 
Hoper, Mrs. Mary Ann, reference 

to 159 

Horstmann, Rt. Rev. Ignatius F., 

Cleveland, Ohio 38, 41 

Howard, Most Rev. Edward D., 

reference to 276 

Hubert, Bishop of Quebec, petition 

to 231 

Hughes, Bishop of New York, 

reference to 103, 158, 356 

Hughes, Jamos 33, 34 

Hunter, Rev. George, S. J., Supe- 
rior of Maryland Missions . . 
199, 201, 211 



14 



ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW 



Hunters' Point, Long Island City 55 

Huntington, Rev. Joshua, Col- 
league Pastor of Old South 
Church, Boston 92 

Hurley, Edward N., "The Bridge 

to France 173 

Huron Indians about Detroit .... 

66, 203, 218, 255 

Huron, Lake 66 

Hurth, Most Rev. Peter J., Con- 
secration of Bishop Finnigan 
by 276 

Huss, John, reference to Ill 

I 

lies, Major Elijah, Author of 

' ' Early Life and Times " 30 

Illinois, reference to 

22, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 
36, 45, 69, 70, 386, 387, 390. 

Illinois, (Islinois) Governor of... 379 

Illinois Catholic Historical Society, 

Organization of 167 

Illinois Country, Vigo attracted to 139 

Illinois Historical Survey 22 

Illinois Indian, reference to 

9, 14, 124, 125, 131, 134, 380, 
382, 383, 390. 

Illinois Land Company 79 

Illinois River, Father Hennepin's 

Journey Down 

8-9, 65, 77, 79, 80, 128, 123, 
129, 130. 

Illinois : The Cradle of Christianity 
and Civilization in Mid-Amer- 
ica 3-14, 123-138, 379- 395 

Immaculate Conception, Chapel of, 

Kaskaskia 251 

Immaculate Conception Cathedral, 

Cornerstone Laying at 277 

Immekus, F. W 272 

"Imminent Dangers to Free Insti- 
tutions of the United States 
through Foreign Immigration 
and the Present State of Nat- 
uralization," reference to 

83, 87, 104, 112, 114- 118 

Indian Massacres in Detroit and 

Indiana 68- 70 

Indiana, Catholic History of 

19, 20, 21, 25, 45, 130, 142, 143 
Catholic Historical Society of . . . 
15,' 16, 18, 21 



Inquisition, Letters on the, refer- 
ence to 146 

Iowa 45 

Ireland, reference to Immigrants 

from 

...86, 87, 111, 115, 119, 147, 321 

Iroquois Indians 13,126, 131 

Irvine, General, at Pittsburg 254 



James, Catholic Earl of Perth, 

Early Settlement of 190 

James, Duke of York, Granting of 

Land in New York by 190 

Jamestown, Founding of, reference 

to 185, 188 

Janson, Bishop Forbier 161 

Janson, Charles W., "Journal of 

America, ' ' reference to 302 

Japanese, reference to 397 

Jean jean, Rev. Augustine, Mission- 
ary 152 

Jeanmard, Right Rev. Jules Benja- 
min, First Acadian Bishop of 
the First Acadian Diocese . . . 172 

Jefferson County 36 

Jefferson, Thomas, reference to . . . 

113, 116, 117, 253 

"Jesuit" or "Catholic Sentinel," 
Earliest Catholic paper of Bos- 
ton 102, 146, 147 

Jesuits, Dissolution in Maryland of 

109, 116, 196, 212, 255, 286, 302 

Johnsburg, 111., reference to 175 

Johnson, Sir William, Colonial Gov- 
ernor of Indian Affairs 27 

Johnton, Col. John, Report of 255 

Joliet, Louis 79, 396 

"Journal of a French Traveler in 

the Colonies," Anonymous... 200 
Joutel, Henry Conditions in Illi- 
nois, Account of, by 389 

Juchereau dc St. Denis, Explorer 79 
Juniper, Brother, and the Indians. 231 
Junta of Montrouge, reference to 309 



Kalm, Peter, Author of "Travels 

in North America" 195 

Kampers, Franz, Ph. D 72 

Kankakee, reference to 

25, 72, 77, 78, 130, 132 

Kan.sas City, reference to . . . 45, 65, 77 



ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW 



15 



Kaokias Indians and Charlevoix . . 193 

Kaskaskia 

6, 17, 29, 31, 33, 36, 79, 131, 
140, 141, 158, 250, 251, 253, 
256, 257, 258, 259, 379, 381 

Kaskaskia River 33 

Kaskasquias, Visited by Charle- 
voix 193 

Kauffmann, L. J., of New York. . 

47, 272 

Keating, Mr. J. T 272 

Keehan, W. E., Cincinnati, Ohio. 44 
Kellogg, Miss, "Early Narratives 

of the Northwest," quoted... 67 

Kelly, Bishop, reference to 357 

Kelly Family, Pioneers of Spring- 
field, 111 30 

Kendall, Edward A., Author of 
"Travels Through the North- 
ern Parts of the United 

States" 228,238 

Kennedy, Patrick, Quartermaster- 
General ; Expedition of. Up the 

Illinois Eiver 31 

Kennedy, William J., and Sister 
Mary Joseph, "The United 
States," History for the Up- 
per Grades of Catholic 

Schools by 174 

Kenny, Laurence J., S. J., Author 
of "George Rogers Clark".. 

72, 260 

Kenrick, Bishop Francis Patrick, 

of Baltimore 150, 156 

Kenrick, Peter Richard, Appointed 

Coadjutor to Bishop Rosati.. 161 

Kentucky, references to 

45, 140, 250, 364, 378 

Keokuk, reference to 150 

Kier, Malcolm, Author of Vol. V, 

"Pageant of America" 286 

Kierce, F. J 272 

Kikapous, Indians 385 

Kikathans, Plowden 's Expedition 

to 189 

Kings Mountain 32 

Kingston, Ontario 4 

Kinzie, John, reference to 35, 36 

Kious or Nadouessious, reference 

to 134 

Kleespies, Dorothy C, Author of 
Book Review on "Pageant of 

America" 288 

Knights of Columbus, Attendance 

of, at Cornerstone Laying... 277 



Know- Nothings, reference to 

84, 85, 113, 114, 119 

Knox County, Indiana, Vigo Dele- 
gate of 143 

Koelble, Alphonse G., New York 

44, 264 

Kohlmann, Rev., in New York. . . . 235 

Krekenberg, Rev. C, Springfield, 
111., author of "Necrology: 
Rev. Anthony Zurbonsen " . 62- 64 

Ku Klux Klan, reference to 

84, 114, 120 

Kulturkampf , reference to 62 

Kuppens, Rev. Francis Xavier, 
S. J., "Christmas Day, 1865, 
in Virginia City, Montana". 
48- 53 



Lafaji^te, Acadian Diocese Com- 
prising Vermillion, Teche and 
Atchafalaya 171 

Laff ont. Dr., Vincennes 70, 40 

La Forest, Carrier of Lettre de 

Cachet 387 

Lalumiere, Rev. Aloysius 55 

Lamprecht, William, the Artist . . 

54- 58 

La Salle, Sieur De, French Ex- 
plorer, references to 

3, 6, 123-128, 133-135, 138, 
380, 381, 382, 383, 387, 388, 
393, 398. 

La Salle, De Nicholas, Signature 

of 135 

Last Chance Gulch 51 

Laurens, Rev., Missionary at Ca- 

hokia 198 

Lavelle, Very Rev. M. J., Rector 
of St. Patrick's Cathedral, 
New York 38, 46 

Law, John, Historian of the North- 
west Territory 143 

Lebanon, Conn., Dr. Eleazer Wheel- 
er, Congregational Minister in 95 

Leclere, M. Adrien, Missionary at 

Madawaska 231 

Lee, Rev. Constantine 160, 162 

Le Erable, French Canadian Col- 
ony 77 

Leland, Mr. W. G., of Carnegie 

Institute 200 

Lenihan, Rt. Rev. M., reference to 276 



16 



ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW 



Leo XIII, Encyclicals of "The 
Program of Social Reconstruc- 
tion" of 46, 73 

Leonard Town in St. Mary's 

County, reference to 210 

Leopold Society, reference to 

109, 110, 111 

Leray de Chamont, M., reference to 305 

Leray Ville 305 

Le Ray, Rev., Labors among Ali- 

bamons of 204 

"Letters of a Bishop to His 
Flock," by His Eminence 
George Cardinal Mundelein, 

Reviewed 283 

Lettsom, Dr. John C, Composi- 
tion of 203 

Levadoux, Rev., Work in Detroit 

of 220, 23G 

Le Vasseur, Noel, Trip into Can- 
ada 77 

Lexington, Settlement at 370 

Leyba, de, Don Fernando, and 

Vigo 139 

Liberty, Fort, Destruction of.... 252 

Libourde, Rev., Gabriel de la 

380, 382, 383 

Licking River 253, 254, 366, 367 

"Life and Times of John Car- 
roll," by Dr. Guilday 239 

"Life and Times of John Eng- 
land," by Dr. Guilday 239 

Lincoln, Abraham 41, 120 

Lincoln, Lord, Duke of Newcastle 106 
Lincoln, Mary Todd, Wife of 

Abraham Lincoln 30 

Liverpool, England, reference to.. 99 
"Lives of the Deceased Bishops," 
by Richard A. Clark, reference 

to 154 

Logan, Col. Benjamin, Chief of 

the Mingoes 250, 254 

Logan, Dr. John 36 

Logan, General John A., Com- 
mander of the Army of Ten- 
nessee 36 

"London, Mechanics Magazine," 

reference to 106 

Long Branch, N. J., reference to. 45 

Loramic Creek, Naming of 256 

Loramic Fort, Settlement of.. 251, 253 

Loramies 

...254-259, 255, 256, 257,258, 259 
Loras, Rt. Rev. Mathias, First 

Bishop of Dubuque 67 



Lorimier, Peter Louis 252, 255, 256 

Loughlin, Rt. Rev. John, D. D 291 

Louis, Fort, reference to 389, 392 

"Louise, a Canadian Nun," refer- 
ence to 102 

Louisiana 45, 134, 138, 192, 303 

Louisiana Purchase, reference to . . 68 

Louisville, Kentucky 119, 365, 370 

Lowell, Mass., reference to 119 

Lyell, Charles, "Travels in North 

America" 350, 351 

Lyons and Paris, Headquarters of 
Society of Propagation of 

Faith in 150 



M 



Mac Carthy, Chevalier, Commander 

of the Illinois Country 26 

Mackinac 320, 356 

Mackintosh, S.D. Esq., Former 

Editor of Sandwich Island 

Gazette 162 

Mac Master, Historian, reference 

to 180 

Madawaska, Mission at 197 

Madras, Mr. Edward F., S. J., 398 

Maehaut, Rev. C 313 

Maes, Rt. Rev. Camillus P., D. D. 

Covington, Ky 38, 41, 245 

Maher, Teresa, "History in the 

Press" 73- 80 

Maillet anl Brady's Followers 31 

Maine 145, 148 

Maistre, Compte de, French 

Author 146, 147 

Malechite Indians in Maine Mis- 
sions 230 

Malou, Rev., Jesuit Missionary in 

New York 235 

Manchester, N. H., reference to.. 119 
Marechal, reference to 

..148, 165, 241, 242, 243, 245, 247 

Margarita Club, Evanston 272 

Maroa or Tamaroas, a Nation of 

the Savages 129 

Marquette, Father 

5, 54, 55, 65, 286, 379, 380, 

382, 383, 396. 

Marquette University 54 

Marryat,Frederick, "A Diary in 

America" 348-350 

Martial, Father, reference to.. 313, 314 



ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW 



17 



Martin, General, Superintendent of 
Indian Affairs in Kentucky. . 

374, 375 

Martin Station, Destruction of ... . 252 
Martineau, Harriet, ' ' Retrospect 
of Western Travel; Society in 

America" 330-332, 353, 355 

Maryland, Catholics in... 209, 238, 357 

Maskoutens, Indians 11, 381 

Massac, Fort 26 

Massachusetts 45, 90, 148 

Massachusetts Bay Colony, Maine 

Territory and 229 

Massachusetts General Association, 

Foundation of 92 

Mather, F. J. Jr., Author of Print- 
ing and Graphic Art in ' ' Pag- 
eant of America " 287 

Matignon, Rev., Missionary Work 

of 232, 233, 234, 236 

Matre, Anthony, K. S. G., Nation- 
al Secretary, "The American 
Federation of Catholic Socie- 
ties" 38-47, 267 

Mattingly, Mrs., reference to. 319, 325 

Maumee River, Site of 25, 251 

Mazzuchelli, Father 320 

McCarthy, Chas. Hallan, Ph.D 72 

McCarthy, Captain Richard. .. .28, 71 
McCarthy, Joseph, Architect of 

Springfield Cathedral 278 

McCormick, John V., Book Re- 
views 68-72, 174 

McDermott, Rev. James, at 
"Christ the Lord Church," 

Ne Haven, Connecticut 153 

McDonald, Thos. F 75 

McElmuny Family, reference to.. 32 

McFall, Mrs., Capture of 254 

McFaul, Rt. Rev. James, A., D.D., 

Trenton, N. J 42-46, 261, 264 

McGary, Hugh, Commanler under 

Clark 252 

McGoorty, Judge John P., "The 

Early Irish of Illinois ".. 26- 37 
McGuire, Mr. P. H., of Pennsyl- 
vania 47 

McHenry, Fort, reference to 175 

McKenna, Mr. T. P 44 

McMahon, Chas. A., "Bishop Mul- 
doon's War and Reconstruc- 
tion Services " 295- 300 

McMahon, Father John, quoted . . . 150 



McMaster, John B., "History of 
the People of the United 

States," by 106 

McQuade, Rev. Pastor of Albany 

Church 236 

Meagher, General ; Lieutenant- 
Governor of Montana Ty. . . , 

48,49,50,52, 53 

Mechlenburg, N. C., Declaration of 

Independence of 245 

Mechlin, John M., "The Ku Klux 

Klan," by 120 

Meers, William, Lawyer of Caho- 

kia 35 

Mehring, Rev. Henry, Pastor of St. 
John the Baptist Church, 

Johnsburg, 111 175 

Mellecki River (Milwaukee) 381 

Membre, Rev. Zenobe, Gabriel and 
La Salle's Mississippi River 

Expedition 

5, 10, 123, 124, 126, 127, 132, 
134, 135, 379, 380-382, 384, 385 
Mercier, Rev. M. le, Missionary La- 
bors in Louisiana of .... 193, 198 
Merrill, Mr. Wm. Stetson, "Glean- 
ings from Current Period- 
icals" 65- 67 

Mesigameas, Indian Nation 134 

Messmer, Rev. Sebastian G., D.D., 

Green Bay, Wis 

38, 45, 47, 261, 264 

Metternich, Prince of Austria, ref- 
erence to 109, 110 

Meurin, Rev. Louis Sebastian, 

Eighteenth Century Jesuit. . . 15 
M'Gilvery, Chief of the Creeks.374, 388 

Miamas, Indians 11, 126, 387 

Miami Fort, La Salle at 132 

Miami River, Great 251, 253 

Michel, Jean, Surgeon 135 

Michigan Canal 36 

Michigan-Indiana State-Line, refer- 
ence to 22 

Michigan, Lake 5 

Michilimackinac, reference to .... 

5, 132, 385, 387, 389 

Milbert, Jacques, "Intineraire Pit- 
toresque Du Fleuve D 'Hud- 
son" 304-306, 355 

' ' Military Bill, ' ' Passage in Mary- 
land of 199 

Millay, Edna St. Vincent, refer- 
ence to 287 



18 



ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW 



Minahan, Mr. F. B., President of 
American Federation of Cath- 
olic Societies 263 

Election of, as National Presi- 
dent 272 

Minahan, Mr. Thos. B., President 
of the Ohio State Federation, 

Address of 39, 46, 47 

Minnesota, reference to 45, 77 

Miskonsing (Wisconsin), River 

Mouth 381 

Mississippi or Colbert River 

26, 61, 65, 79, 80, 123, 131, 
134, 138, 141, 356, 357, 386, 
388 396. 

Missouri, reference to 45, 255, 591 

"Missouri Priest One Hundred 
Years Ago," by Father John 

E. Rothensteiner 170 

Missouri River, reference to 65 

Mobile, Mission at 197 

Molyneux, Rev., Assistant of Fa- 
ther Farmer 207 

Moni, Rev. John, Rector of Ca- 
thedral at New Orleans 310 

Monso, reference to 125 

Montana 45 

Montantees, Indian Nation 134 

Montberault, French Commander, 

Opposition to Jesuits of 204 

Montgomery, Captain 28, 33, 71 

Montgomery, Col. John, Punish- 
ment of Enemy by 252 

Montreal, reference to 5, 388 

Mooney, Mr. M. P 47, 267, 272 

Mooney, Mr. Thomas, reference to 160 
Moore, James, First Foreigner 

Naturalized in Illinois 34 

Moran, Edward, Artist 94 

Moran, Thomas, Artist 94 

Morange, M. de. La Salle's Rela- 
tion 394 

Moreau de St. Mery 356 

Morel, Olivier, Sieur de La Dury- 

ante 387 

Morey, C. R., Author of Sculpture 

in "Pageant of America"... 287 
Morinie, Rev. de la, Jesuit Mis- 
sionary in Ohio 255 

Mornay, Bishop de, Vicar General 

of Louisiana in 1714 197 

Morris, M. Andrew, Work in New 

York of 234 

Morse, Jcdadiah, Father of S. B. 

Morse 92 



Morse, Samuel Finley Breese, and 
the Anti-Catholic Political 
Movements in the United 
States (1791-1872), by Rev. 
Francis John Connors, A.F.M. 
83- 122 

Mount St. Benedict, Convent 

Ruins on 158 

Mount St. Joaeph-on-the-Ohio Col- 
lege 54, 56, 57 

Moye, Rev. O. W., Rector of 

Wheeling, W. Va., Cathedral 38 

Muldoon, Rt. Rev. Peter J., of 
Rockford, Resignation of, 
from the N. C. W. C. Admin- 
istrative Committee 73 

First Bishop of Rockford, 1863- 
1927, by J. Allen Nolan. .291- 294 

Sponsor of Convention 261 

Address of 264 

Death of 273, 299 

War and Reconstruction Serv- 
ices, by Charles A. McMahon 

295, 300 

Portrait of 0pp. 291 

Mulligan, Colonel James A., and 

the Irish Brigade 36 

Mullock, Bishop John Thomas, of 

New York 240 

Mundelein, George Cardinal, Au- 

, thor of "Letters of a Bishop to 

His Flock" 283 

Munich, Bavaria, Society of the 

Propagation of the Faith in. . 150 

Murray, Charles A., Timely Mas- 
ter of the Household, to Queen 
Victoria, "Travels in North 
America" 329- 330 

Murray, Monsignor J. B 38 

Myami River (Mouth); Fort at.. 380 



N 



Nadouessious (Kious) Indians.134, 381 
Nanrantawae Indians, Father Rale 

and the 229 

Naoudiche, Indians 393- 395 

Nash, Governor of Ohio, Address 

of 39 

Nash, Thomas, Death of 274 

Natchez, Miss 134, 148, 194 

National Academy of the Arts of 

Design, reference to 97 

National Catholic War Council, 

Bulletin 73, 75 



ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW 



19 



Bureau of Historical Records ... 74 
National Catholic Welfare Confer- 
ence, Bishop Muldoon as Head 
of Department of Social Ac- 
tion 273 

National Council of Catholic 

Women, Belleville Diocese. ... 74 
National-Republicans, Ultimately 

the Whig Party 113 

Native American Association, ref- 
erence to 

84, 106, 107, 113, 119, 121 

Naturalization Laws, reference to. 

107, 111, 112 

Neale, Bishop, reference to 357 

Nebraska History, Magazine 65 

Neckere, Bishop Leo, New Orleans 

156, 158 

Necrology 273- 275 

Nell, Rev. George M., Report by, 

in "The National Catholic 

Welfare Conference Bulletin" 170 

Nerincks, Father 314 

Nevada 51 

Nevins, Dr. Allen, Discussion of 

Travel Literature by 179 

Newburyport, Mass., reference to 91 

New Castle, Me., reference to 91 

New England, Custom Laws, etc., 

of 86, 145, 228 

New France 27, 65, 388 

New Hampshire, Churches in 148 

New Haven, Conn., reference to. . 

91, 119, 153 

New Holland 369 

New Jersey 45, 303 

New London, Conn., reference to. 91 

New Madrid 60 

New Mexico 211, 303, 390 

New Orleans, reference to 

26, 29, 61, 79, 139, 158, 194, 

211, 226, 355. 
New Port, R. I., Specimens of 

Robert Feke 's Works at 94 

' ' New World, ' ' Chicago 270 

New York, reference to 

45, 55, 57, 94, 97, 98, 102, 120, 

121,157,216,243,245,305,357, 378 

Niagara Falls 5 

Niagara, Fort 7, 389 

Nikanape, Brother of Chessa- 

gouasse 12, 125 

Niles, Michigan 31 

(Nolan, A. J., "Rt. Rev. James 

Muldoon, D.D. " 291- 294 



Norfolk, Virginia 215, 220, 239 

North Carolina, Governor of . . . 364-365 

North Dokota 45 

Northwest Territory, reference to 

35, 68, 75, 142, 139, 143, 250, 307 
Notre Dame University, reference 

to 18, 19, 276 

Nova Scotia, French Driven Out 

of ^ 210 

Nyack, New York, Anti-Catholic 

Mobs at 103 

O 

Oahu, Sandwich (Hawaiian) Is- 
lands 162 

O'Brien, Christ, of Chicago 47, 272 

O'Callaghan, Rev. Jeremiah 147 

O 'Connell, Daniel 97, 242 

O'Donnell, Bishop, English Mis- 
sionary 240 

Oechtering, Very Rev. A. B., Ad- 
dress of 268 

'Flaherty, Thomas J., Physician 
and Priest, Editor of "The 
Jesuit" and Translator of 
' ' Spanish Inquisition ' ' by 
Count Joseph De Maistre . . . 147 

Ogg, Frederic Austin, Author of 
Vol. VIII, "Pageant of 
America " 287 

Ohio 5, 45, 248, 249 

Ohio River, reference to 

5, 79, 134, 141, 365, 366, 368, 
369, 376. 

Omahouka, (Wolf), Head of Tribe 127 

O'Melvany, Samuel, Member of 
First Constitutional Conven- 
tion of Illinois, 1818 36 

On, Mr. Hugh, reference to 

50, 51, 52, 53 

Oneida Indians, reference to 88 

"Orange Lodges," Purpose of, 

Extermination of "Popery". 97 

Ordinance of 1787, Religious Lib- 
erty Granted by 258 

Oregon ^^ 

O'Reilly, Rev. J. T., Remarks on 

Philippine Question by 268 

O'Reilly, Count Alexander, the 

Irish Governor of Cuba 29 

Osages, Nation of, reference to . . . 126 

Osborn, Miss Georgia L 37 

Osterbotton, Sweden, Birthplace of 195 



20 



ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW 



Otontenta, Tributary of the Mis- 
sissippi River 130 

Ottawa Indians 255 

Oubache 386 

Oumahonha, Chief of Illinois In- 
dians 380 



"Pageant of America," Book Re- 
view 286 

Palmer, John, Lynn, Norfolk. 301- 302 

Fallen, Conde B 72 

Palms River, reference to 134 

"Panoplist" Founded 92 

Papineau, French Canadian Colony 77 

Paris 22, 99, 106, 150, 200, 210 

Parkman, Historian 130, 131, 138 

Parsons, General 368 

Partridge, Frances, Author of 

"Rosamond Culbertson" 102 

Passamaquody, Mission on 231 

Patriotic Sons of America, refer- 
ence to 114, 120 

Patterson, James, Pioneer of Plum 

Creek 32 

Peale, Charles W., Artist 94 

Pelitanoui River 65 

Pelamourgues, Abbe 67 

Pemiteoui 10 

Pennsylvania 45, 205,280 

Penobscot, Chapel at Point Pleas- 
ant 231, 305 

Peoria 

6, 7, 15, 31, 35, 123, 131, 133, 379 

Pepin County, Wis 66 

Pepin Lake, reference to 65, 67 

Perrot, Nicolas, Commander of 
Trading Posts in New France 

65, 66 

Perry, Colonel James, Letter from, 

to Rev. Jordan Hodge 373 

Peterie, Rev., French Missionary 

232, 233 

Philadelphia, Newspapers of .... 

. 196, 201, 216, 238, 242, 245, 378 
Philippine Question, Bishop Mc- 

Faul 'a Discussion of 

263, 265, 266- 270 

Phillips Academy, reference to . . . 90 
Picpus, Society of, reference to.. 163 
Pierron, Rev., Jesuit, Visit to 

Maryland of 191 



Pimiteouy, Illinois Village, Chris- 
tianity in 192 

Pinet, Father 75 

Piqua, Battle at 253 

Piscatoway, Journey from 201 

Pitt, Fort 369 

Pittsburg 254, 365 

Pius VII, Pope, reference to.. 109, 314 

Pius IX, Pope, reference to 120 

Playfair, William, Gallipolis Col- 
ony and 225 

Plessis, Bishop 

210, 230, 232, 234, 236, 238, 
241, 306, 356, 357. 

Plowden, Sir Edmund 189, 209 

Plum Creek, Settlement 32 

Pohlschneider, Rev. Joseph, D.D.. 38 
Point Pleasant, Me., reference to 

91, 230 

Poland, Immigrants from Ill 

Pollock, Jared 29 

Pollock, Oliver, "the Morris of 

the West" 29 

Pompili, Cardinal, Bishop Finni- 

gan Ordained by 276 

Pontiac, Indian Leader 27 

Pontleroy, M. de, reference to , . . 200 

Poole, Wm. F., Remarks of 252 

Portier, Rt. Rev. Michael, Bishop 

of Olenos 60 

Portland, Me., reference to 90 

Portsmouth, England, Birthplace 

of Bernard 220 

Portsmouth, N. H., reference to. . 91 
Poterie, Father, Arrival of, in 

Boston, from Angers 341 

Potier, Rev. Recollect, First Pas- 
tor of Huron Church 204 

Potomac River, Missions near. 210, 211 
Prairie du Chien, Troops from. . 

169, 252 

Prairie Du Rocher, Captured by 

Clark 140 

Pray, Carl E., Author of "An 
Historic Michigan Road," in 
' ' Michigan Historical Maga- 
zine" 169 

Pratt, Matthew 94 

Presbyterians in Boston 207 

Prime, Samuel I., Excerpts from 

"Life of S. B. Morse," by.. 90 
Printz, Johan, Author of "Narra- 
tives of Early Pennsylvania, 
West Virginia and Delaware" 188 
Propaganda 88 



ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW 



21 



The Roman Congregation of ... . 

18, 88, 150 

Propagation of the Faith, Letters 

on 285 

Protestant, The, Newspaper, ref- 
erence to 102 

Providence, R. I., reference to. 91, 119 

Purcell, Richard J., Ph.D 72 

Purcell, Bishop, Assistant at Con- 
secration Blanc as Bishop of 
New Orleans 158 



Q 



Quakers, reference to 302 

Quarter, Bishop, Arrival of, in 

Chicago 16 

Quatman, Rev. A. M., D.D 38 

Quebec, Canada, reference to ... . 

4, 23, 88, 138, 192, 235 

Act of 1774 250,258 

Queensberry, Marquis of 50 

Quincy, 111 62, 63 

Quirk, Captain, Clark's Officer... 28 



B 



Radisson, English Explorer, "The 

Ottawa Voyage " 67 

Rale, Rev. Sebastian, S. J., and the 

Miami Indians 6, 229 

Rampolla, Cardinal M., Cablegram 

from '. 46 

Randolph, Settlement 32 

Ranza, Rev., Missionary in New 

York 235 

Raymond, Illinois 62, 63 

Reardon, Hon. E 264, 272 

Real, Alvarez, reference to 347 

Recollect Fathers 123, 379 

Red River 309 

Redwood Athenaeum, Newport, R. 

L., reference to 94 

Reed (Reid), Rebecca Theresa, 
Author of "Six Months in a 

Convent" 102, 154 

Republicans, Jeffersonian, refer- 
ence to 113 

Rese, Bishop, reference to 156 

Reynolds, ' ' Pioneer History, ' ' 

quoted 32, 34, 36 

Rhode Island, Churches of 148 

Rhode Island Historical Society, 

reference to 94 



Ribourde, Rev. Gabriel de la 

5, 123-128, 385 

Richard, Father Gabriel, of De- 
troit, Excerpt from Columbia 

169, 172, 220, 236, 237 

Richards, Rev., Former Protestant 

Minister of Virginia 314 

Richelieu, Cardinal, French Leader 

of Colonizing Activity 85 

Richmond, Virginia 71, 242 

Richter, Bishop, Report of, on 

Philippines 269 

Rigidor, Don Perpetual 347 

Robin, Abbe, Author of "New 
Travels in North America".. 

192, 206, 208, 355, 357 

Rochblave, Commander, Surrender 

of 250 

Rochefaucault-Liancourt, Author 
of "Travels Through the 
United States of North Amer- 
ica" 219, 238 

Rockford, Bishop Muldoon's Work 

in Diocese of 273 

Rogers, Captain John 141 

Rogers, Joseph, Death of 253 

Rohden, Rev. N., Address of 271 

Rohlman, Rt. Rev. Henry P., Con- 
secration of 276 

Romagne, Rev., Missionary Labors 

of 232, 234, 305 

Roosevelt, President, Petition Ad- 
dressed to 266 

"Rosamund Culbertson," by 

Frances Partridge 102 

Rosati, Joseph, First Bishop of St. 

Louis 15, 59, 61, 357 

"Letters of Bishop Benedict 
Joseph Fenwick of Boston" 

to" 145- 166 

Rothensteiner, Rev. John, ' ' Letters 
of Bishop Benedict Joseph 
Fenwick of Boston to Bishop 
Joseph Rosati of St. Louis," 

by 145 

"The Missouri Priest One Hun- 
dred Years Ago," Article by, 
in "The Missouri Historical 

Review" 169 

"Bishop England's Correspond- 
ence with Bishop Rosati" .59- 61 

Rouke, M., "Trumpet of Jubilee," 
by 151 



22 



ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW 



Rousselet, Abbe. Intruder, refer- 
ence to 89, 233 

Ryan, Rev. Dr. Dennis, in the 

Wilds of Maine 145 

Ryan, Rev. Joseph Paul, A.F.M., 
"Travel Literature as Source 
Material for American Church 
History" 301- 364 

Ryan, Rt. Rev. James, Letter of.. 268 

S 

Sackville, Fort, Capture of 250 

Saint Jean, Mission at 231 

Sainte-Anne, Mission of 232 

Salem, Mass., reference to 91 

Salt Lake 48 

Salt River 366, 367 

Salt Springs 368 

Salzbacher, Canon Joseph, refer- 
ence to 186, 301 

Sandusky, Ohio, Forces Lead 

Against 254 

San Luis, Spanish Town, Attack 

on 252 

Sante-Croix River 230, 231 

Saratoga, Anburey at 205 

Sault Ste. Marie 133, 152 

Savannah, Church in 243 

Schlegel, Frederick, Member of 

Austrian Cabinet, Quoted . . . 108 
Schlesinger, Historian, reference 

to 180 

Schroeder, Henry J., O.P., of 

Providence College 72 

Schroeninger, Rev. Anthony, and 
Lamprecht, Founders of the 

Christian Art Society 54 

Schurhammer, Rev. George, S. J., 

"Shin-to" 397- 398 

Scioto Company, reference to ... , 88 

Scioto River, Tribes on 249 

Scott, William 34 

Seas, Northern, Western and 

Southern 66 

Sedella, Rev. Antonio de. Capu- 
chin, the Mouthpiece of the 

Negroes 317, 347 

Seeley, John, School Teacher in 

Illinois 33 

Senaca Indians, Lorimier and... 255 
"Seton, Elizabeth," by Madame 

de Barberey 282 



Shawnee Indians of Ohio 

249, 253, 254 

Shawneetown 79 

Shawknoes 132 

Shea, John Gilmary, Historian, 

reference to 

85, 88, 102, 145, 154, 180, 192, 
208, 239. 

"Shepherd of the Valley" 150 

Shields, General 37 

Shiels, W. E., S. J., "Shin-to" 

reviewed by 398 

Shine, Judge M. T., Appointment 
of, as Chairman of Creden- 
tials 264 

"Shin-to," by George Schucham- 

mer, S. J., reviewed 397 

Short, Rev. Patrick, at Honolulu. 163 
Siedenburg, Rev. Frederick, S. J., 
Membership of Illinois Cen- 
tennial 167 

Sinclair, Lieut. Governor 256 

Singleton, John, Noted Artist.... 94 
Sinsburg, Conn., Rev. Daniel Bar- 
ber, Native of 96 

Sioux City, Iowa 65 

Sioux Indians 67, 123 

Sipore (Ohio River) 134 

Sisters of Charity, reference to . . . 

149, 283 

Sisters of St. Francis 56, 63, 176 

Sitimachas Indians, Father J. B. 

St. Cosme and 298 

"Six Months in a Convent," by 

Rebecca Theresa Reid . . . 102, 154 

Six Nations 88 

Skinner, Constance L., Author of 
Vol. I, "Pageant of Amer- 
ica" 286 

Sluyter, Peter, and Jasper Dank- 
ers. Authors of "Journal of 
a Voyage to New York in 

1679-1680" 189 

Small, Governor 78 

Smeed's Island, Plowden's Expe- 
dition and 189 

Smith, Hon. Emil, Mayor of 

Springfield 277 

Smith, Jeannette M., Chronicle... 

175, 176 

Smith, Rev., One of the First 

Priests in New York 190 

Smith, Rev. Ambrose, O. P., S. T. 

Lr., "Book Reviews "...396- 397 



ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW 



23 



Smith, Samuel S., Author of ' ' The 

Downfall of Babylon" ..102, 113 
Smith, Sydney, Remarks of, on 
Palmer's "Journal of Trav- 
els" 301 

Smithtown, County Meath, Ireland, 
Hometown of Sir William 

Johnson 27 

Smyth, Dr. J. P 75 

Smyth, J. F. D., Account of.. 208, 210 
Smyth, Rev. Hugh P., Death of. 

273, 274 

Smyth, Rev. Patrick, Author of 
"Present State of Catholic 
Missions Conducted by Ex- 
Jesuits in North America," 

reference to 211, 242, 243 

Society of Arts, London 94 

Somaglia, Cardinal della, Letter 

to 245 

Soulier, Avegno, Sketch of the Dio- 
cese of Acadia by 172 

South Bend, Indiana 25 

South Carolina, Irish, reference to 

32, 59 

Souvay, Rev. Dr. Charles, CM... 59 
Spalding, Archbishop, reference 

to 100 

Spalding, Rev. E. L., Letter Pre- 
sented by 268 

' ' Spanish Inquisition, ' ' Translat- 
ed by Thomas J. O 'Flaherty. 147 
Spanish Missions of Florida, Tex- 
as, California, Arizona 356 

Sparhawk, Mr., reference to 95 

Spark, "Life of La Salle," by, 

reference to 135 

Spaulding, Bishop of Peoria, Mes- 
sage of 263 

"Spokesman, The," "The Only 
Independent Irish Newspaper 
in America," reference to .. 172 

Springfield, Illinois 26, 30 

Springfield Cathedral, Cornerstone 

Laying of 277 

St. Agnes Church, New York .... 56 
St. Alphonsus Church, New York. 56 

St. Ambrosius, reference to 135 

St. Andrews Day, reference to . . . 387 
St. Anne, Rev. Jean de. Arrival 

of, at New Orleans 197 

St. Anthony of Padoua Fall.. 123, 130 
St. Antoine Fort on the Missis- 
sippi 65 



St. Augustine, Florida, Church in. 246 
St. Augustine's Church of Boston 302 
St. Augustine's Church of Phila- 
delphia 302 

St. Charles' College Chapel, Elli- 

cot City, Md 56 

St. Clair, General, "Work in Ohio 

of 249 

St. Cosme, Rev. J. B., Murder of 197 
St. Cyr, Father, First Pastor of 

Chicago 36 

Steck, Francis Borgia, O.F.M., 
Ph.D., "The JoUiet-Marquette 

Expedition" 396 

St. Francis Church, Milwaukee, 

Wis 55 

St. Francis of Assissi Church, New 

York 55 

St. Francis Seminary, Milwaukee, 

Wis 62 

St. Francis Xavier 's Mission 66 

St. Francis Xavier 's Church 56 

St. Genevieve 313 

St. Germain en Laye 4 

St. George's High School, Father 

Smyth's Erection of 274 

St. James Church, New York 55 

St. John the Baptist Parish, Johns- 
burg, m.. Chronicle of ..175, 176 
St. John's Church, Orange, N. J.. 55 
St. John's Sanitarium, Springfield, 

111 63 

St. John's Uniformed Knights. ... 38 
St. Joseph Mission, Location and 

Registers of 22, 23 

St. Joseph River 5, 8, 130, 132 

St. Joseph, Valley of 25 

St. Joseph 's Church, Cincinnati . . 56 
St. Joseph 's Church, New York . . 56 
St. Joseph's College, Teutopolis.. 62 
St. Joseph's Mission in Michigan. 255 
St. Joseph's Seminary, St. Bene- 
dict, La 172 

St. Leopold, Canonized King, ref- 
erence to 109 

St. Louis, Mo., reference to 

15, 16, 24, 59, 61, 62, 78, 141, 
145, 149, 150, 170, 252. 
St. Louis College, Rev. Mr. Van 

de Velde, Professor at 148 

St. Louis, Fort, reference to 

387, 388, 390 

St. Louis or Lachine Falls 396 

St. Louis River (Ohio) 131 



ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW 



St. Louis Uuiversity, Rev. Mr. Van 

De Velde, Professor at 148 

St. Lusson, Pageant of 66 

St. Mary's Church, Evanston, 

Death of the Pastor of 273 

St. Mary's Church, Hoboken, 

N. J 56 

St. Mary's Church, Newark, N. J., 

Attack on 119 

St. Mary's Church, Pond Street, 

Boston 158 

St. Marv's CongTegation, Quincy, 

111. ' 62 

St. Mary's Hospital, Hoboken, 

N. J 55 

St. Mary's of the Lake Seminary, 

Mundelein, 111 75 

St. Mary's Seminary in Baltimore 246 
St. Mary's Seminary, Charleston. 

59, 60 

St. Maur, Don Didier, Monk of . . 88 
St. Mery, Moreau de. Author of 

"Voyages Aus Etats-Unis de 

L'Amerique," reference to.. 

210, 215, 238 

St. Michael 's Church in Ohio 251 

St. Patrick's Cathedral, Building 

of 2.35 

St. Patrick's Church, Milwaukee, 

Wis 55 

St. Peter's Cathedral, Cincinnati, 

Ohio 38, 55 

St. Peter's Church in New York, 

reference to 235 

St. Peter 's, Rome 99 

St. Peter-Paul's Cathedral, Provi- 
dence, R. 1 55 

St. Peter and Paul's Church, Na- 

perville, HI 62 

St, Philip 's, Captured by Clark . . 140 
St. Pierre, Bishop Loras' Visit to 

and Description of 67 

St. Pierres 77 

St. Raphael Cathedral, Dubuque, 

Iowa 67 

St. Viator College 77, 78 

Strong, Judge, reference to 91 

Stuart, Gilbert, American Artist.. 94 
Stuart, James, "Three Years in 

North America" 98, 314- 316 

Sturge, Joseph, "A Visit to the 

United States" 351- 352 

Sullivan, Daniel, Message Brought 

bv 254 



Sullivan, James, Attorney-General 

of Massachusetts 91 

Sulpicians in United States . . . 243, 246 

Superior, Lake 66 

Suvere, Governor 374 



T 



Taft, William, Philippine Question 

and 269 

"Talisman" 97 

Talleyrand, St. Mery's Friendship 

with 215 

Tamaroa or Maroa, a Nation of 

the Savages 129 

Tamourous Indians and Charle- 
voix 193 

Tapke, Mr. Alwin 54 

Tappan, Rev. Dr. Davis 92 

Tartarin, Rev., Missionary in New 

Orleans 197 

Taumer, Rev. M., Missionary in 

Louisiana 193 

Taylor, Deodat, Convert to the 

Faith 150 

Taylor, Dr. Howard S., Welcome 

of Delegates by 263 

Taylor, Joseph, Convert Editor of 
"The Shepherd of the Val- 
ley" 150 

Teche and Vermillion Bayous 171 

Tegancouti, Chief of the Tsonnon- 

touan 383 

Tennessee 36 

Tennessee or Cherokee River ... 26, 366 

Terre Haute, Indiana 15 

Tetu, Author of "Journal Des 
Visites Pastorales Par Mgr. 

Plessis" 230 

Teutopolis, 111 62 

Texas, La Salle's Ship Stranded 

on Coast of 138 

Thayer, Father John, reference to 88 
Thayer, Rev. M., Church in Boston 

and 233 

Thiele, Mr., Address of 268 

Thompson, Joseph J., LL.D 

3-14, 37, 123-138, 379- 395 

Thwaites: "A New Discovery of a 
Large Country in America," 

Excerpts from 125, 128, 130 

Ticonderoga, Fort, Anburey at... 205 

Tieman, Rev. Louis 38 

Timon, Father John 161 



ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW 



25 



Tocqueville, Charles Alex de, ' ' De- 
mocracy in America" 

213, 214, 320- 328 

Todd, John, Lieutenant C!olonel, 

Civil Commandant 29 

Reference to 34 

Todds, The: John, David, Hannah 
Owen, Levi, Mary, Robert, ref- 
erence to 30, 34 

"Toilers of Land and Sea," Vol. 
Ill, of "Pageant of Amer- 
ica" 286 

Tokyo, University of 397 

Tonti, Henry de 

4, 5, 65, 123, 124, 131, 132- 
134, 135,379, 380, 382-393. 

Transylvania 364, 367 

Travel Books, List of 180 

Travel Literature from 1815-1842 301 

"Travel Literature as Source Ma- 
terial for American Catholic 
History" 179-238, 289- 398 

Treaty of Paris, 1783, reference 

to 86, 142 

Treaty of Paris, 1763, reference 

to 26, 27 

Trollope, Frances M., "Domestic 
Manners of the Americans . . 
180, 319, 323- 325 

Trumbull, John, American Artist 94 

Trusteeism, reference to 

88, 242, 356, 357 

Truth Teller of New York, News- 



paper 



316 



Tuba More, the Ancestral Home 
of Patrick Henry's Family at 29 

Turel, Indian Chief 374 

Turkey Hill 36 

Tyler, Mrs., Daughter of Mrs. 

Daniel Barber 96 

Tyler, Rosetta, Granddaughter of 

Mrs. Daniel Barber 96 



XT 



Unitarianism, Rise of 92 

"United States Catholic Intelli- 
gencer," Exchanged Name of 
"The Jesuit" 147 

"United States Catholic Miscel- 
lany," by Bishop England... 
245, 246 

United States Supreme Court, 
Chamber of 106 



United States Shipping Board, ref- 
erence to 173 

Ursuline Convent at Charlestown, 
Destruction of, reference to. . 
103, 151, 154 

Ursuline Convent, Established by 
Company of West, reference 
to 303 

Ursuline Nuns, in New Orleans . . 

197, 227 

V 

Van de Velde, Rev., S. J., Bishop 
of Chicago, Bishop of Nat- 
chez 148 

Van Quickenborne, Rev., and the 

Jesuits of Whitemarsh 310 

Verhaegen, Father, among the 

Jesuits at Whitemarsh 313 

Venn, Rev. Clement 175 

Vente, Rev. de la, in Louisiana, 
reference to 204 

Vermont 45, 147, 148 

Vienna, Austria, Society of Propa- 
gation of Faith in 150 

Vigo 71, 143, 144 

Vincennes, Beginnings of 22 

Reference to 

15-17, 22, 25, 28, 69, 70, 250, 
251, 253, 256, 257, 258, 259. 

Vincennes University 143 

Vinge, Godfrey T., "Six Months 

in America" 318- 320 

Virginia, reference to 

28, 29, 200, 365, 375, 376, 377. 

Virginia City, Montana, reference 

to 48, 53 

Visitation Convent, Georgetown, 

District of Columbia 158 

Visitandines, reference to 158 

W 

Wabash River, Captain John 

Clark on the 14 

Wabash Valley, reference to... 25, 70 
Waccamar, S. C, Birthplace of 

Washing-ton Allston 93 

Walker, Charles, Father of Miss 

Lucretia Walker 95 

Walker, Dr. Thomas of Virginia, 

Explorer and SuiTCyor 364 



26 



ILLINOIS CATHOLIC HISTORICAL REVIEW 



Walker, Miss Lucretia, Second 

Wife of S. F. B. Morse 95 

Wallace, M. A. Joseph, Publisher 
of "Past and Present of San- 
gamon County, Illinois " . . . . 30 

Walsh, Rev. Robert, at Oahu 163 

Wapaconette in Auglaize County, 

reference to 266 

■\Varden, David, "Statistical, Po- 
litical and Historical Account 
of the United States" ..302- 304 
Ware, Henry, Unitarian, Elected 

to Chair of Harvard College. 92 
Warendorf, Near Muenster, refer- 
ence to 62, 64 

Washington, George, reference to 

27, 32, 112, 249 

Weber, Rev. William, Pastor of 
St. John's Church, Johnsburg, 

111 176 

Webster, Daniel, reference to.... 78 
Weld, Isaac, Author of "Travels 
Through the States of North 

America " 218 

Wenker, Rev. August 62 

West, Benjamin, Noted Painter, 

reference to 93, 94 

Westfalia, Germany, reference to. 62 

West Virginia 45 

Wheeler, Father, Chaplain of Vis- 
itation Nuns at Georgetown.. 312 
Wheelock, Dr. Eleazer, Dartmouth 

College Founded by 95 

Whig Party, reference to 113 

White, Bishop 311 

Whitemarsh, Jesuit's Property at. 242 
Whistler, Major William, and the 

Black Hawk War 36 

Whistler, Captain John, First 

Commander of Fort Dearborn 36 



Whitfield, James, Archbishop of 

Baltimore, reference to 

148, 247, 357 

Williams, Dr. A. J., Omaha 65 

Williams, Michael, ' ' American 
Catholics in War, ' ' quoted . . 

295, 296 

Williams, S. T., Author of Vol. 

XI, "Pageant of America". 287 

Wilson, Thomas, Letter of 253 

Wilson, Woodrow, reference to.. 173 
Wingfield, Edwin Maria, First 
President of Jamestown Col- 
ony 255 

Winiecki, Leo J 75 

Winterbotham, W 217 

W isconsin, reference to .... 5, 45, 66 
Wissler, Clark, Author of Vol. I, 

"Pageant of America" 286 

Wolf (Omahouka), Head of an 

Illinois Tribe 127 

Wood, Colonel, Explorer 364 

Wood, William, Author of Vol. I, 

"Pageant of America" 286 

World's Fair, St. Louis, 1904... 55 
Wyandotte Indians, Lorimier and 255 



Yadkin River 364 

Yates, Governor, Message of 263 

Young, John P 275 



Z 



Zavola, Lorenzo De, "Viage A 
Los Estados-Unidos del Norte 

De America" 317- 318 

Zurbonsen, Rev. Anthony 62- 64 

Zuroweste, Rev. Albert 74 



Illinois 

Catholic Historical 

Review 

Volume X JULY, 1927 Number 1 



^lltnots fflat[]oItc ^tstortcal ^ocbtg 

28 NORTH FRANKLIN STREET, CHICAGO 



HONORAEY PRESIDENTS 

His Eminence George Cardinal Mundelein, Chicago 

Rt. Rev. Peter J. Muldoon, D. D., Rockford Rt. Rev. Henry Althoff, D. D., BelleviUt 

Rt. Rev. Edmund M. Dunne, D. D., Peoria Rt. Rev. James A. Griffin, D. D., Springfield 

OFFICERS 
President Financial Secbbtaby 

Rev. Frederic Siedenburg, S. J., Chicago Francis J. Rooney, Chicago 

First Vice-President 
Rt. Rev. F. A. Purcell, Chicago Rkcoeding Sbcebtaby 

Second Vice-President Agnes Van Driel, Chicago 

James M. Graham, Springfield 

TEBAStTREB ARCHIVIST 

John P. V. Murphy, Chicago Rev. Joseph P. Morrison, Chicago 

TRUSTEES 

Very Rev. James Shannon, Peoria Michael F. Girten, Chicago 
Rev. William H. Agnew, S. J., Chicago James A. Bray, Joliet 

Mrs. Daniel V. Gallery, Chicago Frank J. Seng, Wilmette 

D. P. Bremner, Chicago Mrs. E. I. Cudahy, Chicago 

Margaret Madden, Chicago John Coleman, Lake Forest 



(3IUmat0 OIatl|oltc historical ^e^iefo 

Jowrnal of the Illinois Catholic Historical Society 

28 North Franklin Street, Chicago 

MANAGING EDITOR 
F. J. Rooney 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 

Joseph J. Thompson Chicago William Stetson Merrill Chicago 

Rev. Frederick Beuckman Belleville Rev. Paul J. Foik, C. S. C. . . .Austin, Texas 

Rev. J. B. Culemans Moline Rev. Gilbert J. Garraghan, S. J . , .St. Louis 



PUBIJSHED BY 

The iLLENGig Catholic Historical Society 
Chicago, III. 



CONTENTS 



Illinois — The Cradle of CHRiSTiA>aTY and Civilization in Mid-Amerioa 

(Continued) Joseph J. Thompson, LL. D. 3 

The Purpose of a Catholic Historical Society 

Eev. Gilbert J. Garraghan, S. J. 15 

The Early Irish of Illinois 

John P. McGoorty 26 

The American Federation of Catholic Societies (Continued) 

Anthony Matre 38 

Christmas Day, 1865, in Virginia City, Montana 

Eev. Francis Xavier Kuppens, S. J. 48 

William Lamprecht, Artist 54 

Bishop England's Correspondence with Bishop Rosati (Continued) 

Eev. John Eothensteiner 59 

Necrology: Reverend Anthony Zurbonsen 

Eev. C. Erehenberg 62 

Gleanings prom Current Periodicals 

Wm. Stetson MerriU 65 

Book Revikv^s: 

George Rogers Clark, His Life and Public Services (Temple Bodley). 

John V. McCormick 68 
Universal Knowledge, Vol I 71 

History in the Press 

Teresa L. Maher 73 



LOYOLA TJNIVKRSITY PRESS 
OHIOAGO, ILLINOIS 



Illinois 

Catholic Historical Review 



Volume X JULY, 1927 Number 1 



ILLINOIS: THE CRADLE OF CHRISTIANITY 
AND CIVILIZATION IN MID-AMERICA 

{Continued from Ajyril Number) 

CHAPTER III 

La Salle 's Voyages 
In the five or six years succeeding the visits of Joliet and Marquette 
to the Illinois country, the information obtained by them was made 
public in various ways and naturally excited much interest in the 
new domains made known by the explorer's reports. In official circles 
it was, of course, desired to profit by the discoveries and establish 
sovereignty over all the countries discovered. To this end, Rene Robert 
Cavalier Sieur de La Salle was commissioned by the French King to 
•'endeavor to discover the western part of New France." His com- 
mission from the King read thus: 

La Salle's Commission 

Louis, by the grace of God, King of France and Navarre. To our dear and 
well-beloved Robert Cavalier, Sieur de la Salle, greeting. 

We have received with favor the very humble petition, which lias been pre- 
sented to us in your name, to permit you to endeavor to discover the western 
part of New France; and we have consented to this proposal the more willingly, 
because there is nothing we have more at heart than the discovery of this 
country, through which it is probable a road may be found to penetrate to 
Mexico (dans laquel il y a apparence que I 'on trouversa un chemin pour penetrer 
jxtsqu'au Mexique) ; and because your diligence in clearing the lands which we 
granted to you by the decree of our council of the 13th of May, 1675, and by 
Letters Patent of the same date, to form habitations upon the said lands, and 
to put Fort Frontgsac in a good state of defense, the seigniory and government 
whereof we likewise granted to you, affords us every reason to hope that you 

3 



4 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

will succeed to our satisfaction, and to the advantage of our subjects of the 
said country. 

For these reasons, and others thereunto moving us, vee have permitted, and 
do hereby permit you, by these presents, signed by our hand, to endeavor to 
discover the western part of New France, and, for the execution of this enter- 
prise, to construct forts wherever you shall deem it necessary; which it is our 
will that you shall hold on the same terms and conditions as Fort Frontenac, 
agreeably and conformably to our said Letters Patent of the 13th of March, 
1675, which we have confirmed, as far as is needful, and hereby confirm by these 
patents. And it is our pleasure that they be executed according to their form 
and tenor. 

To accomplish this, and everything above mentioned, we give you full powers; 
on condition, however, that you shall finish this enterprise within five years, 
in default of which these presents shall be void and of none effect; that you 
carry on no trade whatever with the savages called Outaouacs (Ottawas), and 
others who bring their beaver skins and other peltries to Montreal; and that 
the whole shall be done at your expense, and that of your company, to which 
we have granted the privilege of the trade in Buffalo skins. And we command 
the Sieur de Frontenac, our Grovernor and Lieutenant-General, and the other 
ofiicers who compose the supreme council of the said country, to affix their 
signatures to these presents; for such is our pleasure. Given at St. Germain en 
Laye, this 12th day of May, 1678, and of our reign the thirty-fifth. 

(Signed) Louis. 

(And lower down,) 

By the King. Colbert.* 

Entering Upon His Career 

With the entrance of de la Salle upon this important mission 
begins the public career of one of the greatest figures in American 
history. He was a favorite of the great Frontenac who seconded him 
in all his enterprises. With such a sponsor, he found easy entrance 
to the presence of the King, and, being of noble appearance and 
masterly address, he came away from the throne with all his desires 
gratified. With him came the daring soldier and administrator, Henry 
de Tonti, destined to play such an important role in the history of 
New France and of Illinois. 

Reaching Quebec he at once began the execution of his commission 
by proceeding to Fort Frontenac, located at the present site of 
Kingston, Ontario. In 1674, upon the recommendation of Governor 
Frontenac, La Salle had been granted land and the exclusive right 
to trade at this fort on condition that he rebuild it with stone and 
supply a garrison. He had fulfilled these conditions, and this fact 
influenced the King to favorable action on his petition in 1678. 



* Falconer: The Discovery of the Mississippi, pp. 18-20. 



ILLINOIS: THE CRADLE OF CHRISTIANITY 

From Fort Frontenae he sent forward Father Louis Hennepin, a 
Recollect (Franciscan) priest, to direct the construction of a fort 
and a vessel near Niagara Falls, and he and Tonti later joined 
Hennepin there. 

By spring of 1679, a vessel of forty-five tons, the largest ever 
intended for lake service up to that time, had been built. It was 
named the Griffon and an image of a griffon (eagle) adopted from 
the armorial bearings of Governor Frontenae was carved upon its 
prow. Early in the summer I^a Salle and his followers boarded the 
Griffon and set sail, reaching Michilimackinac where a stop was made 
and some trading with the Indians occurred. From here the voyage 
continued to Green Bay, where a quantity of beaver skins was pro- 
cured and put on deck. In the Autumn the vessel loaded with its 
valuable cargo was started on the return trip, but La Salle did not 
accompany it, deciding to spend the winter exploring the Illinois 
country. 

The interior of the country was not unknown to La Salle. Prior 
to this voyage, in 1669, he had rowed in his canoe over the Great 
Lakes and down some of the waterways of what is now Ohio, as far, 
according to some authorities, as the Ohio river. At any rate he was 
an intrepid traveler, and gained the reputation of being very popular 
and powerful amongst the Indian tribes with whom he came in 
contact. 

La Salle's Purposes 

La Salle 's enterprises were chiefly commercial — that is to say — his 
labors were directed toward a development that would result in 
financial gain. He visioned the unlimited resources of the new country 
and had in mind their development. 

Neither La Salle nor Frontenae nor the King were unmindful 
of the spiritual side of the enterprises in which they engaged, how- 
ever. It was the invariable custom in all French undertakings to 
consider the spiritual interests, and accordingly, every expedition was 
accompanied by spiritual advisers and an important part of its object 
was the spreading of the Gospel. Accordingly La Salle's expedition 
was accompanied by three Recollect (Franciscan) priests, viz. : Gabriel 
de la Ribourde, Zenobe Membre and Louis Hennepin, who each figured 
conspicuously in the journey. 

After the departure of the Griffon, La Salle and his party, about 
forty in number, in canoes pushed down the Wisconsin side of Lake 
Michigan to the mouth of the St. Joseph River, proceeded up stream 
in the St. Joseph to a point where that river approaches the Kankakee, 



6 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

and then carried their boats and goods to the Kankakee Eiver where 
they embarked again and followed that river to its junction with the 
Illinois, and thence down the Illinois. 

La Salle's First Trip Through Illinois 

The party stopped at the site of Marquette's Mission on the first 
of January, 1680. Since Father Marquette had left, two or three 
other Jesuit Missionaries had visited and remained in the place for 
a longer or shorter period. Father Claude Jean AUouez, S. J., who 
was among the Miami Indians in the Northwestern part of what is 
now Indiana, was the first after Marquette to visit the newly created 
mission and the next was Father Sebastien Rale, S. J, During these 
years these two great Jesuits had made much progress amongst the 
Indians, as will be seen as this narrative proceeds, but when La SaUe 
arrived at the village of the Kaskaskias, he found the place entirely 
deserted. It was the Indian custom to change their place of residence 
with the seasons, and at this particular time they had migrated down 
the river. Being short of provisions, La Salle's party was much 
disappointed that they were unable to secure food from the Indians 
as they had hoped, but casting about they found the caches in which 
the Indians stored their corn, from which they took a supply. 

Re-embarking, the party pushed on down the Illinois, and on the 
fourth day of January, 1680, while passing through the enlargement 
of the river, afterwards known as Peoria Lake, found themselves 
confronted on both sides of the water with Indians armed with bows 
and arrows, and presenting a rather warlike attitude. The canoes 
were immediately drawn up in a posture of defense, and La Salle's 
party prepared their weapons for a conflict. La Salle made signs of 
friendship to the Indians and presently entered into conference and 
the party was permitted to land. Upon inquiry it was found that 
the party of Indians they had come upon were of the Kaskaskia tribe 
whose home they had passed through a few days before. La SaUe 
advised them of his plight in reference to food, told them of taking 
corn from their store and compensated liberaUy for it. 

Fort CrIive Cceur Established 

Here La Salle determined to build a fort and establish a settlement 
Accordingly, all hands were set to work, and besides erecting a fort 
of considerable pretensions, the building of another ship was under- 
taken. Here too La Salle determined to await news of the Griffon 
which he calculated would soon reach lower Lake Michigan. 



ILLINOIS: THE CRADLE OF CHRISTIANITY i 

For a considerable period, running into months, the building of 
the fort and the ship continued, and news of the Griffon was daily 
expected, but as time wore on and no word came, La Salle began to 
have misgivings as to its fate, and these grew until it is thought a 
conviction of disaster had settled upon him. Some writers say that 
it was on, account of his belief that the Griffon had been lost and his 
fortunes thus impaired that he gave to the fort the name of Creve 
Cceur, meaning "broken heart." It may here be noted that the fate 
of the Griffon remains unlmown to the present. The loss of the goods 
was disastrous to La Salle, but as will be seen, did not crush him. 

The fort at Peoria was completed and the ship almost finished, but 
as some of the parts necessary to the ship were to be brought from the 
St. Lawrence, further progress was impossible. In addition, the men 
were much dissatisfied and had not fully recovered the confidence in 
the voyage and in the leader which had been shaken by enemies of 
La Salle whose emissaries came to the Indian camp on the very first 
night of the arrival of La Salle's party. Something must be done, 
and La Salle, man of action that he was, laid out his plans. Tonti 
and the Recollect Fathers Ribourde and Membre were to remain at 
the fort for the present, but Tonti was to view the site of the Big 
Rock and consider the building of a fort there. Father Hennepin 
was directed in company with two Frenchmen to row down the 
Illinois to the Mississippi and up the Mississippi on a voyage of 
exploration. 

As for La Salle himself, he determined to retrace his steps, learn 
if possible the fate of the Griffon and endeavor to get further financial 
support for his undertaldng. 

La Salle Returns to Fort Frontenac 

Following La Salle, we learn of a most trying journey to Fort 
Frontenac, one thousand miles distant, requiring sixty-five days, and 
described as "the most arduous journey ever made by Frenchmen in 
America." In this lonely journey. La Salle's physical energies, 
which were apparently excelled only by his mental capacity, were 
taxed to the utmost, but his indomitable spirit could not be conquered, 
and though suffering from every privation, he finally reached Fort 
Frontenac on May 6, 1680. 

Even before reaching Fort Frontenac, as he stopped at Niagara 
where he had left some of his men when he started on his journey in 
the previous autumn, he was greeted with disastrous news. He had 
not only lost the Griffon and her cargo worth ten thousand pounds, 



g JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

but a ship from France containing his goods worth more than twenty- 
two thousand livres had been wrecked at the mouth of the St. Law- 
rence and was a total loss. Of twenty men from Europe engaged to 
join him some had been detained by his enemy, the Intendant Duches- 
neau, and all but four of the others, being told that La Salle was 
dead, had left for Europe again. His agents had plundered him ; his 
creditors had seized his property, and several of his canoes, richly 
laden, had been lost in the rapids of the St. Lawrence. 

Despite all these misfortunes and the machinations of his enemies 
he repaired to Montreal and succeeded within a week in getting the 
supplies he required and needful help for his party in the Illinois 
country. 

Misfortunes Accumulate 

On his return from Montreal to Fort Frontenac he received more 
disheartening information in the form of a letter from Tonti advising 
him that soon after his departure from Fort Creve Cceur all but a 
few of the men deserted after destroying the fort, plundering the 
magazine and throwing all the arms, goods and stores into the river. 
After leaving Fort Creve Cceur the deserters had destroyed the fort 
on the St. Joseph, seized a store of furs belonging to La Salle at 
Michilimackinac and plundered the magazine at Niagara. 

La Salle quickly took steps to round up and punish the derelicts, 
but he was a ruined man and had to begin all over again. The story 
of this new beginning may be delayed while we gather up the details 
of the first journey of La Salle through Illinois and trace the activities 
of the others who were at Fort Creve Cceur with him.^ 

Hennepin's Account of La Salle's First Trip Through Illinois 

Father Hennepin wrote a circumstantial account of this first voy- 
age of La Salle through Illinois, which, as a description, has not been 
excelled, and which has never been doubted. That part of it dealing 
with Illinois is well worthy of reproduction here, even though in some 
instances it may overlap the above narrative. 

An Account of Our Embarkment at the Head of the 
River of the Illinois 

This River is navigable within a hundred Paces from its source; I mean for 
Canou's of Bark of Trees, and not for others; but it increases so much a little 
way from thence, that it is as deep and broad as the Meuse and Sambre joined 



' Parkman : La Salle and the Discovery of the Great West, p. 183 et seq. 



ILLINOIS: THE CRADLE OF CHRISTIANITY 9 

together. It runs through vast Marshes, and though it be rapid enough, it 
makes so many turnings and windings, that after a whole day's journey, we 
found we were hardly two leagues from the place we left in the morning. That 
country is nothing but marshes full of alder trees and rushes; and we could 
have hardly found for forty leagues together, any place to plant our cabins, 
had it not been for the frost, which made the earth more firm and solid. 

Having passed through great marshes, we found a vast plain on which nothing 
grows but only some herbs, which were dry at that time, and burnt, because the 
Miami's set them on fire every year, in their hunting wild bulls, as I shall 
mention anon. We found no manner of game, which was a great disappointment 
to us, our provisions beginning to fail. Our men traveled about sixty miles 
without kOling anj-thing else but a lean stag, a small wild goat, some few 
swans and two bustards, which was no sufiicient maintenance for two and thirty 
men. Most of them were so weary of this laborious life, that they would have 
run away if possible, and gone to the savages, who were not very far from us, as 
we judged by the great fires we saw in the plain. There must be an innumerable 
quantity of wild bulls in that country, since the earth is covered with their 
horns. The Miami's hunt them towards the latter end of Autumn. 

We continued our course upon this river very near the whole month of 
December; but toward the latter end of the said month, 1679, we arrived at the 
village of the Illinois, which lies near one hundred and thirty leagues from 
Fort Miamis, on the Lake of the Illinois. We suffered very much in this 
passage, for the savages having set the herbs of the plain on fire, the wild bulls 
were fled away, and so we could kill but one and some turkey-cocks. God's 
Providence supported us all the while ; and when we thought that the extremities 
we were reduced to were past all hopes of remedy, we found a prodigious wild 
bull lying flat in the mud of the river. We killed him and had much ado to 
get him out of the mud. This was a great refreshment to our men, and revived 
their courage; for being so timely and unexpectedly relieved, they concluded 
that God approved our design.' 

An Account op Our Arrival to the Country of the Illinois, 
One of the Most Numerous op the Savages of America 

This word Illinois comes, as it has already been observed, from lUini, which 
in the language of that nation signifies A perfect and accomplished man. The 
villages of the Illinois are located in a marshy plain, about the fortieth degree 
of latitude on the right side of the river, which is as broad as the Mewse. Their 
greatest village may have in it four or five hundred cabins, every cabin five or 
six fires, and each fire one or two families who live together in great concord. 
Their cabins are covered with mats of flat rushes so closely sewed together that 
no wind, rain or snow can go through it. The union that reigns amongst that 
barbarous people, ought to cover with shame the Christians; amongst whom we 
can see no trace of that brotherly love which united the primitive professors of 
Christianity. 

When the Savages have gathered in their Indian corn, they dig some holes 
in the ground, where they keep it for summer-time, because meat does not keep 
in hot weather; whereas they have very little occasion for it in winter; and it 



' Thwaites : Discovery of a Vast Country in America, pp. 145-146. 



10 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

is then their custom to leave their villages and with their whole families to go 
a hunting wild bulls, beavers, etc., carrying with them but a small quantity of 
their corn, which however they value so much that the most sensible wrong one 
can do them, in their opinion, is to take some of their corn in their absence. 
We found nobody in the village, as we had forseen, for the Illinois had divided 
themselves, according to their custom, and were gone a hunting. Their absence 
caused a great perplexity amongst us, for we wanted provisions, and yet durst 
not meddle with the Indian corn the Savages had laid under ground for their 
subsistence and to sow their lands with. However, our necessity being very 
great, and it being impossible to continue our voyage without any provisions, 
especially seeing the bulls and other beasts had been driven from the banks of 
the river, by means of fires, as I have related in my former chapter, M. la Salle 
resolved to take about forty bushels of corn, in hopes to appease the savages 
with some presents. 

We embarked again with these fresh pro^^sions, and continued to fall down 
the river which runs directly to the South. Four days after, being the first of 
January 1680, we said Mass, and having wished a happy New Year to M. la 
Salle, and to all others, I thought fit to make a pathetical exhortation to our 
grumblers, to encourage them to go on cheerfully and inspire them with union 
and concord. Father Gabriel Zenobe and I embraced them afterwards, and they 
promised us to continue firm in their duty. The same day we went through a 
lake formed by the river, about seven leagues long and one broad. The Savages 
call that place Pimiteoui ; that is, in their tongue, A place ichere there is abtm- 
dance of fat beasts. When the river of the Illinois freezes, which is but seldom, 
it freezes only to this lake, and never from thence to the Mississippi, into which 
this river falls. M. la Salle observed here the elevation of the pole, and found 
that this lake lies in the latitude of thirty-three degrees and forty-five minutes. 

We had been informed that the Illinois were our enemies, and therefore 
M. la Salle had resolved to use all manner of precaution when we should meet 
with them; but we found ourselves on a sudden in the middle of their camp, 
which look up both sides of the river. M. la Salle ordered immediately his men 
to make their arms ready, and brought his canoes into a line, placing himself 
to the right, and M. Tonti to the left; so that we took almost the whole breadth 
of the river. The Illinois, who had not yet discovered our fleet, were very much 
surprised to see us coming so swiftly upon them; for the stream was extraor- 
dinarily rapid in that place: some ran to their arms, but most took their flight 
with horrid cries and howlings. 

The current brought us in the meantime to their camp, and M. la Salle went 
the very first ashore, followed by his men; which increased the consternation of 
the savages whom we might have easily defeated, but as it was not our design, 
we made a halt to give them time to recover themselves and see that we were no 
enemies. M. la Salle might have prevented their confusion by showing his 
Calumet or Pipe of Peace, but he was afraid the Savages would impute it to 
our weakness. 

The Illinois being exceedingly terrified, though they were several thousand 
men, tendered us the Calumet of Peace, and then we offered them ours, which 
being accepted on both sides, an extraordinary joy succeeded the terrible fears 
they had been under upon our landing. They sent immediately to fetch back 
those who fled away, and Father Zenobe and I went to their cabins. We took 
their children by the hand, and expressed our love for them with all the signs 



ILLINOIS: THE CRADLE OF CHRISTIANITY 11 

we could. We did the like to the old men, having compassion of those poor 
creatures who are so miserable as to be ignorant of their Creator and Redeemer. 
Most of the Savages who had run away upon our landing, understanding that 
we were French, returned; but some others had been so terrified that they did 
not come back till three or four days after that they had been told that we had 
smoked in their Calumet of Peace. In the meantime we had discoursed the 
Chiefs of the Illinois by our interpreter, and told them that we were inhabitants 
of Canada and their friends; that we were come to teach them the knowledge of 
the Captain of Heaven and earth, with several other things relating to their 
advantage. "We were forced to make use of these metaphorical expressions to 
give them some idea of the Supreme Deity. They heard our discourses with 
great attention, and afterwards gave a great shout of joy, repeating these words: 
Tepatoui-NiJca; that is, Well, my Brother, my friend; tlwu ha<st done very well. 
These Savages have more humanity than all the others of the Northern America; 
and understanding the subject of our errand, expressed great gratitude there- 
upon. They rubbed our legs and feet near the fire with oil of bears and wild 
bulls' fat, which, after much travel, is an incomparable refreshment; and pre- 
sented us some flesh to cat, putting the three first morsels into our moths vidth 
great ceremonies. This is a great piece of civility amongst them. 

M. la Salle presented them with some tobacco from Martinioo, and some axes; 
and told them that he had desired them to meet to treat about some weighty 
matters; but that there was one in particular which he would discourse them 
upon before any other. He added that he knew how necessary their corn was 
to them, but that being reduced to an unspeakable necessity when he came to 
their village, and feeling no probability to subsist, he had been forced to take 
some corn from their habitations without their leave: That he would give them 
axes and other things in lieu of it, if they could spare it; that if they could 
not, they were free to take it again, concluding, that if they were not able to 
supply us with pro^dsions, he designed to continue his voyage and go to their 
neighbours who would heartily give him what was necessary for his subsistence; 
but however, to show them his kindness he would leave a smith among them 
to mend their ax;es and other tools we should supply them with. The Savages 
having considered our proposals, granted aJl our demands and made alliance 
with us. 

We were obliged to use many precautions to make our alliance lasting and 
solid, because our enemies did their utmost to prevent it. The very same day we 
came to the camp of the Illinois, one of the Chief Captains of the Mascoutens, 
whose name was Monfo, arrived also with some Miami's, and other young men, 
who brought with them some axes, knives, kettles and other goods. Our enemies 
had chosen him for that embassie, knowing that the Illinois would rather believe 
him than the Miami's, because they had never been in war with the Mascoutens. 
This Savage arrived pretty late, and caballed all the night long against us: He 
told them that M. la Salle was a great friend of the Iroquese, who were to follow 
him speedily with some of the Europeans from Canada to invade them, and 
destroy their nation; and that he was sent by some of the Europeans! themselves 
who could not approve that treachery of their countrymen to give them notice 
thereof, that they might not be surprised. He enforced his arguments by pre- 
senting them with all the goods he had brought along with him; and thinking 
he had gained his point, went back the same night, fearing with much reason, 
that M. la Salle would resent that masterpiece of villainy and punish him for it. 



12 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

The Illinois were assembled in council all the night (for they never treat of 
any secret affairs during the day), and did not know what measures to take; for 
though they did not believe all the stories the Mascouien had made unto them, 
yet the next day they appeared very indifferent and mistrustful of us. As they 
seemed to contrive something against us, we began to be uneasy; but M. la Salle, 
who suspected that their sudden alteration towards us was the effect of a false 
report, made such presents to one of their chiefs that he told him all the par- 
ticulars of the embassie and negotiations of Monfo; and thereby enabled liim 
to remove the jealousies of the Illinois, and confound the M'icked designs of our 
enemies. 

He managed that point with such dexterity, that he did not only regain the 
friendship of that nation, but likewise undeceived the Mascouten and Miamis, 
and was mediator between the latter and the Illinois, who by his means made 
an alliance which lasted all the while we remained in those countries.* 

An Account of What Happened to Us While We Remained Among 
THE Illinois Till the Building of a New Fort 

Some days after, Nikanape, brother to Chessagouasse, the most considerable 
chief of the Illinois, who was then absent, invited us to a great feast, and before 
we sat down to eat, made a long speech, very different from what the other 
captains had told us upon our arrival. He said that he had invited us not so 
much to give us a treat, as to endeavour to dissuade us from the resolution we 
had taken, to go down to the sea by the great river Mississippi. He added that 
several had perished, having ventured upon the same enterprise, the banks of 
that river being inhabited by barbarous and bloody nations, whom we should 
be unable to resist, notwithstanding our valour and the goodness of our arms; 
that that river was full of dangerous monsters, as crocodiles, tritons (meaning 
sea-monsters), and serpents; that supposing the barque we designed to build 
was big enough to protect us against the dangers he had mentioned, yet it would 
avail us nothing against another which was inevitable: For, said he, the river 
Mississippi is so full of rocks and falls towards it mouth, which will carry your 
barque into a horrid whirlpool, tJiat swallows up everytJiing that comes near it; 
and even the river itself, which appears no more, losing itself in that hideous 
and bottomless Gulf. 

He added so many other circumstances, and appeared so serious, and so much 
concerned for us, that two of our men who understood their language but not 
their politics, were moved at it, and their fear appeared in their faces. We 
observed it, but could not help it; for it would be an unpardonable affront to 
interrupt a Savage; and besides, we had perhaps increased the alarms of our 
men. When Nikanape had made an end of his discourse, we answered him in 
so calm a manner, that he could not fancy we were surprised at his objections 
against our voyage. 

Our interpreter told him, by order of M. la Salle, that we were much obliged 
to him for the advices he gave us; but that the difficulties and dangers he had 
mentioned, would make our enterprise still more glorious; that we feared the 
Master of the life of all men, who ruled the sea and all the world ; and therefore 
would think it a happiness to lay down our lives to make his name known to all 



* Thwaites : A New Discovery of a Large Country in America, pp. 153-59. 



ILLINOIS: THE CRADLE OF CHRISTIANITY 13 

his creatures. We added that we believed that most of the dangers he mentioned 
were not in being; but that the friendship he had for us, had put him upon 
that invention, to oblige us to remain with them. We thought fit, however, to 
let him know that we perceived our enemies had fomented some jealousies in their 
mind, and that they seemed to mistrust our designs; but as we were sincere in 
our dealings, we desired them to let us know freely and without any disguise, the 
grounds of their suspicions, that we might satisfy them and clear ourselves; 
concluding, that seeing our demand was so just and equitable, we expected they 
would grant it, or else that we should have reason to think that the joy they had 
expressed upon our arrival, and the friendship they had since shown to us was 
nothing but a deceit and dissimulation. Nikanape was not able to answer us, 
and therefore changed his discourse, desiring us to eat. 

The dinner being over, our interpreter reassumed his discourse, and told the 
company that we were not surprised at the envy their neighbors expressed 
about our arrival into their country, because they knew too well the advantages 
of commerce, and therefore would engross it to themselves and obstruct by all 
means our good correspondence; but that we wondered that they would gives ear 
to the suggestions of our common enemies and conceal anything from us, since 
we had so sincerely acquainted them with our designs. 

We did not sleep, brother, said he, directing his discourse to Nikanape, when 
Monfo was caballing amongst you in the night to our prejudice, endeavouring 
to make you believe that we were spies of the Iroquois. The presents he made 
to enforce his lies are still hidden in tliis cabin. But why has he run away 
immediately after, instead of appearing publicly to justify his accusation? Thou 
art a witness thyself, that upon our landing we might have killed all thy nephews 
and done what our enemies tell you we design to do, after we have made alliance 
with thee, and settled ourselves amongst you. But if you were our design, why 
should we defer to put it into execution? And who hinders our warriors who 
are here with me to kill all of you whilst your young men are hunting? Thou 
hast been told that our valour is terrible to the Iroquois themselves ; ; and 
therefore we need not their assistance to wage war with thee if it were our 



But to remove even the least pretence of suspicion and jealousy, send some- 
body to bring back that malicious accuser, and we will stay here to confute him 
in their presence: For how can he know us, seeing he never saw us in his life? 
And how can he be acquainted with the secret league we have maide with the 
Iroquois whom he knows only by name ? Consider our equipage ; we have nothing 
but tools and goods which can never be made use of, but for the good of the 
nation, and not for its destruction, as our enemies would make thee believe. 

This discourse moved them very much; and they sent after Monfo to bring 
him back; but the snow which fell that night spoiled the track, and so he could 
not be overtaken. He had remained for some days not far from us to know 
what would be the success of his embassie. However, some of our men lay under 
such terrible apprehension, that we could not recover their courage nor remove 
their fears; so that six of them who had the guard that night (amongst which 
were two sawers, tlie most necessary of our workmen for building our ship) ran 
away, taking with them what they thought necessary ; but considering the country 
through which they were to travel, and the season of the year, we may say, that 
for avoiding an uncertain peril, they exposed themselves to a most certain death. 



14 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

M. la Salle seeing that those six men were gone, and fearing that this deser- 
tion would make a disadvantageous impression upon the savages, he ordered his 
men to tell the Illinois that he had resolved to send after them to punish them 
as they deserved; but that the season being so hard, he was loth to expose his 
men; and that these deserters would be severely punished in Canada. In the 
meantime, we exhorted the rest to continue firm in their duty, assuring them 
that if any were afraid of venturing themselves upon the river Mississippi 
because of the dangers Nikanape had mentioned, M. la Salle would give them 
leave to return next Spring to Canada, and allow them a Canoe to make their 
voyage; whereas they could not venture to return home at this time of the year, 
without exposing themselves to perish with hunger, cold, or the hands of the 
Savages. 

They promised wonders; but M. la Salle knowing their inconstancy, and 
dissembling the vexation their want of courage and resolution caused him, resolved 
to prevent any further subordination and to leave the camp of the Illinois; but 
lest his men should not consent to it, he called them together and told them we 
were not safe among the Illinois, and that perhaps the Iroquois would come in 
a little time to attack them; and that these being not able to resist, they were 
like to run away and betake themselves to the woods and leave us exposed to 
the mercy of the Iroquois, whose cruelty was sufficiently known to us; therefore 
he knew no other lemedy but to fortify a post where we might defend ourselves 
both against the Illinois and the Iroquois, as occasion should require. These 
reasons, with some other arguments which I added to the same purpose, proved 
powerful enough to engage them to approve M. la Salle 's design ; and so it was 
resolved to build a fort in a very advantageous place on the river, four days' 
journey below the great village of the Illinois.' 

Joseph J. Thompson, LL. D. 
Chicago, Illinois. 



" Thwaites: A New Discovery of a Large Country in America, pp. 160-165. 



THE PURPOSE OF A CATHOLIC 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

(Address delivered at the First Meeting of the Catholic Historical 
Society of Indiana, Gibault Hall, Terre Haute, Indiana, October 
27th, 1926.) 

If I may be allowed to begin my remarks in a somewhat personal 
note, 1 should like to say that coming as I do from St. Louis I cannot 
but feel a very particular interest in the purpose of this gathering. 
You are here to organize a Catholic Historical Society of Indiana. 
The venture must necessarily stir the sympathy of one who is in any 
way familiar with the numerous points of historical contact between 
pioneer Catholic Indiana and the metropolis of Missouri. Let us indi- 
cate three. The first Mass in St. Louis was celebrated by the eighteenth- 
century Jesuit, Louis Sebastian Meurin, the same missionary who 
penned at Vincennes in 1749 the earliest existing church records in 
the diocese of Indianapolis. The first church in St. Louis was built 
and dedicated by Pierre Gibault, most widely known of all the 
Church 's pioneer priests in Indiana. Finally, the first Catholic bishop 
of Indiana, that fascinating figure, William Simon Gabriel Brute, 
received episcopal consecration in the old St. Louis Cathedral at the 
hands of the first Bishop of St. Louis, Joseph Rosati. In mentioning 
the name of the proto-bishop of Indiana, I mention a name of the 
happiest significance on an occasion like this. The ranks of the 
American Catholic hierarchj' can show few if any prelates more his- 
torical-minded than was Simon Brute. The heroic beginnings of the 
Church in America fired his imagination and stirred his emotions and 
over the pen-name "Vincennes" he wrote concerning them in the 
columns of the CatJiolic Telegraph of Cincinnati. His interest in the 
historical past of the territory he ruled over in spiritualihus often 
took a practical turn as when he wrote a letter still extant to the 
President of St. Louis University in which he made the suggestion 
that the site of the old Jesuit Mission at Peoria be suitably marked 
before all trace of it be lost to memory. It is, then, an inspiring 
circumstance which I recall on this occasion, namely that the first 
head of organized Catholicism in this state had himself the instincts 
and the tastes of the historian and almost a century ago actually took 
in hand, within the limits of his time and opportunities for research, 
the very task which you have made your own in this organization, the 
recording of the story of the Catholic Church in Indiana. 

15 



16 GILBERT J. GARRAGHAN, S. J. 

I have from your energetic Secretary the suggestion that I under- 
take to speak to you today chiefly on the purpose which a Catholic 
Historical Society and yours in particular is meant to serve and on 
the means to be employed to make that purpose a reality. If I may 
venture then to formulate the precise object which your society has 
in view, I should say that such object is three-fold, to wit, the collec- 
tion, preservation and diffusion of facts bearing on the history of the 
Catholic Church in the State of Indiana. And, first, it may be noted 
that you propose to limit your field of interest and research by State 
boundaries. This is as it should be. It is only when the various 
sections of the country and even the individual dioceses shall have got 
together the necessary material for their respective chapters in the 
general history of the Catholic Church in the United States that such 
a magnum opus can be attempted with any promise of success. The 
adequate telling of the story of Catholic development in this land of 
ours must rest on a vast deal of first hand investigation and study by 
competent researchers w^orking within the relatively narrow limits 
of diocesan history. The reason why Greek and Roman history can 
be treated satisfactorily today as broad historical units is because 
their main content of facts and incidents has been fixed with accuracy 
more or less complete, thanks to the labors of a long line of scholars 
specializing in particular problems in those two sections of the his- 
torical field. Apart, therefoi'e, from the consideration that the history 
lying at one 's own doors ought first to claim one 's attention, as appeal- 
ing to local or sectional pride, we are, in concentrating on Catholic 
diocesan or state history, providing the very best guarantee, as far as 
the matter depends on us, that the great epic theme of the historical 
upbuilding of American Catholicism will one day be fittingly set 
before the world. 

I make here, however, one pertinent observation. The original 
boundaries of most, perhaps of all the pioneer dioceses of the United 
States were considerably more far-flung than they are today. The 
St. Louis diocese, to cite one instance, reached at the time of its 
erection from the Mississippi to the snow-capped heights of the Rockies 
and beyond. This circumstance was taken cognizance of by the St. 
Louis Catholic Historical Society which at its organization in 1916 
announced as its field of interest the history of the Catholic Church 
in the entire range of territory to which the jurisdiction of the see 
of St. Louis has at any time extended. It was a quite just and 
logical point of \'iew and no one could reasonably take exception to it. 
We find Catholic Indiana in similar case. The See of Vincennes from 
its erection in 1834 to the arrival of Bishop Quarter in Chicago in 



I 



THE PURPOSE OF A CATHOUC HISTORICAL SOCIETY 17 

1844 had jurisdiction not only over Indiana but also over the eastern 
half of Illinois. Thus it fell out that Chicago was for almost a decade 
under the spiritual rule of. the Indiana See. The first episcopal visita- 
tion ever made of the struggling frontier town, which even then was 
working its way forwai'd to its present estate of fourth city of the 
world, was made by Bishop Brute, an informal account of this visita- 
tion which he wrote to a Maryland nun being not the least charming 
of the many charming letters that came from his pen. That ten-year 
period, therefore, during which Catholic Indiana projected itself, so 
to speak, into the eastern counties of a neighbouring state makes it 
impossible for the historian of Indiana Catholicism to limit his theme 
by diocesan boundaries as they exist today. The fact must not be 
lost sight of that the history of the Church in Chicago, to cite the 
instance of the gi-eat metropolis of the West, is a chapter in the 
history of the diocese of Vincennes. 

We have said that the first effort of the Society must be to gather 
material and data pertaining to the history of the Church in Indiana. 
No adequate history is ever written without a body of reliable data 
on which to base it. Mea-gre, misleading, inaccurate data can issue 
only in badly written and untrustworthy history. Hence the need 
of patient, pei-severing, critical and often unduly extended research 
with aU available sources of information in order that the truth of 
things may be ascertained and, within the limits of the e\'idence, 
confidently stated. Just the other day I read in a standard work of 
reference that the Bishop of Quebec lived at Kaskaskia whence he 
sent Father Gibault to Vincennes! Your society will see to it that 
the history of the Church in Indiana is told as it actually happened. 
But to do so it must first assemble the materials on which to work. 
These materials are of the most diversified character and lie in various 
directions. Printed works, pamphlets, periodicals, newspaper files, 
manuscript narratives, financial papers, official documents, church 
registers, letters, reminiscences, these are some of the forms which 
historical material wiU assume. The unprinted material may be 
available sometimes in an original foi-m, sometimes in copy. Generally 
the sources to be examined are not found together in any one place 
but are scattered in various libraries, archives and private collections 
located in different cities and states and sometimes at most unduly 
separated points in the countiy. Let me illustrate by the instance of 
Bishop Brute. The first-hand material available for a biography of 
this great churchman is abundant enough, but one has to go here and 
there to find it. In the St. Louis archdiocesan archives 138 of his 
letters are preserved. Other letters of his are in the possession of 



18 GILBERT J. GARRAGHAN, S. J. 

St. Louis and Notre Dame Universities. Still others are to be found 
in the Baltimore arehdiocesan archives, at Georgetown University and 
in the Government Indian Office at Washington. These letters, how- 
ever, do not by any means represent all the Brute unpublished corre- 
spondence which is still extant in various archival depositaries 
throughout the world and which the future biographer of the prelate 
must utilize. Without a doubt the Propaganda Archives in Rome 
and those of the French Association of the Propagation of the Faith 
also contain Brute letters. Besides this unprinted correspondence, 
important letters of the great bishop may be read in the CinciimaU 
Catholic Telegraph, the Aimales de l' Association de la Propagation 
de la Foi and in the Berichte der Leopoldinen Stiftung, the last 
named being the organ of the Vienna Association for the Propagation 
of the Faith. A set of the Berichte, only two or three such sets being 
found in the United States, is in the possession of the Catholic Central 
Verein of St. I;ouis. I have mentioned the foregoing details merely 
to indicate the great diversity of sources from which material must 
be collected for an adequate biography of Bishop Brute, which is also 
and necessarily the first chapter in the history of organized Catholi- 
cism in Indiana. I dare say the Catholic Historical Society of Indiana 
could not inaugurate its labors in any more profitable manner than 
by securing accurate transcripts of Bishop Brute's very extensive 
correspondence. 

In thus gathering the raw materials for Indiana Catholic history 
the collection of accurate data for parish histories will not be over- 
looked. Parochial units make up the diocese and while the general 
upgrowth of the diocese may sometimes be traced without reference 
to the parishes, this will not ordinarily be the case. No diocesan 
historian can do his work properly without reliable information at 
hand regarding the organization and growth of the individual par- 
ishes and covering such points as the erection of churches, schools, 
other parochial buildings, the succession of pastors, and noteworthy 
parochial events occurring during their respective incumbencies. Here 
is where the Society will be particularly eager to enlist the services 
of the pastors. No one practical or more noteworthy contribution can 
be made by them to the cause which the Society is meant to promote 
than to draw up with painstaking accuracy especially as to dates an 
historical account of the parish in their charge, not omitting to indi- 
cate the part, always important, played therein by the laity. It is, 
after all, on the stage of parish life and not within the walls of a 
diocesan chancery that the most palpable contacts are made between 
the faithful and the Faith they profess. It is only by seeing a well- 



THE PURPOSE OF A CATHOLIC HISTORICAL SOCIETY 19 

organized parish at work with all its activities, religious, educational, 
charitable and social in full operation that one comes to understand 
what Catholicism, stands for in the life of the people. Cardinal 
Gasquet in his Parish Life of Medieval Englaiid hasi given us a clue 
to the mentality of the Middle Ages, probably much more effective 
than we shall find it in a score of more pretentious works attempting 
to throw light on that fascinating period of history. And so, as Green 
gave to kings, noblemen, statesmen and warriors less than their tradi- 
tional amount of space on the historical stage that he might find room 
therein for the common folk of England, the historian of a Catholic 
diocese will not so clutter up his narrative with the movements and 
achievements of the clergy, however significant these may be, that the 
reactions of the laity to the ministrations of their spiritual guides and 
their splendid and historic co-operation in effecting the present-day 
development of the Church in America are left unrecorded. In read- 
ing the story of Catholic beginnings in any locality, one always finds 
interest stimulated when mention is made by name of families par- 
ticularly identified with events and some evidence of their activity 
in this connection set forth. 

As we are touching, however lightly, on the materials of history, 
let me direct attention for a moment to the great mass of manuscript 
material, chiefly in the form of original letters, on American Catholic 
Church history, now to be found at Notre Dame University. I should 
think it a happy presage of success for your Society that you have 
so close at hand and within the limits of your own State this great 
collection, second to none in the United States, probably superior to 
all others for richness and variety of content. The story of how the 
collection was begun many years a§o by a lay-professor on the Uni- 
versity staff, who conceived a big idea and had the zeal and courage 
to carry it out, is a familiar one and need not be repeated here. I 
wish merely to emphasize the significance of the Notre Dame Archives 
for the activities in which the Society propose to engage. The Cath- 
olic history of Indiana cannot be duly studied or written up without 
recourse to this great depositary of invaluable first-hand material 
lying, as I have said, within convenient and easy reach of all 
Indianans. 

The first function, then, of the Society here organizing will be to 
assemble from whatever sources all available material for the history 
of the Church in Indiana. Its second function will be to preserve 
the material so assembled. Here we are confronted with the necessity 
of a permanent headquarters for the Society with housing facilities 



20 GILBERT J. GARRAGHAN, S. J. 

for library and archives. Obviously the collection of books, pamphlets, 
periodicals, newspapers, manuscripts, etc., which the Society wiU 
endeavor to build up cannot be moved about but must be tied down 
to a definite location. Moreover, the collection must be made acces- 
sible to investigators and writers. Not only will the Society thus 
furnish facilities for research in its particular field, but it wiU at the 
same time provide a safe depositary for historical material now 
exposed to damage or loss. Numerous instances that should serve as 
warnings are on record of how valuable church papers, known at one 
time to have existed, have disappeared or been destroyed. I mention 
but two. When the Federal troops occupied New Orleans during the 
Civil War valuable diocesan papers including those of Bishop Du 
Bourg were removed for safe-keeping to a fireplace, the opening being 
waUed up. When the fireplace was subsequently uncovered the papers 
were found to be a mass of pulp, owing to the rain that came down 
the chimney, which, curiously enough, no one thought of blocking up ! 
Again, Bishop Flaget's Journals, were they now available, would 
constitute a most important source for early Catholic history in 
Indiana, for he held jurisdiction over this state or the pre-existing 
territory for some twenty-five ears and was the first bishop to admin- 
ister Confirmation within its limits. These Journals, however, though 
extant some time after the Bishop's death, have long since disappeared 
except for a few sections. Similar instances of the loss of precious 
historical documents through one cause or another might be men- 
tioned, all going to show the necessity of central depositaries to which 
such material can be removed for safe-keeping. 

I made reference only a moment ago to the reminiscences of old 
times as a recognized source of historical information. A pastor who 
undertakes to WTite the history of his parish may find it necessary 
to go to his oldest living parishioners for enlightenment on points 
which he finds either not dealt with at all or dealt with unsatisfac- 
torily in the printed or written sources at his command. Testimony 
from this source, I need not say, must be used with caution. The 
memory of the oldest inhabitant is proverbially a tricky one so that 
one may not accept too confidently information which has no other 
support than this on which to rest. The rules of evidence must be 
applied. History is largely a matter of evaluating human testimony, 
oft«n conflicting testimony, on a given point. So with the recollec- 
tions of past days furnished by pioneers. Criticism will show them 
to be of varying degrees of credibility. At times, especially when 
checked up and corroborated from other sources, they may prove 
highly valuable ; at other times they may be demonstrably of little or 



THE PURPOSE OF A CATHOLIC HISTORICAL SOCIETY 21 

no value at all. But with these reservations, the fact remains that 
the testimony of witnesses surviving long the events with which they 
were contemporary and perhaps more or less identified will always 
be sought after by the alert investigator in history. It is surprising, 
indeed, how little effort is made to secure in writing the recollections 
of pioneer settlers regarding Catholic Church events before death 
intervenes to consign these recollections to oblivion. As an instance 
of what can be done in this regard, I have in mind the instance of 
Lyman Copeland Draper of the Wisconsin Historical Society, who 
some decades ago traveled through the Western states systematically 
interviewing old settlers and recording the results in his note-books. 
He refused to write history himself, but preferred the task of saving 
for future historians this great mass of source-material, which but for 
his efforts must undoubtedly have perished. The Draper Notes, now 
in the Library of the Wisconsin Historical Society, are a recognized 
body of first-hand material, however unequal in value, for the pioneer 
history of the West. Why cannot our Catholic Historical Societies 
work along similar lines and secure from the rapidly disappearing 
generation of pioneers valuable data on Catholic Church history in 
America which will soon be altogether beyond recovery? 

1 come now to the third function or aim of an historical society, 
which is to disseminate information on the special section of the 
historical field which it proposes to make its own. This is done con- 
veniently in one of two ways or in both, by the preparation of papers 
and the reading of the same at the society's meetings and by the 
issuing of a review. There seems to be no reason why a sufficient 
number of persons, lay and clerical, should not be got interested in 
this Society to the extent of investigating some or other point of 
Indiana Catholic history and presenting the results of such investiga- 
tion in a written paper. Priests, nuns, seminarians, college students, 
the laity of both sexes should here lend a helping hand. I would 
plead particularly for a very intimate co-operation of the laity in 
this as in all of the Society's activities. Nothing would make more 
against its chances of success tha nto have it take on the character 
of a purely or even largely clerical enterprise. The Church's storied 
past in Indiana is the common heritage of all its members. Young 
and old, the children in the schools and the parents at home should 
be made to feel its inspiration and in wielding the instruments of 
publicity necessary to this end lay hands will be found as effective 
as clerical. 

Written papers, therefore, I repeat, will be a normal feature of the 
Society's gatherings. It is by such topical contributions, monographs 



22 GILBERT J. GARRAGHAN, S. J. 

one may properly call them, that individual obscure points in history, 
civil or ecclesiastical, are cleared up and the way thus prepared for 
the historian to deal successfully with his subject in its modem lines 
of development. We all know how many tempting problems in early 
Indiana history still exist to challenge the investigator. The very 
latest issue of the Mississippi Valley Historical Review carries the 
first appearance in print of the baptismal register of the historic St. 
Joseph ]Vrission located close to the Michigan-Indiana state-line. The 
editor prefaces the documents with the statement that this mission 
stU awaits an historian. It is the truth. No adequate account of 
this highly interesting center of Christian influence in the Western 
wilderness, especiaUj^ in its earlier stages, is anywhere available. We 
have, too, the case of Vincennes. Who has told us with anything like 
finality, when and under what circumstances this historic past began 
or who were its first \dsiting or resident priests? A haze of mystery 
still envelops Vincennes beginnings. Will further research ever enable 
us to dissipate it? No one can say yes with confidence, but, as a 
matter of fact, no thoroughgoing study of the problem, utilizing all 
available sources, has yet been made, though here I shoidd prefer to 
speak under correction. To indicate only a single source in this 
connection which probably has not yet been drawn upon, there is the 
photostat material from the Paris archives now preserved in the 
Congressional Libi-ary and in the Illinois Historical Survey, Univer- 
sity of Illinois. This material to my knowledge contains documents 
which will probably shed new light on early Vincennes history. And 
so with other unwritten or only partially written chapters in the 
pioneer history of this state. It is too much to expect the general 
historian to investigate, much less to solve all problems by himself. 
The ground must be prepared before him by the special student and 
researcher who concentrates on one or more particular problems, solves 
them, as far as the eridence permits, and thus leaves the historian 
free to deal with his subject in its broader and more general impli- 
cations. 

But the mere reading of historical papers before a group of the 
Society's members will not alone achieve that diffusion of knowledge 
regarding the Catholic past of Indiana which rhe Society will endeavor 
to promote. Means must be found of insuring to these papers a 
wider range of publicity. This may be done, among other ways, by 
publishing them in the Catholic weeklies of the State or by issuing 
them in pamphlet form or finally by giving them space in the Soci- 
ety's own official organ or review. Most, if not all, of the Catholic 
historical societies of the United States sponsor a review or periodical 



THE PURPOSE OF A CATHOLIC HISTORICAL SOCIETY 23 

of somei kind, in most eases a quarterly. I rather think an historical 
society should think twice before committing itself at the outset to 
a review, at least one that promises its readers regularity of appear- 
ance. Financial considerations should of course be duly weighed 
before embarking on such a venture; but I. think that in most cases 
the difficulty of maintaining a review rises not so much from a lack 
of funds to meet the expense incurred as from a dearth of suitable 
copy for publication. For this reason it may be the part of wisdom 
to defer the issuing of a review until such time as the Society shall 
have accumulated a line of original contributions from its members 
on topics falling under the scope of tho review. Meantime, the pages 
of other periodicals, in particular the Illinois Catrolic Historical 
Review, which is eager to obtain articles from any quarter of the 
Middle West, will be open for such products of the Society's literary 
industry as it may be thought advisable to bring immediately to 
publio notice. And here it vsall be pertinent to point out that an 
historical review ought not to rely for copy only on original articles 
or contributions ; it must also find room in its pages for the publica- 
tion of documents, letters, church recorrds and such like unprinted 
material as may likely be of service to the historian. I have already 
referred to the extensive Brute correspondence to be found in various 
archives throughout the country. Selections from this correspondence 
would obviously make excellent copy for the Society's review, when- 
ever it is ready to bring it forth. As to church records, I may note 
in passing that the eighteenth-century Vincennes registers have 
already been published in the Records of the American Catholic 
Historical Society while the St. Joseph Mission register has only 
within, the last few months been rescued from the obscurity of the 
Quebec Seminary archives and made accessible in printed form. But 
other Indiana church records of value, I am sure, still await publica- 
tion, a thing which can be effected nowhere with more propriety than 
in the Society's own review. 

To sum up, I have indicated, however briefly, the deliberate aims 
which the Catholic Historical Society of Indiana has chosen to set 
before itself as it starts out briefly on its career; and these aims, 
to repeat once more so important a matter, are threefold, to collect 
the materials for Indiana Catholic history, to house them securely 
and preserve them permanently in a place where they may be at the 
service of students and investigators, and, finally, to build eventually 
on the materials so assembled an adequate written record of the 
Church's glorious past in Indiana and secure for this record the 
widest possible publicity. Let me venture now to reduce these 



24 GILBERT J. GARBAGHAN, S. J. 

various aims to the unity of a single objective on which all the 
energies of the Society for several years to come may be very properly 
concentrate. This objective will be no other than the compilation 
under the Society's auspices of a scholarly history of the Catholic 
Church in Indiana to mark the centennial in 1934 of Bishop Brute's 
arrival in the State. Let me cite by way of illustration the experience 
of the Catholic Historical Society of St. Louis. This organization 
started on its carreer in the fall of 1916. It published a review. It 
carried on through certain of its members, each specializing more or 
less in a chosen corner of the Society's field of interest, researches 
which were occupied in clearing up not a few obscure points in 
diocesan history and in getting together a mass of accurate data 
on which the future historian of the diocese might draw in the 
compilation of his narrative. Ten years later than the birth of the 
Society, this current year 1926, the diocese of St. Louis celebrated 
the hundredth anniversary of its erection and to commemorate the 
event an elaborate history of the diocese is now being prepared by 
the competent hands of one of our St. Louis pastors, the Keverend 
John Rothensteiner. The St. Louis Catholic Historical Society did 
not, I am sure start out with the conscious purpose of making its 
labors converge in the preparation of a centennial history of the 
diocese. It is circumstances rather that have brought about this 
happy issue. But the point I am particularly anxious to make is 
that the worthy author of the forthcoming St. Louis history, though 
not dispensed from the necessity of an immense amount of further 
research on his own account, has found his labors greatly facilitated 
by the special studies in diocesan history carried on in the past ten 
years by himself and his confreres of the Society. Is there not a 
lesson here for the Society whose organization you are effecting 
today? Eight years hence, as I have pointed out, wDl see the cen- 
tennial of the organization of the Catholic Church in Indiana by 
the erection of the diocese of Vincennes. What better memorial ot 
that centennial could be conceived than a scholarly and comprehensive 
history of Catholic Indiana and what better objective, as practical 
as it will be inspiring, coidd the Catholic Historical Society of the 
State propose to itself than to make such a history possible by a 
thorough-going study of the subject during the intervening years? 
Pastors by compiling parish chronicles, religious orders and con- 
gregations by furnishing historical data about their communities, 
students lay or clerical by investigating hitherto unsolved problems 
of the rench period or by preparing translations of pertinent material 
in foreign languages, and the members generally by putting at the 



THE PURPOSE OF A CATHOLIC HISTORICAL SOCIETY 25 

disposal of the Society whatever source-material, printed or imprinted, 
they happen to have in their possession, all can in one way or another 
make individual contributions to the great written record of Indiana's 
Catholic past which I make bold to envisage as the conscious objective 
of the Society's activities during the next eight years. 

I end these remarks with a word of congratulation to the Catholic 
Historical Society of Indiana on having so inspiring a subject-matter 
with which to deal. Here in Indiana, if anywhere in the land, the 
historical record of the Catholic Church is a thing to point to with 
pride. Her presence consecrated territory from the first moment 
that white men began to thread its virgin forests or be borne upon 
the bosom of its romantic streams. The valleys of the Kankakee, 
the St. Joseph, the Maumee and the Wabash perhaps knew no earlier 
visitors than the black-robed missionaries carrying into the wilderness 
the double light of civilization and the Faith. Catholic associations 
are thrown around all the pioneer settlements of the State. Almost 
the first, if not the very first pages in the recorded history of 
Vincennes, Lafayette, Fort Wayne and South Bend recount the ac- 
tivities of the Church's missionaries. To gather up everything that 
pertains to this enthralling story from its earliest to its latest chapter, 
to preserve it, to get it out in attractive and enduring form, for 
public enlightenment and edification, such will be at once the self- 
imposed duty and the glorious privilege of the Catholic Historical 
Society of Indiana. 

Gilbert J. Garraghan, S. J. 
St. Louis. 



THE EARLY IRISH OF ILLINOIS 

A Paper Read by Judge John P. McGoorty before the Illinois State 

Historical Society, at Springfield, Illinois, on 

May 12, 1927. 

Men of the Irish race plaj^ed an important part in the history of 
Illinois. 

Even during the French occupation it was an Irishman who 
commanded the Illinois country, vested with almost vice regal power, 
in the name of King Louis of France. He was known as Chevalier 
Charles MacCarthy. He was bom in Ireland in 1706 and was there 
known as "MacCarthy MacTaig," which means literally, "MacCarthy, 
the (son of Taig or Thaddeus." He was an officer in the French 
army, and in 1731 was sent to Louisiana in charge of a detachment 
of engineers. On the 20th of August, 1751, MacCarthy sailed from 
New Orleans with a small military force to take command of and 
rebuild Fort Chartres. They arrived at Fort Chartres on March 28, 
1752, and from that time until 1760 Chevalier MacCarthy was in 
command of all the French troops in the Illinois country. When, 
under his direction. Fort Chartres was rebuilt, it was regarded as 
the best fort in America. In 1757, when it was reported that the 
English contemplated descending the Tennessee River for the purpose 
of attacking the French posts on the Mississippi, MacCarthy sent 
Lieutenant Aubry to construct a fort on the Ohio River, which he 
named Fort Asencion "as a memorial of the day on which the first 
stone was; laid"; but in history it became known as Fort Massac. As 
a result of the protection afforded by the proximity of Fort Chartres, 
numerous villages and settlements sprang up on both sides of the 
Mississippi River. "Most of the people were French Catholics, and 
here the Jesuit Missionaries established churches and schools, and 
Tinder the administration of the popular Franco-Irish Governor, the 
settlements thrived and the people lived in peace with their Indian 
neighbors." In 1760 MacCarthy was succeeded in the command of 
Fort Chartres by Captain de Villiers, and thereafter he continued as 
the head of the civil and military government of the territory until 
the Treaty of Paris, in 1763, when France surrendered to England 
all her territory east of the Mississippi. After the war MacCarthy 
retired to Point Coupee, in the lower Mississippi Valley, west of the 
river, which territory still remained in the possession of the French. 
Here he established himself as a trader and gentleman, and seems 

26 



THE EARLY IRISH OF ILLINOIS 27 

also to have been eommander of the fort. He died at New Orleans 
April 20, 1764 and was buried with military honors. In the same 
year the French Government conferred upon MacCarthy the post- 
humous honor of the Cross of St. Louis "as a reward for his fidelity 
and services." (See The MacCarthy s of America, by Michael J. 
O'Brien. 

Although the British were constructively in possession of the 
ceded territory, yet for two years thereafter the Indians, under the 
leadership of the mighty Pontiac, frustrated the repeated efforts of 
the British to occupy Fort Chartres and the Illinoisi country. It was 
due to the diplomacy and tact of Colonel George Croghan, a country- 
man of MacCarthy, that the British, through negotiations with Pon- 
tiac, conducted by Croghan, finally, in 1765, obtained possession. 
George Croghan was bom in County Sligo, Ireland. He was a man 
of remarkable personality and was referred to "as the fitted person 
in America" for the undertaking. It is of some interest to note that 
Sir William Johnson, the Colonial Governor of Indian Affairs, under 
whose direction Croghan acted, was a native of Smithtown, County 
Meath, Ireland, and was bf the ancient Irish family of McShane. 
Colonel Croghan was not the last of his line to distinguish his name 
in this country. His family and that of General George Rogers Clark 
intermarried and, a direct descendant of Colonel Croghan and of the 
Olarks by such marriage. Colonel George Croghan became one of the 
most heroic figures of the War of 1812. Croghan was brevetted 
Lieutenant-Colonel for gallant conduct in defending Fort Stephenson, 
commended by Congress for bravery, and Croghan and Joseph Dun- 
can, who became the fifth Governor of Illinois, were each presented 
by Congress with a sword. 

Hugh Crawford, according to his own statement, must have been 
the first Irishman that traveled about the Illinois and Mississippi 
rivers. He claims to have made trading trips on the Ohio and Mis- 
sissippi as early as 1739. He was associated in trade with Colonel 
George Croghan and took an active part in the negotiations with 
Pontiac. Crawford made a trip to the Western country in the interest 
of George Washington with a view to land investments. He died in 
1770. 

After the Treaty of Paris and the cession of New France to 
England, Guy Carlton, an Irishman, became the Governor under the 
English Crown. After Colonel George Croghan succeeded in securing 
the possession stipulated for in the treaty, the 18th, or Royal Regi- 
ment of Ireland, garrisoned the forts in the Illinois country until a 
local militia force was organized under the command of Captain 



28 JOHN p. MC GOORTY 

Richard McCarthy, who later made a brilliant record under George 
Rogers Clark. 

The conquest of the Illinois territory from the British, one of the 
most brilliant achievements of the Revolution, was carried out by 
Colonel George Rogers Clark.^ 

Clark's army, made up chiefly from the country west of the Alle- 
ghany IMountains, consisted largely of men of Irish blood. The 
muster-rolls of his companies are replete with old Irish names. Wil- 
liam H. English, author of the Conquest of the Northwest Territory, 
says: "Had it not been for the Irish in Clark's command, the latter 
would never have whipped the British and Indians; the Irish, fresh 
from persecutions in the Old Country, were very bitter against the 
English and were of great help to Clark." In his own written 
account of the expedition. Colonel Clark mentioned among his valued 
officers Captains McCarty, Quirk, Carney, O'Hara, "Captain Mont- 
gomery, a gallant Irishman," and Lieutenant Dalton. 

"When Clark planned the conquest of Vincennes, he organized two 
companies of troops — one at Kaskaskia, the other at Cahokia. The 
company from Cahokia was placed under the command of Captain 
Richard McCarty, who gallantly led them in their most trying march 
to Vincennes. McCarthy remained in command of the troops after 
the country came under the possession of Virginia. He recruited the 



^Clark's ancestry remains in some doubt. William H. English, in his Con- 
quest of the Nortlnoest, says : * ' The history of the remote ancestry of George 
Rogers Clark on the father's side is meager, vague and unsatisfactory. Back of 
his grandfather is only tradition; but this tradition seems clear and positive 
that his paternal ancestor, who first came to this country, emigrated from England, 
and that his name was John. From what part of England this John Clark 
came, or who were his ancestors there is no reliable information." Temple 
Bodley, the most recent biographer of George Rogers Clark (1926), says: "It is 
almost impossible to trace the remote ancestry of one bearing a name common 
to so many families as Clark. Of the European forbears of the family we only 
know that their surname shows them English." That the foregoing conclusion 
is not warranted is shown by the fact that many Irish families bear the name 
of Clark or Clarke. In the reigns of the Henrys and Edwards of England, many 
penal acts of Parliament were passed compelling the ancient Irish families to 
adopt English surnames; notably the act of Edward IV. The name of O'Clery 
was changed to "Clark," for in the Irish language O'Clery means literally the 
"grandson of a clerk." MacRory became "Rogers," because Roger was 
assumed to be the English Christian name corresponding to the Irish "Rory. " 
The Scotch-Irish Society claims that he is of Ulster blood. McDougal says in 
hia Scots and Scots' Descendants in America (Vol. I, p. 54): "John Clark, 
great-grandfather of General George Rogers Clark, came to Virginia in 1630 
from the southwestern part of Scotland." Gray, however, in his Scotch-Irish *n 
America, says: "Clark was the son of an Irishman." 



THE EARLY IRISH OF ILLINOIS 29 

troops at his own expense on the promise that he would be repaid, 
which promise was not fulfilled, and bore all the expense of main- 
taining them. 

It is interesting to note that when Clark was given authority to 
make a conquest of the Northwest, Virginia had no money, but 
appealed to Oliver Pollock, who proved one of the greatest benefactors 
of America — justly called "the Morris of the West" — who, through 
his friend. Count Alexander O'Reilly, the Irish Governor of Cuba, 
obtained the credit necessary to prosecute Clark's campaign. Oliver 
Pollock of New Orleans was not only a distinguished Irishman, but 
such an enthusiastic supporter of the American cause as to advance 
many thousands of dollars of his own funds for its success. He was 
the son of Jared Pollock, who moved from Coleraine, Ireland, to 
Pennsylvania.^ 

The name of John Todd is inseparably connected with the history 
of Illinois. It will be remembered that the conquest of the Illinois 
country was not for the United States, but for Virginia, which 
claimed all of the vast territory north and west of the Ohio River. 
John Todd was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel of the military forces 
and also civil commandant of the county. His appointment came 
from Patrick Henry, Governor of Virginia, another Irishman. It has 
been attempted to show that Patrick Henry was not Irish. The 
ancestral home of his family is at Tuba More, near Draperston, 
County Derry, Ireland, where representatives of the family still live. 
Patrick Henry's letter accompanying the appointment is a splended 
exposition of this great revolutionary patriot 's ideas upon government. 
Governor Henry's instructions were, in a sense, the basic law for the 
territory during the Virginia period. Upon Todd's arrival in Kas- 
kaskia in 1779, the inhabitants were assembled and elections held for 
judges of the courts established. As this was virtually the foundation 
of Iself-govemment in Illinois, the meeting has special significance. 
After the election the court was completed by the appointment of a 



° Temple Bodley, in his recent history, George Rogers ClarTc, His Life and 
Puilic Service, p. 78, says: "Two weeks after taking Kaskaskia, Clark opened 
correspondence with a man to whom Americans should be forever grateful. This 
was Oliver Pollock, the financial agent in New Orleans for both Virginia and 
Congress. An Irish Catholic, he was one of those big-minded and big-hearted 
men who realized the transcendent importance of the American struggle for 
liberty and national greatness, and was animated by an ardent patriotism which, 
reckless of self-interest, gladly made any personal sacrifice demanded for his 
country. His services in upholding the Revolution in the west were invaluable. 
That such a man should be almost wholly unknown to the nation he served so 
well is hardly creditable to American history." 



30 JOHN P. MC GOORTY 

sheriff, state's attorney and clerk of the court. Thus began popular 
government, according to the American form, on the soil of Illinois. 
Courts were also established at Cahokia and Vincennes. John Todd 
was the son of David Todd and Hannah Owen Todd, who came from 
Ireland. John Todd had two brothers, one of whom, Levi Todd, 
became a general in the Revolutionary War. Mrs. Ninian W. Edwards 
and Mary Todd Lincoln, the wife of Abraham Lincoln, were descended 
from this branch of the Todd family. General Levi Todd's daughter, 
Hannah, was the mother of Hon. John T. Stuart, who was one of 
Lincoln's earliest and most distinguished Springfield friends. His 
son, Robert Todd, was the father of Mrs. Ninian W. Edwards, Mrs. 
Dr. William S. Wallace, Mrs. C. M. Smith and Mrs. Abraham Lin- 
coln, all of Springfield, Illinois.' 



' ' ' The first white settlement on the site of the present city of Springfield 
was made in 1819, principally by a large family by the name of Kelly, from 
Eutherford County, North Carolina. It appears that Elisha Kelley, a bachelor 
hunter, who had come to Illinois as early as 1817, first visited the Sangamo 
country in 1818, and finding this locality abounding in game and therefore a 
good hunting ground, he decided to make it his home. He accordingly returned 
to North Carolina and induced his father, Henry Kelley, and his four brothers, 
John, Elijah, William and George, and one or two other families ... to 
emigrate to Illinois, and unite with him in establishing a settlement where 
Springfield now is. The Kelley families are said to have arrived here in the 
Spring of 1819, after having wintered in Macoupin County. John Kelley, the 
eldest of the brothers, erected his cabin at or near the northwest comer of the 
present Jefferson and Klein streets. Another member of the Kelley family built 
a short distance west of the first, and a third brother, William Kelley, reared 
his cabin near the intersection of North Third and Pine streets. Andrew Elliott, 
the son-in-law of William Kelley, located to the northwest of him, while Jacob 
and Levi Ellis settled nearer Spring Creek. These rude log cabins constituted 
the first white habitations on the site of the older portion of the present city 
.... In January, 1821, the State General Assembly passed an act creating the 
county of Sangamon. In the following April the county commissioners, provided 
for in said act, met at the house of John Kelley and fixed upon a certain point 
in the prairie, near the corner of Mr. Kelley 's field, on the tributary waters of 
Spring Creek, as the temporary seat of justice of said county — the same to be 
called and known as 'Springfield.' " (Past and Present of Sangamon County, 
Illinois, by Joseph Wallace, M. A., of the Springfield Bar. Pub. 1904. Vol. 1, 
Chap. I, pp. 5, 6.) 

* ' The names of the settlers residing within the distance of two miles from 
the stake which had been set to mark a temporary county seat for Sangamon 
County, to be named Springfield . . . were John Kelly, William Kelly, Andrew 
Elliott, Jacob Ellis, Levi Ellis, John Lindsay, Abraham Lanterman, Mr. Dagget 
and Samuel Little .... I first boarded with John Kelly, a North Carolinian 
and a widower. His household consisted of himself and two children, two 
younger brothers, George and Elisha, his aged father and mother and myself." 
(Early Life and Times, by Major Elijah lies; p. 31.) 



THE EARLY IRISH OF ILLINOIS 31 

The number of Irish in the territory increased somewhat during 
the British ascendancy in Illinois. William and Daniel Murray were 
worthy Irishmen and traders of a high type. Alvord says of William 
Murray: "In the annals of the West the names of such men as 
Samuel Wharton, Phinneas Lyman, George Morgan, William Murray, 
Richard Henderson and George Washington should occupy a con- 
spicuous place." It appears from the entry on the parish records 
that on the 29th day of November 1778 Heleine Murray was baptized, 
the daughter of Daniel Murray and Sarah Gerrault Murray, his wife, 
and that amongst the signatories of the record were Daniel Murray, 
the father, Sarah Gerrault Murray, the mother, Colonel George Rogers 
Clark, Commandant-in-Chief of the forces of Virginia in the Illinois 
country, and other distinguished men of the locality. 

Another worthy Irishman of this period was William Arundel, 
who was born in Ireland and came to Cahokia prior to the Clark 
conquest. During a part of his residence in the Illinois country, he 
lived near Peoria. He was a merchant and trader and is spoken of 
as "an orderly, moral and correct man." He died in Kaskaskia in 
1816. 

There were few people of other than French blood in the Illinois 
country earlier than Patrick Kennedy. In 1773 Kennedy made an 
expedition up the Illinois River in search of copper mines. The 
journal kept by Kennedy on this trip was published by Gilbert Imlay 
in his topographical description of the Western Territory of North 
America. Kennedy and the Murrays were ardent patriots in the 
American cause, and Patrick Kennedy was at once appointed Quarter- 
master-General upon Clark's taking possession of Illinois. 

Thomas Brady was a conspicuous figure in this early day. In 
1776, Brady, with a small company of volunteers consisting of sixteen 
men, marched across the state to the nearest British fort on Lake 
Michigan (Fort St. Joseph) near the present city of Niles, Michigan, 
and surprised and captured the fort, securing, it is said, $50,000 
worth of supplies and munitions. The victors seem, however, to have 
overlooked a point or two in their subsequent proceedings. They 
paroled the British garrison, but the English, ignoring their pledges, 
informed their Indian allies, and together they and their allies over- 
powered Brady's force, took them prisoners, and recovered the goods 
somewhere near the present site of Chicago. In turn, however, the 
goods were recaptured from the British by a force which left Peoria 
soon after, led by Maillet, who was a relative of some of Brady's 
followers. Brady escaped his captors and returned by a circuitous 
route to Kaskaskia, where he afterward married the much-renowned 



32 JOHN p. MC GOORTY 

and highly-respected Widow La Compte, and in 1790 became the 
sheriff of St. Clair County, then one of the highest positions available 
to any citizen. Reynolds says of Brady: "He had the reputation 
of an honest, correct citizen and I believe he deserved it. ' ' Brady was 
a judge of the court of Cahokia in 1785, was Indian Commissioner 
in 1787 and in that capacity prohibited the sale of liquor to the 
Indians. The town, now city of East St. Louis (Illinoiston) was laid 
out on a part of his land. 

Many of the soldiers who fought under Clark formed the earliest 
settlements in Illinois following the close of the American Revolution. 
Some of the early settlements in Monroe, Randolph and St. Clair 
Counties were almost wholly Irish. The Bradsbys, Whitesides, Ryans 
and Bradys were prominent among the hardy pioneers when Illinois 
was in the making. 

The ' ' American Bottom, ' ' first named when an Irishman, Shadrach 
Bond, father of the first Governor of Illinois, and some others settled 
in Illinois, contained, according to Reynolds, probably three-fourths 
of the American population of the Illinois territory. It included 
Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and nearly all of the early French settlements, 
extending from Alton almost to Chester. The presence there of 
people of Irish blood is suggested when Reynolds states in his Pioneer 
History of Illinois that the dear old Irish song, "Willy ReiUy," was 
most popular. 

The Plum Creek settlement east of the Kaskaskia River in Ran- 
dolph County was a vigorous and influential Irish community, from 
which have sprung many of the leading citizens of the county. They 
came from Abbeyville, South Carolina, and were known in Randolph 
County as the "South Carolina Irish." James Patterson was the 
pioneer of this settlement. His father was born in Ireland, came to 
America, and fought under Washington. How numerous the Irish 
were in Illinois during that period is evidenced by the number of 
land grants given to heads of families bearing old Irish names. 

Prior to 1783 the Flannery family settled in the American Bottom 
and built a block-house, or fort, on the main road from Kaskaskia to 
Cahokia. James Flannery, in conjunction with the McElmuny family, 
built a station fort in 1783 on the Mississippi opposite Island 22. 

The Whiteside family was one of the most numerous and worthy 
families that ever settled in Illinois. William Whiteside was the 
patriarch and revered leader of the family. He was a brave soldier 
in the Revolutionary War and fought in the celebrated battle of 
Kings Mountain. His brother John was also in the Revolution. The 
Whitesides were of Irish descent and, it has been remarked, inherited 



THE EARLY IRISH OF ILLINOIS 33 

much of the Irish character. They were warm-hearted, impulsive 
and patriotic. To quote from Reynolds : ' ' Their friends were always 
right and their foes wrong. If a Whiteside took your hand you had 
his heart. He would shed his blood freely for his country or his 
friends. ' ' William Whiteside built a fort on the road between Cahokia 
and Kaskaskia, which became laiown widely as Whiteside Station. 
John, his brother, resided at Bellefountaine until his death. Both 
men raised large families, nearly all of whom became prominent in 
the early history of Illinois. 

An Irishman named Halfpenny was one of the very earliest school 
teachers. Reynolds, in his Pioneer History, confers upon Halfpenny 
the title of "Schoolmaster-general of Illinois of his day." 

Halfpenny, it seems, began teaching at a very early day, some- 
where near 1785, and taught school throughout the entire period in 
the early settlements. It is said that he taught almost all American 
children in Illinoij of his day that received any education at all. We 
find that after some years, in 1795, Halfpenny built a water-mill on 
the Fountaine Creek, not far from the present town of Waterloo. In 
those days the builder of a mill was a real benefactor and was entitled 
to and received credit and honor second only to the brave men who 
defended the homes of the settlers against the incursions of their 
red enemies. It is a matter of regret that so little is preserved of the 
life of this almost first school teacher in Illinois. A man named John 
Seeley and another named Francis Clark are said to have preceded 
Halfpenny as school teachers, but their terms of service were short 
and the number of pupils taught by them few as compared to that 
of Halfpenny. Reynolds says that: "In the settlement of the New 
Design, an Irishman called Halfpenny at this period (1800) in- 
structed some few pupils. This school was the only one among the 
Americans at this day." 

John Doyle, another early teacher, was one of Clark 's soldiers, and 
soon after the Clark conquest of 1778 settled in Illinois. He had a 
family and resided in or near Kaskaskia. He was a scholar, spoke 
the French language and Indian dialects and frequently acted as an 
interpreter. Doyle was one of the very earliest school teachers in 
the country. He, in connection with Pickett, Seybold, Groots, Hilde- 
brand. Dodge, Camp, Tiel, Curry, Lunceford, Anderson, Pa,gon, 
Hughes and Montgomery, established the colony on the east side of 
the Kaskaskia River near the old town of Kaskaskia in 1780. John 
Doyle's early settlement in the territory is proven by the fact that 
he was named by the United States Commissioner as one of those 



LOYOLA UNIVERSIT^iM 



BRARY 



34 JOHN p. MC GOORTY 

entitled to a land grant under an Act of Congress recognizing 
' ' Ancient Grants. ' ' 

Among the men of more than ordinary attainments in the early 
settlements was James Hughes, who was a teacher of mathematics 
as early as 1800. It was from Hughes that Governor Reynolds first 
came to know anything of mathematics. 

William Bradsby, whose father was born in Ireland, came to the 
Illinois country in 1804. He was a talented man and taught school 
in various localities in the new country. He had a school in the 
American Bottom directly west of the present city of Collinsville, 
and in 1807, he taught school in the Turkey Hill settlement founded 
by William Scott, the sturdy pioneer Irishman. Bradsby remained a 
teacher for several years. 

James Moore, who came to the Illinois territory with Shadrach 
Bond, Sr., and others, seems to have the distinction of being the first 
foreigner naturalized in the territory of Illinois. In the record book 
of Colonel John Todd, the county lieutenant under Patrick Henry, is 
found the naturalization oath which James Moore subscribed. It 
reads as follows: "I do swear by the holy evangelists of Almighty 
God that I renounce all fidelity to George III, King of Great Britain, 
his heirs and successors, and that I will bear true allegiance to the 
United States of America as free and independent as declared by 
Congress, and that I will not do or cause to be done anything injurious 
or prejudicial to the independence of said states; that I will make 
known to some one Justice of the Peace for the United States all 
treasons and traitorous conspiracies which may come to my knowledge 
to be directed against the said United States or any one of them. So 
help me God. Sworn at Kaskaskia, July 10, 1782. James Moore." 

Few of the pioneers of Illinois come down to us better recom- 
mended than William Scott. He was born of Irish parents in Bote- 
tourt County, Virginia, in 1745. He came to Kaskaskia in 1797. The 
family of Mr. Scott and his son-in-law Jarvis came from Kentucky to 
Illinois and settled on the prairie which was the first white settlement 
they saw in this country. Scott remained in Kaskaskia a short time, 
but Jarvis and his family located themselves at Turkey Hill. Turkey 
Hill was a conspicuous trading post for the French and Indians. It 
had been the camping grounds of the Indians for ages, and the traders 
had met them there with their merchandise and exchanged with them 
for furs, peltries, etc. The hill is a commanding situation. It rises 
to a considerable height and is observable from the east at a distance 
of thirty or forty miles. The settlement became conspicuous through- 
out the entire country and Scott was known far and near as ' ' Turkey 



THE EARLY IRISH OP ILLINOIS 35 

Hill" Scott. He lived an eventful life of nearly eighty-three years. 
He was a man of the highest morals and strong character. Scott's 
death occurred in 1828. He was one of the commissioners to select 
the county seat of St. Clair county and he settled the plantation of 
George Blair, the original resident of what is now the site of Belleville. 

William Meers was the first resident lawyer of Cahokia. He came 
to Cahokia in 1808 and engaged in the practice of law. He was bom 
in Ireland in 1768. On coming first to America he located in Phila- 
delphia and taught school for some years in Pennsylvania. He was 
about forty years of age when he came to Cahokia and his biographer 
says: "He was as if he dropped from the clouds without a house, 
clothes, books, letters or anything except himself, a rather singular 
and uncouth looking Irishman. ' ' Like many another lawyer, he read 
law while he taught school in Pennsylvania and though he began at 
the bottom, by strict application and diligent study he acquired a 
profound knowledge of the law and became a learned and intelligent 
man. He was appointed Attorney General for the territory of Illinois 
in 1814, and is stated to have been very able and efficient. 

John Edgar was the leading citizen of Illinois from the time he 
came to Kaskaskia in 1784 until his death in 1832, and his wife was 
the leading lady of the territory during all of her life therein. Not 
a single chapter, but a volume, should be written of John Edgar and 
his estimable wife. Edgar and his first wife were both born in Ire- 
land. At the outbreak of the American Revolution, Edgar was in the 
naval service of Great Britain but left it to champion the American 
cause. At the time of leaving the service of the British, he was in 
command of a vessel on the lakes, but he sacrificed his prospects to 
cast his lot with the Americans in their fight for freedom. His 
espousal of the American cause gave him serious trouble. At about 
the time of the outbreak of the war, he was at Detroit and he and 
two other Irishmen who became prominent in America were overheard 
disparaging the war which England was making on America. The 
other two Irishmen were James Abbott and Robert Forsythe. Abbott 's 
subsequent life was spent elsewhere, but Robert Forsythe became the 
founder and leading citizen of Peoria. He was a half brother of John 
Kinzie, one of the earliest residents of Chicago. 

The popularity and respect in which the early citizens held Edgar 
is indicated by the fact that when the territory was organized by 
G<)vemor St. Clair, he was elected one of the two members of the 
first legislature of the Northwest Territory in 1798, and attended the 
same at Chillicothe, Ohio. He was one of the judges selected for the 
first court organized in the Northwest Territory and was continuously 



36 JOHN p. MC GOORTY 

re-elected as Justice of the Peace and Judge of the Court of Comnion 
Pleas. He was appointed Major General of the United States for the 
Illinois militia, and was constantly serving the public in some im- 
portant capacity in which the value of his services far exceeded the 
emoluments of the offices held by him. 

Another distinguished Irishman of that day was Samuel O'Mel- 
vany, a native of Ireland and a member of the first Constitutional 
Convention of Illinois in 1818, Many of his descendants have won 
distinction and honor in public and private life. 

The Casey family has a distinguished history in Illinois. Zadoc 
Casey, whose father was born in County Tyrone, Ireland, was a mem- 
ber of Congress and piloted through the legislation for the Illinois 
and Michigan Canal. He was also Lieutenant-Governor of Illinois 
and for many years a distinguished member of the Illinois General 
Assembly. Zadoc Casey and his family removed from Tennessee to 
Illinois in 1817, and settled in Jefferson County, near Mount Vernon, 
of which he was the founder. 

The French had visited and dwelt upon the present site of Chicago 
before representatives of other races found their way there. 

Modern Chicago had its beginning with the building of Fort 
Dearborn in 1803. The builder and first commander of Fort Dear- 
born was Captain John Whistler, a native of Ireland. John Kinzie, 
generally regarded as the first resident of Chicago, arrived there after 
the fort was established. Whistler, and not Kinzie, was the real father 
of Chicago. Captain Whistler continued as commander of Fort Dear- 
born until 1810. In 1832, his son. Major William Whistler, was in 
charge of the fort during the Black Hawk War. Six members of the 
Whistler family were members of the congregation of old St. Mary's, 
and Father St. Cyr, the first pastor of Chicago, made his home with 
Major Whistler and his family until other arrangements were made. 

The history of the Irish of early Chicago is most interesting and 
creditable to the race, and cannot be adequately presented in any 
paper directed primarily to the stoiy of the Irish while Illinois was 
in the making. 

Any consideration of the Irish of early Illinois should, however, 
include the names of its earlier Governors of Irish blood : Reynolds, 
Carlin, and Ford, whose careers are too well-known to recount here. 

More than a passing tribute, if time permitted, should be paid to 
Colonel James A. Mulligan, of the Irish Brigade, the hero of Lexing- 
ton and Winchester, and to General John A. Logan, the Commander 
of the Army of Tennessee, whose father. Doctor John Logan, came 
from Ireland early in 1800. 



THE EAKLY IRISH OF ILLINOIS 37 

Pre-eminent among the Irishmen of Illinois is the name of General 
Shields, born in Ireland. The hero of two wars, United States Senator 
successively from three states, he came to be regarded as one of the 
finest examples of pure patriotism that our country has produced. 
After returning from the Civil War, the States of Illinois and Minne- 
sota each presented him with a jeweled sword. After his death these 
swords were purchased by the United States Government, and are 
cherished among the sacred mementos of our heroic dead. His memory 
was further honored by the State of Illinois as its representative, 
entitled to a place in the Statuary Hall of our nation's capital. The 
unveiling of the Shields statue was one of the most notable events 
that ever took place in Washington. 

I wish to acknowledge my appreciation of the valuable co-operation 
of Joseph J. Thompson, Editor of the Illinois Catholic Historical 
Review, and Hugh O'Neill, both of Chicago, Michael J. O'Brien, of 
New York City, historiographer of the American Irish Historical 
Society, and Miss Georgia L. Osbom, Assistant Librarian of the 
Illinois State Historical Society, in preparing this paper. 

John P. McGoorty, 
Chicago. 



THE AMERICAN FEDERATION OF 
CATHOLIC SOCIETIES 

(Continued) 

First National Convention Held in Cincinnati, Ohio, December 
10, 11, 12 1901, with Most Rev. William Henry Elder, D. D., 

Sponsor 

The First National Convention of the American Federation of 
Catholic Societies was opened in Cincinnati, Ohio, Thursday, Deeem- 
ber 10, 1901, Before proceeding to the Convention Hall, the Audi- 
torium of the Odd Fellows' Temple, the delegates were escorted by 
the Uniformed Knights of St. John from the Grand Hotel, the con- 
vention headquarters, to St. Peter's Cathedral, where Solemn Ponti- 
fical Mass was celebrated by the Rt. Rev. Ignatius F. Horstmann, 
D. D., Bishop of Cleveland, Ohio, who was assisted by Rev. A. M, 
Quatman as Ai'ch-priest, Rev. Louis Tieman as Deacon, Rev. Dennis 
Halpin as Sub-deacon and Rev. E. A. Davis as Master of Ceremonies. 
The Most Rev. W. H. Elder, D. D., Archbishop of Cincinnati, occupied 
the throne in the sanctuary, and was attended by Rev. F. X. Dutton 
and Rev. Joseph Pohlschneider, D. D. In the sanctuary were also 
the Rt. Rev. James A. McFaul, D. D., Bishop of Trenton, N. J., Rt. 
Rev. Sebastian G. Messmer, D. D., of Green Bay, Wisconsin, Rt. Rev. 
Camillus P. Maes, D. D., Bishop of Covington, Ky., Monsignor J. B. 
Murray and Vicar General J. Albrinck, Ph. D., of Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Vicar General F. Brossart of Covington, Ky., Rev. 0. W. Moye, 
Rector of Wheeling, W. Va., Cathedral, and a large number of visit- 
ing and local clergymen. 

The sermon was preached by Very Rev. M. J. Lavelle, Rector of 
St. Patrick's Cathedral of New York. It was a ringing call for unity 
in order to advance the civih social and religious interests of Cath- 
olies. "Religion and Patriotism" were the keynotes of this powerful 
sermon. After the Pontifical Mass, Archbishop Elder welcomed the 
delegates to his archepiscopal city and encouraged the movement to 
federate. 

The First Session 

The first session of the convention was called to order by Mr. 
Henry J. Fries of Erie, Pa., Supreme President of the Knights of 
St. John. Before proceeding to business there were several addresses 

38 



THE AMERICAN FEDERATION OF CATHOLIC SOCIETIES 39 

of welcome and greeting by Most Rev. Archbishop, Governor Nash of 
Ohio, Mayor Fleishman of Cincinnati and Mr. Anthony Matre, Chair- 
man of the Local Committee and Mr. Thomas B. Minahan, President 
of the Ohio State Federation. Governor Nash spoke as follows: 

Governor Nash Speaks 

"I am glad I am here. I know that the purposes which you have 
in mind, and which you desire to promote, are purposes which will 
be beneficial to our people. I know that your objects and your efforts 
are to promote Religion and Education among all our people. Our 
forefathers declared that the promotion of these objects are necessary 
to the happiness of mankind. If you promote these objects you will 
make our citizens better citizens than they are now, and you will make 
our people more patriotic than they are now. We can rely upon our 
people if they will follow your teachings, to observe the law and to 
uphold their rulers in all that is lawful. If you have your way, and 
your desires are accomplished, the people of this country will not 
long be cursed with anarchy. 

"I welcome you to Ohio as among the most patriotic people of 
this nation. I hope that the good which will arise from your delibera- 
tions will extend throughout the length and breadth of this great 
land and I hope that you will always promote the cause of patriotism 
and teach your children and children's children to love our country 
and our flag. ' ' 

Mr. T. B. Minahan of Columbus, Ohio, President of the Ohio 
Federation which had just been launched a few months before, re- 
sponded to Governor Nash and sounded the "Keynote" of the Fed- 
eration. Mr. Minahan said in part: 

Keynote Address by Hon. T. B. Minahan 

"I do not know of any word that I can add to the gracious and 
kindly welcome of Governor Nash of Ohio. It may, however, not be 
out of place at this time to express the sentiments of the Ohio Federa- 
tion to their fellow citizens assembled here on this occasion. 

"There is some misunderstanding of the movement now being 
crystallized into this National Convention. There are those who as- 
sume that our presence here has some sort of political significance. 
I believe there are some even foolish enough to imagine that we intend 
forming a Catholic party. I know I express your sentiments when I 
say how preposterous all such arrant, malicious nonsense is. We have 
absolutely nothing to do with politics, good, bad or indifferent. 



40 ANTHONY MATRE 

Neither shall politicians of any persuasion ever share in the councils 
of this body. The genius and the spirit of the times is unity of 
action. The watchword of the hour 'to dare and to do.' In the moral 
and intellectual field of activities about us, new instrumentalities sug- 
gest themselves for the accomplishment of broader aims. We are 
persuaded that greater good, that larger usefulness along social, edu- 
cational, fraternal and moral lines, wisely invite to unity of action, 
among the separate societies you represent. Call this gathering a 
federation, league, anion, what you will — its real meaning is the 
strength of unite^l purpose and endeavor; its single object that we 
may the better work for God, our country and truth. 

"Our first business is to formulate methods, to devise ways and 
means whereby all our varied societies may be blended into one har- 
monious, practical and permanent unit. We are convinced that for 
the societies themselves a rich harvest of most desirable results awaits 
the planting of this seed of unity of action. 

"Our own organization and best hopes realized what other lines 
of action do we contemplate? Problems whose solution will make 
for greater happiness, for better citizenship, for nobler manhood — 
these are all about us. From the spread of falsehood and of danger- 
ous principles ; from the spawn of anarchy ; from the curse of intem- 
perance — from all these our country is not free. 

In Union There Is Strength 

' ' Why then should not the united strength of Catholic citizenship 
rouse itself and be at the very forefront in the broad battlefield about 
us, where the forces of light and of darkness struggle for the mastery ? 
In this regard I cannot think of any better or more condensed ex- 
pression of our aim and purpose than the language of one of our 
most distinguidied leaders: 'We love liberty, we love knowledge, we 
love truth, we love opportunity and forgetting nationality, forgetting 
separate specific aims, forgetting all save God 's image in every human 
being, we would uplift men by uplifting mankind.' This is the key- 
note of the beneficent and beautiful union we seek to build up, to 
perfect and to perpetuate, that it may assist in the work of all other 
citizens in shedding a brighter and holier light upon the stars on the 
flag. 

"He absolutely mistakes who would construe this uniting of our 
societies to mean the stirring up of strife or the antagonizing of other 
citizens who differ from us in creed. The work we contemplate knows 
no other motto than charity and kindness. We cannot perhaps better 



THE AMERICAN FEDERATION OF CATHOLIC SOCIETIES 41 

express our sentiments than by quoting and paraphrasing the historic 
utterance of Abraham Lincoln: 'We are not enemies, but friends. 
We must not be enemies, though prejudice and narrow-mindedness 
may at times have strained, they must not break the natural bonds 
of affection that should bind all Americans together. The mystic 
chords of memory, stretching from every living heart and hearth- 
stone all over this broad land, will surely touch the better angels of 
our nature.' 

"Therefore, 'with malice towards none and with charity for all,' 
we hope to commend our actions to the respect and esteem of our 
feliow citizens that the day will not be long delayed until the white 
hand of a broad, true, great-hearted, splendid Americanism will 
reach out and pluck from beneath the fair rose of our freedom the 
last withered thorn of narrow-minded prejudice and bigotry." 

Bishop C. P. Maes,. D. D., of Covington, Ky., Speaks 

Mr. Fries then introduced Bishop C. P. Maes of Covington, Ky., 
who said in part : 

"There is no one in the United States who appreciates the value 
of the Federation movement so much as the Catholic Bishops of 
America, for all the troubles and heartburns of the Bishop are di- 
rectly traceable to disunion among Catholics. Let me say one word 
of advice to you : Forget self ; try to look at the great things before 
you and make this Federation of the American Catholic Societies the 
best bloom of Catholic piety and Catholic •citizenship in this fair 
land." 

Address of Bishop I. F. Horstmann, D. D. 

Bishop I. F. Horstmann of Cleveland, Ohio, was then called upon 
for a few remarks. The Bishop said: "The Keynote of your great 
work is, 'Praised be Jesus Christ, forever and ever.' I am glad this 
work of Federation has commenced. It has been in my mind ever 
since 1867. In my own humble way since I have been Bishop of 
Cleveland I have established a Federation in that city. I have secured 
from every parish priest in my diocese the names of his two best men. 
Whenever I want them together for their advice and support, I 
simply touch a button and in twenty-four hours my men are together 
ready to oppose any anti-Catholic legislation. Now, if so much can 
be done in this State, what can the representatives from Catholic 
societies in every part of these United States do?" 



42 ANTHONY MATRE 

Bishop James A. McFaul of Trenton, N. J., the first spiritual 
adviser, was then asked to explain the Federation movement. The 
Bishop spoke as follows: 

Bishop McFaul 's Address 

"Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen: It is gratifying to observe the interest 
manifested in the movement which has called together this Convention, This 
may be attributed to an assurance that it will proceed along conservative lines. 
The attention it has received from those who are not in sympathy with it dem- 
onstrates its importance. Its friends are not unmindful of the opposition which 
has arisen, yet they remain undisturbed, because they feel that unfavorable 
criticism has proceeded from a misconception of the scope and aims, as well as 
of the progress which it has made. They have, indeed, invited criticism, so that 
they might be thoroughly informed as to the best methods to be pursued. 

"Federation is still in its infancy; it has scarcely acquired 'a habitation and 
a name'; and its constitution has not yet assumed definite shape. Unfavorable 
comment, however, is not premature except when coming from a source fully 
as well disposed as ourselves, and just as anxious to attain, if possible, the 
objects proposed, but by other methods. 

"It may not be out of place to state that before acting as an adviser to the 
organizers of this movement, I was careful to seek advice. The approbation of 
Federation by the Hierarchy was not requested, because such approbation would 
have given to Federtaion the character of a church movement; whereas it has 
originated with the laity, and must live or die by their interest in it. 

Origin of Federation 

"The mistaken notion has gone abroad that the idea of Federation is of 
recent origin. It has occupied the attention of laymen for over ten years. What 
has helped to keep it alive is the excellent results to be expected from a large 
body, engaged in work which individual organizations, owing to limited territory 
and resources, could not presume to undertake, much less accomplish. The leaders 
are laymen; they are the organizers; by their efforts alone can it succeed, and 
be introduced into the different States, and then only, as in the case of other 
societies, with the' consent of the Bishop of the diocese. 

"It could easily happen that laymen, filled with enthusiasm in what they 
considered a worthy undertaking, might go beyond the bounds of prudence where 
religious interests are concerned, and it is for this reason that Bishop Messmer 
and myself have acted as your advisers. We feared that the Federation might 
assume the character of a religious movement, instead of a union of American 
citizens seeking the promotion of social, fraternal and benevolent interests. 

"It is hardly necessary to say that, as Catholic Bishops and loyal Americans, 
we are adverse to whatever might cause dissension or arouse prejudice. It is 
difllcult to understand why the promotion of the social, fraternal and other 
interests of Catholics, as American citizens, should excite animosity, except in 
the minds of bigots ; and they are in the minority, and not likely to b© appeased 
by any action of ours. Non-Catholic Americans are, as a rule, intelligent, liberal- 
minded, and anxious that the welfare of the citizen be promoted by every legiti- 
mate means. 



THE AMERICAN FEDERATION OF CATHOLIC SOCIETIES 43 

"It is apparent to any one acquainted with the political conditions existing 
in the United States that our people are dividing between the two great political 
parties, and that any attempt to subject even individual societies to the sway 
of partisanship would be suicidal to any organization. The opposition has there- 
fore sounded an alarm which is quite unnecessary, as we are in perfect agree- 
ment as to the necessity of avoiding the domain of partisan politics. 

Benefits of Federation 

"The scope of Federation is wide enough to embrace all the benefits which 
can be conferred by such an organization, either upon the societies entering into 
it or upon their individual members. These benefits need not be enumerated at 
length, as they will be presented in your Constitution. An excellent summary of 
them has been given by the Committee on Invitation to the Clergy. I shall 
briefly allude to some of them : Catholics of different nationalities and of various 
sections of the country will become acquainted with the sentiments and the 
aspirations of all. Race prejudices will be broken down, and all Catholics vnll 
be brought into sympathy with one another by two most powerful motives, which 
will guide them onward and upward: love of faith and of country. 

"At the same time they will realize that 'in union there is strength'; that 
one organization acting alone can accomplish but little, whereas all united will 
be irresistible. An opportunity, too, will be offered at the annual conventions 
to discuss the status and the needs of the entire Catholic body throughout the 
United States, and to suggest means for improvement. 

"Federation will likewise assist in forming correct Catholic opinion on the 
prominent subjects of the day, by their discussion in our assemblies, in the ex- 
tensive dissemination of Catholic thought, and of the Christian solution of the 
important problems attracting the minds of the age. Moreover, all its energies 
will be employed towards the encouragement of the Catholic press, and the sup- 
port of our parochial schools and colleges. 

' * Gentlemen, we have been too long content with remaining in the background. 
We allow ourselves to be put aside too easily on the plea that it is useless to 
state our rights and explain our position. It has taken time, but we have dis- 
covered our mistake. Recently the injustice of taxing Catholics for a system of 
education which they can not patronize has been clearly stated; the attention of 
thinking men has been repeatedly called to the fact that education without re- 
ligion and morality is dangerous to the welfare of the individual and of society. 
As a consequence you have observed a growing change in public opinion on this 
very question. The public utterances of non-Catholics show that they are slowly 
but surely discovering that Catholics have all along been in the right when they 
contended for religious education. 

Christian Education and Catholic Press and Literature 

"This organization should arouse a spirit of enthusiasm in favor of Christian 
education. Whenever I visit Princeton, the generosity which has established, 
equipped and adorned its historic university compels my admiration. At the 
same time I ask myself. What have wealthy Catholics done to compare with the 
work of non-Catholics in the establishment and support of the great educational 
institutions of the United States? Many of you have enjoyed the benefits of 
Catholic academic training and appreciate it at its true value. Let your little 



44 ANTHONY MATRE 

ones be sent to the parochial schools and your sons and daughters to Catholic 
institutions of learning. 

"Allow me to say a word in behalf of Catholic literature, and to hope that 
this Federation will foster and advance its interests. The press is perhaps the 
mightiest engine of our day, and it can be employed to immense advantage in 
the spread of truth. Yet how many Catholic families subscribe for a Catholic 
newspaper, a Catholic periodical, or possess a small library of useful, entertain- 
ing, instructive and religious works! If you desire to keep the atmosphere of 
your homes pure, and Catholic, you must keep yourselves and your children in 
touch with Catholic thought and abreast of Catholic progress. I repeat what I 
have said on other occasions, that the support given to the Catholic press is a 
disgrace to the Catholics of America. These are the thoughts that are in my 
mind on this occasion. Take them under your patronage. 

Apostolate of the Laity 
"Some one has said that we need an apostolate of the laity, under the guid- 
ance and inspiration, of course, of the Church. No truer words were ever uttered. 
The propagation of truth, the promotion of our interests, must not be left to 
the clergy alone. We are powerless without the strong, loyal arm of the laity. 
Remember the spirit of fortitude, religion and piety which enabled your heroic 
ancestors to cross the trackless ocean, and unite themselves to the destinies of 
this great Republic of the West. Emulate their devotion to the cause of truth 
and justice; it enabled them to conquer adversity and to triumph over persecu- 
tion. Strong in the profession of Catholic principles, go forward courageously, 
and the cause in which you are engaged must command success." 

Committee's Appointed 

Mr. Fries then named the Committee on Credentials, with Mr. 
T. P. McKenna of New Jersey, as Chairman, after which a recess was 
taken until 3 o'clock P. M. 

At the afternoon session other committees were appointed as fol- 
lows: Committee on Constitution with Judge Thomas W. Fitzgerald 
of New York as Chairman; Committee on Press with Alphonse G. 
Koelble of New York, Chairman; Committee on Rules and Regula- 
tions with W. E. Keehan of Cincinnati, Ohio, as Chairman. 

Mr. Thomas H. Cannon of Chicago, High Chief Ranger of the 
Catholic Order of Foresters, spoke briefly and pledged the support 
of the ninety-five thousand members of the Order that he represented 
to the movement for Federation. 

A cablegram was sent to the Holy Father Leo XIII expressing 
devotion to Holy Church and a telegram was sent to the President 
of the United States expressing loyalty to country. 

Second Day's Session 
The second day's session opened at 9:30 A.M., Wednesday, De- 
cember 11, 1901. Bishop McFaul recited the opening prayer. Tele- 



THE AMERICAN FEDERATION OF CATHOLIC SOCIETIES 45 

grams from Cardinal Gibbons and Honorable Charles Bonaparte were 
read. 

The Committee on Credentials reported that delegates were present 
from the followings States: Colorado, Georgia, Delaware, Indiana, 
Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachu- 
setts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, New Jersey, New York, 
North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Wisconsin, 
Vermont. The report was adopted. 

The Committee on Constitution was then called upon to make its 
report. Before doing so Bishop Sebastian G. Messmer of Green Bay, 
Wisconsin, asked to address the convention. The Bishop said in 
part : 

Bishop S. G. Messmer Speaks 

"We have arrived at a critical period of this convention, namely, 
the adoption of a permanent Constitution. From the discussion which 
is about to open on the Constitution will depend the success or the 
failure of the Federation movement. I take it that this Federation's 
object is to bring together all the Catholics of this country and to 
consider the common interests that affect them. It is not the object 
of Federation to interfere in any way with the separate societies 
federating. Perfect liberty and freedom will be left them. As to the 
question of nationalities due consideration must be given. If this 
Federation does no more than bring the Catholics of the different 
nationalities together, it will have done a great work. The great 
drawback under which the Church in this country labors is the one 
of nationalities. Therefore, I ask you — I ask you in the name of 
God — to give due consideration to the desires of these nationalities, 
so that if they wish to enter, they will always find the way easily 
open. ' ' 

Bishop McFaul also spoke and endorsed Bishop Messmer 's words, 
saying: "When I received Bishop Messmer 's congratulations for the 
work whieh I had begun for Federation, when I read his letter of 
encouragement telling me to go forward, I felt that there was some 
future for the laying of the foundation of this Federation of Catholic 
Societies. We have come here to federate, not temporarily as we did 
at Long Branch, N. J., but permanently. We will not leave Cincin- 
nati until we have federated. ' ' 

At the afternoon and evening sessions the Constitution submitted 
was thoroughly discussed and finally adopted as a whole. 



46 anthony matre 

Resolutions Adopted 

The Committee on Resolutions made its report through Hon, John 
J. Coyle. The Resolutions declared the Federation's devotion and 
loyalty to Holy Mother Church and recommended to the faithful, and 
to those outside the communion of the Catholic Church, the study of 
the various Encyclicals of Pope Leo XIII, urging all to carry out the 
advice given so lovingly and forcibly therein. The Resolutions also 
pledged encouragement in behalf of a sound Catholic Press, Litera- 
ture and Education and pledged to our country that devotion and 
patriotism which is incumbent upon all good citizens. 

Pope Leo XIII Sends Cablegram 

The following cablegram from Pope Leo XIII was read at the 
convention : 

"Gulielmo Elder, Arehiepiseopo, 
Cincinnati : 
"Beatissimus pater exanimo impertitur benediction em apostoli- 
cam societatibus Catholicis Civitatum foederatarum in urbe Cincin- 
natensi conventum agentibus. 

M. Cardinal Rampolla." 

The Nomination Committee of which Very Rev. M. J. Lavelle of 
New York was chairman made its report. The choice of this com- 
mittee for president was Hon. Thomas B. Minahan of Columbus, 
Ohio. The Hon. John J. Coyle of Philadelphia presented to the con- 
vention the name of Hon. Judge T. W. Fitzgerald of New York. Mr. 
Thomas Cannon of Chicago was also enthusiastically nominated but 
declined to serve. The convention then proceeded to ballot and at a 
late hour it was announced that Hon, Thomas B. Minahan had re- 
ceived the highest votes. 

The evening session closed at midnight to meet again at 9 o'clock 
Thursday morning. 

Third Day's Session 

The closing session convened Thursday, December 11, 1901, at 9 
A. M. Bishop McFaul opened the session with prayer. 

The election of officers was continued and the following were 
elected as the first permanent officers of the newly founded Federa- 
tion of Catholic Societies: 



THE AMERICAN FEDERATION OF CATHOLIC SOCIETIES 47 

Hon. Thomas B. Minahan, National President. (Elected by ballot 
the evening before.) 

Mr. L. J. Kauffmann, New York, First Vice-President. 
Mr. T. H. Cannon, Chicago, Second Vice-President. 
Mr. Daniel Duffy, Pottsville, Pa., Third Vice-President. 
Mr. Anthony Matre, Cincinnati, Ohio, National Secretary. 
Mr. Henry J. Fries, Erie, Pa., National Treasurer. 
Mr. Christ. O'Brien, Chicago, Marshal. 

Executive Board: 

Mr. Nicholas Gonner, Iowa. 
Mr. Gabriel Franchere, 111. 
Mr. E. D. Eeardon, Ind. 
Mr. G. W. Gibbons, Penn. 
Mr. P. H. McGuire, Penn. 
Mr. M. P. Mooney, Ohio. 
Mr. Lawrence Fabacher, La. 

Chicago was selected as the Convention City for 1902. The closing 
prayer was said by the Rt. Rev. Sebastian G. Messmer, D. D., Bishop 
of Green Bay, Wis., followed by the singing of "America" by all 
present. 

{To Be Continued) 

Anthony Matre, K. S. G. 

National Secretary. 
Chicago. 



CHRISTMAS DAY, 1865, IN VIRGINIA CITY, 
MONTANA 

The following sketch has been found among the unpublished papers of Father 
Francis Xavier Kuppens, S.J. (1838-1916), now preserved in the Archives of St. 
Louis University. Father Kuppens was the last surviving missionary associated 
with the illustrious De Smet, founder and indefatigable promoter of our Catholic 
Indian Missions of the West. He said the first Mass in Helena, Montana, in the 
spring of 1865, was among the first to bring the wonders of the Yellowstone 
Park region to the notice of the public, was a close personal friend of General 
Meagher, Lieutenant-Governor of Montana Territory, and by his strenuous min- 
istry on behalf of Indian and white alike, became an outstanding figure in the 
early ecclesiastical history of the West. 

Gilbert J. Garraghan, S. J. 

Christmas day, 1865, was a memorable day in Virginia City in the 
Territory of Montana. The events that happened there on that great 
Holy Day were narrated hundreds of times, and in the most distant 
settlements of the Territory, and they lingered long in the minds of 
the Catholics. I have heard them scores of times, in many and vari- 
ous forms, and with many unimportant alterations, but always leaving 
the main events standing out very prominently. 

Virginia City at that time was a very prosperous settlement, the 
centre of various mining camps in the district. It was a wild place 
and could hardly be called civilized. Communication with the States 
was very slow; most of the goods were imported by ox train from 
Ogden or Salt Lake. The stage had only recently been established 
but at prohibitive prices. There was as yet no telegraph. The me- 
dium of commerce was gold-dust or nuggets, which was weighed in 
small apothecary scales, or guessed at by a two-finger or a three-finger 
pinch. Metal coin or paper currency were never seen. The popula- 
tion of the district was estimated to be about 10,000. There were 
hardly any families in the place; all were individual men of every 
nation, and tongue. Some fifteen or twenty married couples was all 
that the place could boast of; children were never seen. There were 
some refined persons, but they were mixed and lost in the crowd. The 
refining influence of woman to leaven the manners of the people was 
absent. The vigilance committee had been organized the year before, 
had in three weeks executed over twenty persons and was now at the 
height of its power. They assumed to themselves the office, not of 
protecting life or property, but of dealing out swift and summary 

48 



CHRISTMAS DAY IN VIRGINIA CITY, MONTANA 49 

punishment to any transgressor. The town had been elected the Capi- 
tal of the Territory, in place of Bannock, whose star had set when a 
few of its richest claims were exhausted. General Thomas Francis 
Meagher had been appointed Acting Governor, had arrived in the 
Territory during the preceding summer and had taken up his resi- 
dence in the Capital. The legislature was to meet in a couple of 
weeks for the first time in this new Capital, and many law-makers 
were already at the place before Christmas. Many miners were idle 
on account of the frost; and the approaching holiday season brought 
together an unprecedented numerous population. Every hotel, lodg- 
ing house and cabin was crowded to its utmost capacity. The priest 
on his mission in those days, besides vestments, altarstone, and chapel, 
also carried some provisions and a couple of blankets; all his travels 
were on horseback, and few journeys were undertaken during which 
he was not obliged to camp out a few nights. When lodging was ob- 
tained it most generally was only a shelter under a stranger's roof, 
and a place to spread your blankets on the floor. There was no mail 
from the Indian Country where the priest lived and no notice could 
be sent of an intended visit. 

In 1865 Father Giorda arrived in Virginia City a few days before 
Christmas and took up his lodging at the cabin of a good pious Cath- 
olic miner. He, in company of that worthy man spent all evening 
and all next day in trying to secure a place that might serve for a 
Chapel on that great Holy day. Any hall, dining room, large store, 
or large room would have been most gladly accepted, or rented at any 
price, for a place of worship on that day; but none could be secured, 
not even for a few hours of the early day before breakfast hour ; no, 
not even a couple of hours in the forenoon during the quiet hours of 
business from nine to eleven o'clock could any room or hall be se- 
cured. Late that night exhausted, footsore and more heartsore after 
the fruitless search, the Father and his companion retired to rest 
hoping and praying for better success in the morning. What their 
prayers and reflections were on that night, considering the many 
points of similarity to a like occurrence in Judea, is a subject of 
reflection. 

Late that evening in a place where the youth and the sporting 
fraternity of the town amused themselves by feats of dexterity and 
skill, or at cards and dice, some one mentioned that a Catholic priest 
was in town and had been trying all day to find a place for holding 
Catholic service on Christmas day and had not succeeded. This was 
too much for the hearers. The old faith, though it had lately shown 
few signs of life, now burst from the embers in a fair blaze. A firm 



50 FRANCIS XAVIEIt KUPPENS, S. J. 

resolve took possession of them all; a place must be found for the 
Christmas celebration ; that was the verdict, and without definite plans 
they dispersed, determined to find ways and means in the morning'. 

The leader of the crowd, however, was not a man of procrastina- 
tion principles. I forget his name and we will call him Mr. Hugh 
O'n. He wore the champion's belt, and had posted a standing chal- 
lenge to any aspirant of honors, and was ready to try issue in the 
ring according to the rales of the Marquis of Queensberry. Though 
late, Mr. Hugh O'n went to see General Meagher, the Governor, who 
was well known. Both were of one nation, country, both of one re- 
ligion, and it did not take long to form a plan of action. It would 
be a shame, a burning and everlasting shame, if the Catholic religion 
could obtain no place of worship on Christmas day ; and that in the 
Capital of Montana, and the Governor there. Both men were equally 
indignant. Shortly afterwards the proprietor of the theatre, the 
largest place in town, had his sleep interrupted and was compelled to 
listen to business propositions. A large amount of gold would be paid 
for the rent of the theatre for two weeks. This and other equally 
eloquent ar^ments brought consent and all dates and engagements 
were cancelled. The actors were easily persuaded that a two weeks' 
rest during the Holiday season would give them a good rest — so 
necessary for their health. 

In the morning a committee of two waits on Father Giorda, with 
a most pressing request that he come at once to the theatre and meet 
the Governor and Mr. Hugh O'n. The Father, overjoyed at all the 
news, did not know how to express his thanks in words, but we may 
be sure that the angels recorded his aspirations. Some few altera- 
tions in the arrangement of screens and seats were suggested, and 
then General Meagher by his supreme authority claimed Father 
Giorda as his guest, and all rights of individuals or promises of priest 
were declared void and null. Himself with two assistants would see 
to his comfort and entertainment. Mr. Hugh O'n took charge of the 
alterations of the theatre. 

In a little while carpenters, decorators, helpers of every kind, 
friends of Mr. Hugh 'n, turned the theatre into a veritable bee hive. 
His quiet suggestions are looked upon as orders; loads of evergreens 
disappear in a few minutes and are seen in garlands, emblems or 
festoons. An immense cross is planted in front of the door to pro- 
claim to the world the interior change. A large cross over the door 
and also one to surmount the roof proclaims that it is a place of Cath- 
olice worship. There is nothing subdued, or simple in manner in 



CHRISTMAS DAY IN VIRGINIA CITY, MONTANA 51 

those decorations ; they are bold, profuse and aggressive. The interior 
decorations were equally profuse, all pictures or signs of a distracting 
nature are removed or covered under the evergreen wreaths and re- 
ligious emblems of crosses, crowns, hearts, etc. An altar, communion 
railing, confessional, have been constructed, all decent and service- 
able. And Mr. Hugh O'n directs and manages the whole transfor- 
mation of the theatre into a Catholic church. And all day the news 
around town, and in the neighboring camps was very unusual and 
almost unprecedented. Numerous messengers on splendid mounts 
brought the glad tidings that the theatre had been rented, and that 
there would be Christmas service for the Catholics, that the priest 
was the guest of Governor Meagher. All items of interest, and the 
fruitless search for a hall, all were told hundreds of times, and every 
Catholic was most earnestly invited to be present. Messengers suc- 
ceeded messengers; some sent directly by the Governor, some by Mr. 
Hugh 'n. Many volunteered and no Catholic was overlooked. From 
Summit and Central, and Dobie town, and Nevada, the whole length 
of Alder Gulch, and Stinking Water Creek. The commotion drew 
the attention of the whole population. There never had been such 
stir before ; at the time of the discovery of gold at Last Chance Gulch, 
there had been a great stampede, but the preparations now appeared 
more stirring. But it was well known that there was friction between 
the Governor and the Vigilance Committee, no one knew to what 
extent, or when a storm would burst loose. At the time of the or- 
ganization of the vigilance committee, and their first executions, there 
had also been seen an unusual number of persons bringing messages 
to their friend ; but now there were joyful tidings, nothing secret or 
hidden. And the response to the repeated invitations, that had been 
lukewarm and faint-hearted from some in the morning, became warm, 
fervent and determined in the evening. 

Towards the close of day General Meagher came to see what pro- 
gress had been made in the work at the theatre and congratulating 
Mr. Hugh O'n over his splendid work, was interrupted by the pro- 
prietor who had also come to see, and who expressed himself in no 
uncertain words that in his opinion his theatre had been utterly 
ruined for further business, by those exterior and interior emblems 
and decorations. The General and his lieutenant had never hesitated 
in any difficulty before, and now in answer to his complaint asked 
him to set his price on the building. It was accepted and the earnest 
money to make the bargain binding was paid on the spot. These men 
were not hampered by regulations of canon law, consultations, and 
delays in decisions of Bishops ; they did not think it was necessary to 



52 FRANCIS XAVIER KUPPENS, S.J. 

speak to the priest about it. They knew their neighbors would all 
endorse the act, and that the angels would applaud. 

The news that the theatre was bought foi* a Catholic church was 
the crowning event of that day, and was heralded everywhere; and 
then the further news that there was to be midnight Mass, and that 
a church choir was organized, and that it would be midnight high 
Mass, and that all were expected to help pay for the theatre was 
fresh news to be thoroughly circulated. On the morning of Christmas 
eve Mr. Hugh 'n was at his self-imposed task, the decorations needed 
a few finishing touches, the altar needed a little extra decorations, the 
candles were to be placed in proper and symmetrical form. The seats 
required a little more orderly arrangements. The holy water font at 
the door was not neglected, and visitors who came by the score out of 
curiosity, or from a motive to make sure that all reports were genuine, 
were all reminded by the sexton that no loud remarks or distracting 
behavior was tolerated. They were politely requested to kneel down 
and say some prayer, and stay a while to rest their souls. All day 
long a good number of persons were in the church, raising their 
hearts to heaven, not distracted by the stream of visitors that came 
and went away. All formed a firm resolution to be generous on 
Christmas day. The priest was free from the ordinary distracting 
cares of preparing all things for the altar and church. He could give 
his whole mind to his prayers and devotions, and spent all afternoon 
and night in the Confessional, till it was time for midnight Mass. 
Long before the appointed hour the church was crowded to its utmost 
capacity. Many unable to gain admittance resigned themselves to the 
inclemency of the weather, and knelt at the door, uniting their hearts 
to those who had come earlier. 

As the hour approached the choir intoned the Adeste Fideles. Mr. 
Hugh O'n lit the candles and assisted the priest in vesting and by 
his devout reverential manner edified all. The clearness and correct- 
ness of his responses to the priest gave evidence of a careful, thor- 
ough Catholic education in his youth. 

Father Giorda preached a most consoling sermon on the gospel of 
the occasion. After the gospel and sermon. General Meagher pre- 
pared to take up the collection among the congregation; and it has 
often been mentioned that he had a large white delft plate. This had 
been found among the latest invoices of goods in the territory. Up 
to that time a tin plate had been the orthodox receptacle for the 
offerings of the faithful. And on this delft plate were two spoons, a 
teaspoon and a tablespoon, with which the members might with ease 
and despatch transfer the shining dust from their buckskin purse to 



CHRISTMAS DAY IN VIRGINIA CITY, MONTANA 53 

the plate. There was no announcement whatever about the collection, 
the priest knew nothing about it. Every member of the congregation 
was thoroughly alive to the occasion. No member so devout that he 
failed to see the General or the plate. 

The number and devotion of the worshippers, the earnestness in 
their prayers and all their actions, and especially the numbers of 
communions, attracted the attention of all. The whole atmosphere 
seemed to breathe a spirit of piety such as never had been experienced 
in Virginia City. On no previous occasion of a visit had Father 
Giorda or any other priest witnessed so consoling a sight. These men 
were oblivious to the world, past hardships and struggles were for- 
gotten ; the future did not trouble them, and for the present one and 
all were intent to join the Angels to give Glory to God in the highest. 
I doubt if the recording Angel could find anywhere on earth a more 
earnest congregation. 

After Mass General Meagher requested all to remain in their seats 
a few moments, and in words as only he could command presented 
the offering. In the name of the whole community, of every claim 
in this mountain district, in the name of every person present and in 
his own name, he presented this house to God, that his infant son 
might find a dwelling place amongst them and that his minister might 
take care of it. He offered to God and to religion the largest place 
and most suitable house in town. Would to God it were made of 
marble. This house henceforth is the House of God, a Catholic church, 
we give it and here is the price, in God's noblest metal, gold pure as 
it was washed from the earth yesterday; pure, it has not yet seen 
the smelting pot to receive its capacity of alloy; no Caesar or poten- 
tate has as yet set his image or superscription on it; it is virgin gold 
and has not been contaminated by any traffic or commerce ; it never 
will be spent in a better cause; as God has given it in abundance 
without measure, so they return it to God, without weight, but plenty 
to secure the house, free without debt, as an abiding place to God 
forever. It would never be said of them that there was no place for 
Christ. So he hoped the priest would make this place his permanent 
residence and the sogarth aroon would ever have amongst them ' * Cead 
miUe failthe." 

The priest tried to express his thanks, but was overcome to tears. 
Mr. Hugh O'n, his strong attendant, supported the frail form, and, 
guiding his faltering steps, led him away. 



WILLIAM LAMPRECHT, ARTIST 

For twelve years the writer of this short article was a professor 
at Marquette University. Both in the old Marquette College on Tenth 
and State Streets and in the Administration Building of Marquette 
University on Grand Avenue, I had numerous occasions to point out 
to friends and visitors Lampreeht's picture of the priest discoverer. 
Often I was asked, who was Lamprecht? And I was forced to ac- 
knowledge that little was known of the artist. During a recent visit 
to the well known college, Mt. St. Joseph-on-the-Ohio, I was impressed 
by the beautiful and delicate work in the chapel, and on inquiring 
for the name of the artist I was told that it was Lamprecht. From 
this simple incident I was able to trace the life story of the painter. 

But do not imagine that Lamprecht was only a talented decorator ; 
he was an artist — a real artist. 

Through the kind cooperation of Mr. Alwin Tapke of Cincinnati 
I was able to communicate with the family of Lamprecht in Germany 
and to secure from his wife many unpublished details about his life. 
These facts will be of real historical value to many a church in the 
Ean and Middle West. 

William Lamprecht was born in Bavaria on the thirty-first of Oc- 
tober, eighteen hundred thirty-eight. After finishing a classical edu- 
cation he was admitted into the Royal Academy of Arts, Munich. 
During his early years at the academy he won first prize for a paint- 
ing in competition with a class of sixty students. 

Up until his twenty-fifth year he was engaged exclusively as a 
portrait painter. His work became knowm to the Benedictine Fathers, 
who recognized the talent of the painter and later recommended him 
to the Benedictines in Newark, New Jersey. The latter induced him 
to come to America and paint a series of pictures of the Blessed 
Virgin in the St. Mary's Church. This was in 1867 and the beginning 
of Lampreeht's fame. Many who witnessed the glowing paintings of 
the Munich artist were anxious to secure his services. For thirty-five 
years Lamprecht was not able to fill all the orders which came to him. 

In 1867 Lamprecht went to Cincinnati where several orders were 
awaiting him. While in that city he and Reverend Anthony Schro- 
eninger founded the Christian Art Society. It was for this society 
that Lamprecht painted the classical picture of Marquette. The occa- 
sion was a fair, held in eighteen hundred sixty-nine, to raise money 
for the assistance of some poor artists who were friends of the foun- 
ders of the Christian Art Society. When the raffle for the Marquette 

54 



WILLIAM LAMPRECHT, ARTIST 55 

picture was held, the winner was a shoemaker who disposed of his 
prize at a very small price. The picture passed through several hands, 
and about the year 1877 was secured for Marquette by Father Aloy- 
sius Lalumiere, who was president of the college.^ 

It will be recalled that in the World's Fair in St. Louis, 1904, one 
of the government stamps was struck for Lamprecht's picture of 
Marquette. 

In eighteen hundred seventy-three Lamprecht returned to New 
York where his work kept him so closely engaged that his health 
gradually declined, until he was forced to rest. He returned to his 
native Bavaria and remained two years, coming back to the United 
States in eighteen hundred seventy-five. 

For the next twenty-five years, his brush was never idle. We can 
give here only a partial list of the churches which he decorated : 

1. St. Franeis of Assissi, New York. 

The painting is in the refectory of the Fathers, all 
figures representing figures of the Capucian Fathers. 

2. St. Peter's Cathedral, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

3. St. Patrick's Church, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 

4. St. Francis of Assissi, New York. 

5. St. Peter-Paul's Cathedral, Providence, Rhode Island. 

6. St. Mary's Hospital, Hoboken, New Jersey. 

7. College Point, Queens County, New York. 
9. Hunters' Point, Long Island City. 

10. Babylon, Long Island City. 

11. Convent of the Holy Cross, Dominican Sisters, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. 

12. Annunciation, New York. 

13. Assumption, New York. 

14. St. James, New York. 

15. Chapel of the Convent of St. Agnes, Fond du Lac, Wisconsin. 

The following list with dates will give the reader some idea of the 
uninterrupted work of the artist. 

1891. Cathedral of Hartford, Conn. 

1891. St. John's Church, Orange, New Jersey. 

1892. St. Francis Church, New York. 

1893. Church of the Holy Redeemer, New York. 
1893. St. Francis Church, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 



'In the Illinois Catholic Historical Review, Jan. 1927, p. 239, will be 
fftand a detailed account and interpretation on Lamprecht's picture, written by 
the author of this article. 



56 WILLIAM LAMPRECHT, ARTIST 

1894. Sacred Heart Church, Springfield, Mass. 
1892-93 Cathedral of the Holy Name, Chicago, 111. 

1895. Monastery, Yonkers, New York. Two paintings. 
1895. Mission Church, Roxbury, Mass. 

1895. St. Charles' College Chapel, Ellicot City, Maryland. 

1895. St. Alponsus Church, New York. 

1895. St. Francis Xavier's, New York. 

1897. Sisters of St. Francis, New York. A large painting. 

1898. Chapel of the Sisters, Oldenburg, Indiana. 

1898. St. Joseph's Church, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

1899. St. Mary's Church, Hoboken, New Jersey. 

1899. St. Joseph's Church, New York. 

1900. Foundling Asylum, New York. 

1900. Good Shephard Chapel, Brooklyn, New York. 

1900. St. Agnes Church, New York. 

1901. Manhattan, Sacred Heart Institute, New York. 

1902. Mt. St. Joseph's Chapel, near Cincinnati. 

Of Lamprecht's work in the chapel at Mt. St. Joseph's, Ohio, I 
have this account from one of the community: 

"The Blessed Virgin, Mary Immaculate, the woman of the Apo- 
calypse, 'Mulier amieta sole, et luna sub pedibus ejus, et in capite 
ejus corona stellarum duodicem,' is the central figure, a vision of 
celestial beauty bursting through the clouds. Clothed in soft white 
garments, she stands erect upon the world, her eyes turned toward 
Heaven while one foot crushes the head of the infernal serpent. Sus- 
pended from her shoulders is a blue mantle of great length, the folds 
of which are gathered at either side by a beautiful Angel. 

' ' Below these and in advance like a herald is another Angel carry- 
ing a scroll on which is inscribed, ' In umbra manus suae, protexit me. ' 
Above the Blessed Virgin is the Holy Spirit in the form of a dove. 
His wings are spread above her and soft luminous rays are falling 
upon her. Seated above all, with clouds as a footstool, is the Eternal 
Father. Two fingers of His right hand are extended in the act of 
blessing Mary and the left hand is spread above her head. 

' ' On the loft of God, the Father, is the Archangel, Michael, wear- 
ing a helmet and coat of mail and carrying a flaming sword and 
shield. On the shield is written St. Michael's battle cry, 'Quis ut 
Deus?' He is placed at the left of the Eternal Father to show that 
his mission is accomplished. Below him and to his left are two 
Angels, one bearing the Ark of the Covenant, the other the 'Root of 
Jesse.' Beneath these are two others, one with the Morning Star 



WIIiLIAM LAMPRECHT, ARTIST 57 

on his right wing, the other carrying a Harp. As the Angels form a 
circle around the Blessed Mother, the last two come a little above and 
close to the Herald Angel. On the right of God, the Father, and 
receiving His commission is the Archangel, Gabriel. He carries a 
sceptre and wears a coronet. His gaze is fixed upon the Eternal 
Father who is looking upon Mary. Below St. Gabriel and to his 
right are two Angels carrying respectively a crown on a cushion and 
a lily. Below these are two others, one carrying a lute and the other 
a palm branch. They close the circle on the right of the Angel with 
scroll. Here and there through the clouds and hovering about the 
Blessed Virgin are cherubs, singly and in groups, to the number of 
one hundred. In the helmet and shield of St. Michael are two large 
jewels and the garments of the Blessed Virgin and the Angels are 
fastened at the throat with a topaz, amethyst, and other precious 
stones. The crown which an Angel is carrying to the Blessed Virgin 
is thickly set with rare stones. ' ' 

From the Franciscan Convent in Oldenburg, Indiana, Reverend 
Mother Clarissa writes me most appreciatively of the work of Lam- 
precht : 

"The mural paintings of Mr. William Lamprecht of New York 
City, as we have them in our Convent Church, are declared master- 
pieces by the most critical judges. They are oil paintings consisting 
of eight groups, four full figures and fourteen busts. The groups 
represent respectively : 

St. Francis receiving the bull of approval of the Rule. 

St. Francis giving the Rule to St. Clara. 

Jesus blessing the little children, 

Christ among the Doctors. 

Four groups of Angels, three in each group, bearing symbols such 

as Gedeon 's fleece, Ark of the Covenant, the Burning Bush, etc. 

The full figures are : 

Angels of the Sanctuary, one swinging a censor, the other bearing 

wheat and grapes. 

King David and St. Cecilia in Choir Loft. 

The Busts are : 

The four great Latin Doctors of the Church — 

St. Bonaventure, St. Francis de Sales, St. Thomas Aquinas, St. 

Louis. 

St. Peter Baptist on the East side. 

St. Margaret of Cortona, St. Catherine of Alexandria, St. Agatha, 

St. Elizabeth of Hungary, St. Angela Merici on the West side. ' ' 



58 4 WILLIAM LAMPRECHT, ARTIST 

Reverend John C. Harmon, S. J., of St. Francis Xavier's Church, 
New York, adds the words: 

"Lamprecht painted the Apotheosis of St, Francis Xavier in the 
dome over the sanctuary ; also the death of St. Francis Xavier, and 
the three youthful saints of the Society of Jesus. The Stations, the 
like of which cannot be found, are also from his brush. ' ' 

Finally we quote from a letter of Rt. Rev. Mgr. FitzSimmons of 
the Holy Name Cathedral, Chicago, Illinois. 

' ' Mr. Lamprecht was the artist who executed the mural paintings, 
about thirty in all, in the Cathedral in 1892-1893. He was the car- 
toonist, but had an associate artist who did the coloring. He was, to 
my mind, a great artist, thoroughly Catholic in sentiment, an excel- 
lent interpreter of a subject, spiritual technique, and wonderfully 
accurate in his free-hand work. The paintings exist today and are 
as good, I say, as when they were completed. I value these paintings 
highly, and in my thirty-eight years as Rector, I know of no work 
that I consider quite their equal in skill and durability. ' ' 

After finishing the work at Mt. St. Joseph's, Ohio, Lamprecht 
felt his strength giving away and returned to Germany where he 
lived with his familj' in quiet after his long years of professional 
work in this country. Even in his advanced age he was not idle but 
spent his time in painting small pictures, portraits and canvas de- 
signs for churches. He was a poet, too, and his poetical productions 
are preserved as an heirloom in his family. His family life was an 
extremely happy one, for he had a loving wife and two children to 
whom he was devotedly attached. In nineteen hundred twenty he 
celebrated his golden wedding. Lamprecht died a most peaceful and 
holy death on the Feast of St. Joseph, nineteen hundred twenty-two. 



BISHOP ENGLAND'S CORRESPONDENCE 
WITH BISHOP ROSATI 

Editor's Note: Through the kindness of the Rev. Dr. Charles Souvay, CM., 
1 am enabled to enclose the very first letter of the correspondence between Bishop 
John England of Charleston and Bishop Joseph Rosati dated Saint Mary's 
Seminary, December 7, 1826. 

Bishop England had not as yet received this communication on December 29, 
1826, when he wrote his own letter to Rosati. The letter is interesting for the 
information it contains, and for the generous spirit of praise which it manifests. 
It is taken from Bishop Rosati 's Abstract of Correspondence, Archives of St. 
Louis Diocesan Chancery, Book 2, No. 179. 

St. Louis. Rev. John Rothensteiner. 

St. Mary's Seminary, December 7, 1826. 

I have received a copy of the constitution of the R. C. Church 
of South Carolina which you have favoured to send me by the last 
mail. I am very much obliged to your kindness, and think it my 
duty to offer you my sincere and hearty thanks for it, as -well as to 
express here how much I have been gratified by the perusal of it. 
The wisdom and prudence with which without deviating in the least 
from the most approved general discipline of the Catholic Church 
you have framed it in such a manner, as to adopt such regulations 
as will, if carried into execution, secure to your flock the deposit 
of faith to the ecclesiastical jurisdiction respect and submission, to 
the clergy honour and support, and to Religion at large propagation 
and stability. 

I congratulate therefore your Diocese for all these blessings, 
and pray Almighty God to preserve to it the pastor to whom, after 
God it owes them. The local circumstances, of that portion of the 
vineyard of the Lord intrusted to my care, will never permit. I am 
afraid, the adoption of such measures as I have admired in your 
Constitution. The old prejudices, I think, of protestants against 
the Catholic Religion determined the Convention that framed the 
constitution of the State of Missourri to provide that no religious 
corporation could ever be acknowledged by the legislature. Hence 
the Church properly must necessarily be vested in individuals. As 
to Louisana the still greater prejudice that there prevails against 
Religion gives us very little, or rather no hopes that regulations 
calculated to promote its welfare would ever be received. We must 
therefore go on as we can, and follow the dispositions of providence. 
We cannot complain. We have some establishments that we look 

59 



60 REV. JOHN ROTHENSTEINER 

upon as the support of Religion in this country. That of the 
Jesuits in Florissant is composed of four priests, four clergymen 
who have already finihed their course of divinity, and three 
brothers ; they take care of three or four congregations ; they have 
besides an Indian seminary wherein young Indians are instructed 
both in Religion, and in the arts of civilized life. In the same 
Village of Florissant there is a very flourishing female institution 
belonging to the Ladies of the Society of the Sacred Heart, who 
have lately received canonical approbation from the Holy See, they 
have about twenty-four young ladies of the best families of this 
state, a good number of externs, some orphans, and even some 
young Indian girls. Here at the Barrens we have another institu- 
tion for females, directed by seventeen Sisters, a good number of 
orphans are here brought up gratis, with some others both boarders 
and externs, who pay a very modic pension. Finally our Ecclesias- 
tical Seminary of St. Mary directed by priests of the Congregation 
of the Missions, is dayly acquiring new consistency. There are six 
priests and nine brothers of the same Congregation; about a dozen 
young clergymen, and several boys chiefly supported by the insti- 
tution. The Catholic congregation in the neighbourhood of the 
Seminary is very numerous, and regular; several others who on 
account of their poverty, or the little number of their members 
cannot support a priest are visited by the Clergymen of the Sem- 
inary who go as far as New Madrid and even some times the 
Arkansas Territory. Twenty four priests who have at least made 
all their course of divinity in this Seminary have been ordained 
since its establishment, and I had the satisfaction last September 
of conferrng the sacred Order of the Pristhood to three Deacons 
who have made here all their studies, and two of whom, are natives 
of this country, and to ordain two subdeacons, of whom one is like- 
wise a native of this State. We have a good prospect of succeeding 
in raising a national clergy. The whole clergy of this Upper part 
of the former Diocese of Louisiana was present at the consecration 
of the Right Revd. Michael Portier, which I had the pleasure of 
performing in St. Louis on the 5th of November last. They were 
thirty in number, of whom thirteen priests, two subdeacons, and the 
others in inferior orders. I suppose You are already informed that 
an Apostolic Vicariate has been lately erected by the Holy See 
comprising the Churches of the P'lorida, and Alabama. The above 
mentioned Dr. Portier, Bishop of Olenos has been intrusted with 
the care of that district. Besides, since the demission given by the 
Right Revd. Dr. Du Bourg, of the old Diocese has been divided 



I 
I 



BISHOP England's correspondence with bishop rosati 61 

in two. That of New-Orl. composed of the States of Louisiana and 
Mississippi; and that of St. Louis the State of Missouri, the Ter- 
ritory of Arkansas, and the other territories of this side of the 
Mississippi. The administration of both has been given to me until 
the Pope name another Bishop. My wishes are to remain in Mis- 
souri ; I hope they will be gratified. 

Excuse me if I have detained you too long with these accounts. 
I have thought they would not displease you. Accept the most 
sincere protestation of the profound respect, esteem, and attachment 
with which the least of your Brothers remains &c. 

Joseph Rosati, Bishop of St. Louis. 

Book C, No. 143 of the Abstract of Correspondence contains the 
following request: 

St. Louis, July 14, 1830. 
Irez-vouB en Irlande? Je vous prie de ne pas oublier la promease que vous 
m'avez faite de me procurer deux bona pretres. &c. 

This is all I could obtain of Bishop Rosati 's letters to Bishop 
John England. 

Rev. John Rothensteiner. 
St. Louis, Missouri. 



NECROLOGY 

EEVEREND ANTHONY ZURBONSEN 

Again it becomes our sad duty to chronicle the death of one who 
was a member of the Illinois Catholic Historical Society from its 
beginning and who has contributed many valuable historical essays 
to the Historical Review. 

Rev. Anthony Zurbonsen was born in Warendorf, near Muenster 
in Westfalia, Germany, August 15, 1860, and was therefore 66 years 
old at the time of his death, January 21, 1927. When in 1874 the 
Prussian Government inaugurated the so-called Kulturkampf against 
the Catholic Church in Prussia, and all religious Orders were exiled 
from the Fatherland, the sons of St. Francis, whose Motherhouse at 
that time was at Warendorf, where they had been established for 250 
years from the time of the Reformation, decided to emigrate to North 
America, where in 1859 they had already founded missions at Teutop- 
olis and Quiney, Illinois, and St. Louis, Mo. Several young men, 
among them the subject of this sketch, young Anthony Zurbonsen, 15 
years old, accompanied them to their new field of labor in the vine- 
yard of the Lord. In 1875 they arrived in Teutopolis, 111., where 
Zurbonsen took up his classical studies at St. Joseph's College, con- 
ducted by the Franciscan Fathers of the St. Louis Province. Having 
finished his classical studies there, he affiliated with the Diocese of 
Alton and was sent by Bishop P. J. Baltes to continue his studies in 
the Grand Seminary, IMontreal, Canada. He completed his theological 
studies in St. Francis Seminary, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, with high 
honors and was ordained priest June 29, 1885 by the Most Rev. 
Archbishop Michael Heiss in the Chapel of St. Francis Seminary. 
His first holy Mass he celebrated in St. Peter and Paul's Church, 
Naperville, Illinois, where his fatherly friend and countiyman, R^v. 
August Wenker, was pastor. He was assisted by Father Wenker 
with Father B. Hasse of Petersburg, Illinois, as Deacon and Father 
C. Krekenberg, of Springfield, as Subdeacon and Father H. Bangen 
of Aurora as Master of Ceremonies, all from Warendorf, his own 
birthplace. 

His first appointment was at Grant Fork, near Highland, Illinois, 
where he worked zealously from 1885 to 1888. From there he was 
sent to Staunton, Illinois, where he worked for ten years to 1898 and 
later at Ashland and Raymond to 1906. From 1906 to 1920 he worked 
most zealously and successfully as pastor of St. Mary's Congregation, 

62 



NECROLOGY: REVEREND ANTHONY ZURBONSEN 63 

Quincy, Illinois. Finally on account of failing health he was forced 
to resign his pastorate, to the keen regret of his parishioners and his 
fellow priests, to whom he had endeared himself by his kind and 
genial character, and accepted the Chaplaincy at St. John's Sani- 
tarium, Springfield, Illinois. Though a sick man himself he never- 
theless worked among the consumptives and epileptics at that institu- 
tion near Springfield, Illinois, which is under the direction of the 
Sisters of St. Francis, Springfield, Illinois, until his enfeebled health 
broke down completely and he died January 21, 1927. His death at 
St. John's Sanitarium was a fit crown for his kind, priestly and 
beautiful life. His funeral service in the beautiful chapel was largely 
attended by more than forty priests and a large number of people 
from Springfield, Quincy, Raymond, Ashland and other parishes in 
the Diocese where he had worked so faithfully. His Bishop, Rt. Rev. 
J. Griffin of Springfield, preached the funeral sermon in which he 
paid a high tribute to the noble character of the deceased, saying: 
"Wherever Father Zurbonsen lived and labored, he endeared himself 
to all young and old, rich and poor, Catholic and non-Catholic; his 
life was a poem filled with high and holy ideals. ' ' His mortal remains 
were laid to rest at the foot of the cross in the beautiful cemetery 
of the sanitarium. 

Father Zurbonsen was a writer of some renown, a student of art 
and a lover of books. He was an occasional contributor to the Illinois 
State Historical Society and also to the Illinois Catholic Historical 
Review. For the last named magazine he had just lately contributed 
a series of articles concerning the establishment of the Hospital Sisters 
of St. Francis at Springfield, Illinois, and its branch houses in 
Illinois, Wisconsin and lately even in China; and it was only by his 
death that he was prevented from continuing that series of highly 
interesting articles. He was a very fluent and interesting writer ; his 
Rainbles through Europe, the Holy Land and Egypt; his trips to 
Yellowstone Park, Oregon and California ; From Illinois to Rome and 
others were published in book form and widely read ; also his articles 
written for the Western Catholic of Quincy, Illinois. He also pub- 
lished a prayer book, Ave Maria, which found a wide circulation ; also 
a book In Memoriam of all the priests who had worked in the diocese 
of Alton and had been called by death from the scenes of their labors. 

Proofs of his fine artistic taste may be seen at St. Mary 's Church, 
Quincy, Illinois, in the beautiful paintings and statuary imported by 
him from Tyrol, especially in the beautiful "Pieta" and the wonderful 
scene of the "Last Supper," carved in wood, as an antependium of 
the High Altar in that church. 



64 REV. C. KREKENBERG 

Father Zurbonsen leaves three brothers, a sister and many other 
relatives in Germany, Frederic Zurbonsen, formerly Professor at the 
University of Muenster, now retired; Bernard, formerly Captain of 
the North German Lloyd of Bremen, likewise now retired ; Joseph at 
home in Warendorf, Sister Regulata, Superior of the Motherhouse of 
the Hospital Sisters of St. Francis at Muenster, and many nieces and 
nephews. One of his nieces, Miss Paula Zurbonsen, entered the 
Sisterhood of the Hospital Sisters of St. Francis, Springfield, Illinois, 
last year and is now Sister Regula. 

May Almighty God be a merciful judge to him and grant him 
eternal rest. This is the pious wish of his lifelong friend and 
countryman. 

Rev. C. Krekenberq. 
Quincy, Illinois. 



GLEANINGS FROM CURRENT 
PERIODICALS 

Early History of the Missouri River. — The Nebraska History 
Magazine for February 15 has devoted a whole number to the Mis- 
souri River — its discovery and exploration, steamboating and early 
navigation, fur trade, and governmental improvement of the river 
down to the signing by President Coolidge on January 22 of the 
Missouri River bill, authorizing the expenditure of $12,000,000 as 
the first step toward making the river a six-foot channel from 
Kansas City to Sioux City. That intrepid pioneer and explorer. 
Father Marquette, on June 17, 1673, discovered the Mississippi and 
began canoeing down its placid waters. A few days later, he writes, 
"we heard a noise of a rapid into which we were about to fall. I 
have seen nothing more frightful, a mass of large trees entire with 
branches, real floating islands came frorm Pekitanoui (Missouri 
River) so impetuous that we could not without great danger expose 
ourselves to pass across. The agitation was so great that the water 
was all muddy and could not get clear. The Pekitanoui is a con- 
siderable river, coming from the northwest and empties into the 
Mississippi. Many towns are located on this river and I hope by it 
to make discovery of the Vermillion or California sea." Thus this 
mighty river burst and roared into view of the first white man. 
What would he have thought could he have realized the weary 
stretches of prairie to be crossed before man could reach the "Ver- 
million sea"! La Salle saw the Missouri in 1682 on his voyage of 
exploration south from the mouth of the Illinois River. His com- 
panion Tonty seems then to have first heard of Indians using 
horses in war and the chase. La Salle had the idea of obtaining 
horses from the Pawnees to carry goods from the Great Lakes to 
the Mississippi River. Various other passages translated from the 
French archives appear in this number telling of later voyages and 
reports of the Indian tribes on the Missouri. Pictures showing the 
early books of travel. A fine collection of photographs of Missouri 
and Mississippi steamboats has been presented to the Nebraska 
State Historical Society by the widow of Dr. A. J. Williams of 
Omaha, who gathered them during a lifetime. 

Fort St. Antoine on the Mississippi. — "In 1686 Nicolas Perrot, 
fur trader, forest diplomat and commander of the remote trading 
posts of New France, came to the beautiful cliff region on the east 
shore of Lake Pepin," — as the expansion of the channel of the Mis- 

65 



66 \VM. STETSON MERRILL 

sissippi River along the west shore of Pepin County, "Wisconsin, is 
called — "and there, probably near the present village of Stockholm, 
built Fort Antoine, one of the far-flung posts designed to maintain 
in the Sioux country the authority of the distant French monarch, 
Louis XIV." So writes W. A. Titus in one of a series of sketches 
of historic spots in Wisconsin which he is contributng to the Wis- 
consin Magazine of History (March, 1927). By maintaining this 
fort here for five or six years, with a garrison that ' ' never exceeded 
fifteen or twenty white men," Perrot opened up to the fur trade 
the rich and hitherto unexploited Sioux country. Perrot was a 
trader in 1667 when with some companions he visited Lake Supe- 
rior. He gained the confidence of the Wisconsin Indians and was 
present at the great pageant that St. Lusson staged at the Sault 
in 1671 when he took possession of all lands "discovered or to be 
discovered, bounded on the one side by the Northern and Western 
seas and on the other side by the South Sea." This pageant sug- 
gested to Perrot the idea of a similar one that in 1689 he arranged 
for impressing the unstable Sioux and by which he took possession 
of the wilderness of western Wisconsin. A recent news dispatch 
from Eau Claire, Wisconsin, states that the ceremonies held in 1689 
at the old French fort on Lake Pepin near here by which Nicolas 
Perrot took posses.sion of all land west of the great lakes for France, 
will be reproduced by the Eau Claire post of the American Legion 
on the site of the fort May 8. The Wisconsin Historical Society 
and possibly the Minnesota Historical Society will assist. " " Perrot 
presented to the mission of St. Francis Xavier the beautiful osten- 
sorium that may now be seen in the State Historical Museum at 
Madison." The fort was probably burned. A party, searching in 
1857 for wrought-iron nails among the ruins of the "old French 
fort," found there charcoal and ashes. 

Where Did Radisson Go? — In a manuscript, preserved in the Bod- 
leian Library at Oxford, in which Radisson gives an account of his 
famous third voyage, occurs a mysterious word: "Auxoticiat." The 
heading of the passage reads: "Now followeth the Auxoticiat voyage 
into the great and filthy Lake of the Hurrons, Upper Sea of the Ea.st, 
and Bay of the North." A writer, Edward C. Gale, in Minnesota 
History, organ of the Minnesota Historical Society, for December, 
1926, suggests that the scribe, not understanding the French name 
for the Ottawa Indians, has written as a name what is really two 
words: Aux Oticiat, i.e., Aux Otauack, — "to the Ottawa." These 
people in Radisson 's time resided around the upper end of Lake 



GLEANINGS FROM CURRENT PERIODICALS 67 

Huron and played an important part in the annals of the period." 
Miss Kellogg, in a note in her ' ' Early Narratives of the Northwest ' ' 
writes: "The great flotillas coming down to Canada with furs were 
said to come from the Ottawa, while the region of the upper lakes 
was known as the Ottawa Country" (op. cit. 36 n.) Radisson, 
therefore, refers to his voyage as "The Ottawa Voyage," an inter- 
pretation which, Gale says, "has common sense and is historically 
and geographically correct." 

St. Peter's and St. Paul, Minnesota, In 1839. — At the junction 
of the Minnesota River, called by the French St. Pierre, with the 
Mississippi the Americans in 1819 erected a fort which, with the 
trading post across the river and the neighboring Indian agency, 
was called St. Peter's. An account of the visit of the first bishop, 
Rt. Rev. Mathias Loras of Dubuque, to this hitherto unvisited por- 
tion of his immense diocese, is given by M. M. Hoffmann in Min- 
nesota History for March, 1927. In a letter to his sister, dated 
July 26, 1839, Bishop Loras thus describes his visit : 

"I left Dubuque on the 23rd of June, on board a large and 
magnificent steam vessel, and was accompanied by the Abbe Pela- 
mourgues and a young man, who served us as interpreter with the 
Sioux. After a successful voyage of some days along the superb 
Mississippi and the beautiful lake Pepin, we reached St. Peter's. 
. . . Our arrival was a cause of great joy to the Catholics, who 
had never before seen a Priest or Bishop in these remote regions; 
they manifested a great desire to assist at divine worship, and to 
approach the Sacraments of the Church. . . . The Catholics 
of St. Peter's amounted to one hundred and eighty-five, fifty-six of 
whom Ave baptized, administered confirmation to eight, communion 
to thirty-three adults, and gave the nuptial benediction to four 
couple. ' ' 

The names of the persons whom Bishop Loras baptized have 
been printed for the first time in the paper before us, from the 
original records made by the Bishop and now forming part of the 
baptismal record of St. Raphael Cathedral, Dubuque, Iowa. ' ' Stately 
patronymics of old France stand out in the bishop's peculiar writing 
on the time-honored pages. . . . The names of some of the 
women are redolent of the fluer-de-lis and cathedral incense." 
Along with them are names of Sioux women married to French 
husbands. Many of these families Mr. Hoffmann has taken the 
pains to identify. 

The Newberry Library, Wm. Stetson Merrill. 

Chicago. 



BOOK REVIEWS 

George Rogers Claxk — His Life and Public Services, by Temple 
Bodley. Published by Houghton Mifflin Co. 

The author makes a careful study of an almost forgotten hero, 
of an almost forgotten episode of American Revolutionary History 
and yet George Rogers Clark won for the United States that great 
expanse of land known as the Northwest Territory and so made 
possible the onward march of the American Republic toward the 
setting sun through the subsequent Louisiana Purchase. As the 
author points out the reason for the small place accorded to Clark 
in American histories, is that his exploits were performed in a vast 
wilderness many miles from the fringe of settlements along the 
eastern coast and consequently far from the printing presses through 
which the battles of the east were made known to the contemporary 
population and preserved for posterity. 

This book represents great toil. The greater part of the facts 
have been laboriously dug out of contemporary letters and manu- 
scripts preserved in historical collections both public and private. 
It is thoroughly annotated and references are given for each 
statement. 

This book is of particular interest to the readers of the Illinois 
Catholic Historical Review since it records the prominent part 
played by the French Catholics, emigrants to this region when its forts 
flew the white flag of France, in throwing oft' the British Dominion 
and securing this territory for the new republic. The territory was 
governed by the British, from the fort in Detroit under command 
of Colonel Hamilton of the British regular army whose duty was 
to enlist the savages against the settlers in case they rebelled against 
the British crown. How well he perfonned this duty is indicated by 
the name "Hair buyer" given him because of his traffic in human 
scalps. Hence the danger that confronted the inhabitants of this 
region was real and frightful. The Indians spared no one. As 
much was paid by the Lieutenant Governor of Detroit, for the scalp 
of a woman or child as for one of a man. 

Mr. Bodly says (p. 54), "George III himself wrote, 'everj- 
means of distressing Amercans must meet with my concurrence'. 
With mock humanity he directed that the Indians be 'restrained 
from committing violence upon the well affected and inoffensive.' 
The savages were to be turned loose only upon his own rebelling 
subjects. His minister declared that, 'to bi'ing the war to a more 

68 



BOOK REVIEWS 



69 



speedy issue and restore these deluded people to their former state 
of happiness and prosperity are the favorite wishes of the Royal 
Breast and the great object of all His Majesty's measures' but in the 
next sentence added : ' a supply of presents for the Indians and other 
necessaries will be wanted for your service and you will of course 
send Lieut. Gov. Hamilton what is proper and sufficient'. Amongst 
such 'necessaries' sent were, 'red handled scalping knives' by 
gross — sixteen gross or two thousand five hundred and four knives 
in one consignment. Hamilton wrote Carleton January 15, 1768, 
(p. 54) 'The parties sent ont from hence have been in general 
successful tho' the Indians have lost men enough to sharpen 
their resentment. They have brought in seventy-three prisoners 
alive, twenty of which they presented to me and one hundred and 
twenty-nine scalps.' Of the fifty-three unfortunates who were not 
'presented' to Hamilton, some were probably made slaves, some 
few adopted into the tribes, and the rest tomahawked, or tortured 
to death. The favorite mode of torture was by slow burning at the 
stake, accompanied with merciless beating, and demoniacal shouting 
and dancing." 

Clark invaded this region seeking the capture of Vincennes on 
the Wabash in the present State of Indiana with a small force. 
It would have been impossible for him to have traversed this region 
or to have captured Vincennes without the aid given him by the 
French settlers. Clark's appreciation of the assistance rendered 
him by Father Gibault, the priest stationed at Fort Vincennes is 
indicated (p. 73) " 'From some things that I had learned, I had 
some reason to suspect that Mr. Gibault, the priest, was inclined to 
the American interest previous to our arrival in the country. . . . 
I made no doubt of his integrity. I sent for him and had (a) long 
conference with him on the subject of Vincennes. In answer to all 
my queries, he informed me that he did not think it was worth 
my while to cause any military preparation to be made at the Falls 
for (an) attack on Vincennes, although the place was strong and a 
great number of Indians in (its) neighborhood, who to his knowl- 
edge were generally at war; that Gov. Abbot had a few weeks 
(before) left the place on some business at Detroit; that he expected 
that when the inhabitants were fully acquainted with what had 
passed at the Illinois towns and the present happiness of their 
friends, and made fully acquainted with the nature of the war . . . 
their sentiments would greatly change; that he knew that his 
appearance there would have great weight, even amongst the 
savages ; that, if it was agreeable to me, he would take his business 



70 BOOK REVIEWS 

on himself, and had no doubt of his being able to bring that place 
over to the American interest, A\'ithont my being at the trouble of 
marching troops against it; that, his business being altogether 
spiritual, he wished that another person might be charged with the 
temporal part of the embassy, but that he would privately direct 
the whole etc. He named Dr. LafCont as his associate. 

'This was perfectly agreeable to what I had been secretly aiming 
at for some days. The plan was immediately settled, and the two 
doctors, with their intended retinue, among whom I had a spy, 
set about preparing for their journey, and set out on the 14th of 
July with . . . great numbers of letters from their friends to the 
inhabitants . . . Mr. Gibault (had) verbal instructions how to act 
in certain cases . . . (He and his) party arrived safe, and, after 
their spending a day or two in explaining matters to the people, 
they universally acceded to the proposal, (except a few emissaries 
that were left by Mr. Abbott, that immediately left the country), 
and went in a body to the church, where the oath of allegiance was 
administered to them in the most solemn mannerr. An officer, 
(Captain Bosseron) was elected, and the fort immediately (gar- 
risoned), and the American flag displayed, to the astonishment of 
the Indians, and everything settled far beyond our most sanguine 
hopes. 

'The people there immediately began to put on a new face and 
to talk in a different style and to act as perfect freemen, with 
a garrison their own, with the United States at their elbows. 
Their language to the Indians Avas immediately altered. They 
began as citizens of the state, and informed the Indians that their 
old Father, the King of France, was come to life again and had 
joined the Big Knife, and Avas mad at them for fighting for the 
English: that they would advise them to make peace with the 
Americans as soon as they could, otherwise they might expect the 
land to be very bloody, etc. (The Indians) began to think seriouslj"^ 
throughout those countries. This was now the kind of language 
they generally got from their ancient friends of the Wabash and 
Illinois, through the means of their correspondence breeding among 
the nations. Our batteries began now to play in a proper channel. 

. . . Mr. Gibault and party accompanied by several gentlemen 
of Vincennes, returned about the first of August Avith the joyful 
ncAvs.' " 

Hamilton pays his respects to Father Gibault in his diary (p. 94) 
"Gibault the priest, has been active for the rebels. I shall reward 
him if possible. 



BOOK REVIEWS 71 

It has been said that republics are ungrateful. There were 
disputes as to who should pay the necessary bills. Clark sacrificed 
his personal fortune (p. 193) "most of the officers — nothing daunted 
by the failure of the state to pay for their ser^dees, or even to repay 
their money outlays in her behalf — and many of their French 
friends, personally endorsed the state bills, or gave their personal 
bonds to procure supplies for the troops. Few of them were ever 
relieved of these obligations, or reimbursed either by the state, or 
the United States, which later undertook to pay them. Shannon, 
Helm, Father Gibault, Cerre, Montgomery, Vigo, Bosseron, LeGras, 
Linctot, McCarty, Floyd, and many others were thus sorely em- 
barrassed or ruined. When the holders of claims on the state pre- 
sented them at Richmond (sometimes after journeying five hundred 
or a thousand miles, and after long months of weary waiting), 
they were oftenest referred to the roving commission of western 
accounts in some unknown part of the great west. 

The book is very readable as is apparent from the extracts 
given, many of which are quoted in the quaint language of the 
chronicles of the time. It is unnecessary to add that the topography 
ard arrangement are still all that could be desired. 

John V. McCormick, J, D. 
Loyola University, Chicago, III. 

Universal Knowledge. The Universal Knowledge Foundation, 
New York, 1927. 

A general encyclopedia is indispensable to the student of history 
and a new encyclopedia is surely needed. The swift march if events 
in every sphere, in polities, literature, science, sociology and even 
in religion requires a new record. Were it simply a march of normal 
progress the record might be made by revising or altering what 
was already in print. Changes, however, which are really revolu- 
tionary now require books of general information altogether new. 
They require also that much of the old information to be discarded 
as no longer human interest, and that the new be presented in the 
most compact form possible, if our general works of reference are 
to be kept within reasonable limits. 

New material is not so difficult to find. With the latest standard 
books and reference works at hand, the subjects of vital interest 
in the daily press and high-class reviews, correspondence with ad- 
visers in every part of the world and the collaborations of hundreds 
of writers, the editors can overlook few, if any, matters of real 
importance. 



72 BOOK REVIEWS 

The day is past when a general encyclopedia can be a collection 
of extensive treatises on every subject, admit biographies of men 
and women of transient celebrity, or restate in a biography what 
should be treated under the title of the subject for which the 
person referred to was noted. In a hundred such ways editors 
of encyclopedias can and must economize space, and, besides, ex- 
ercise unsparingly every repetition of the same matter, all diffuse- 
ness of style and every waste word, particularly laudatory epithets 
and excess adjectives. 

Other general reference works have been doubling their number 
of volumes, but the editors of Universal Knowledge, by careful study 
and by constant vigilance against overlapping and useless repeti- 
tions, have found that all the general inquirer needs to know can be 
put in twelve compact volumes. Conciseness is one of the distinctive 
merits of this work. 

Volume I, which covers the letter "A", gives promise that the 
work will be one of great worth particularly to the lover of history. 
Among the more important titles, historically speaking, we find 
excellent articles on Abyssinia, Alaska, Archaeology and Argentina. 
Seventeen maps, printed specially for the work in four colors and 
giving the latest geographical information on the territory covered, 
are included in this first volume. 

That the historical articles will be adequately handled is indi- 
cated by the fact that contributors to Volume I include writers like, 
Conde B. Fallen, Charles Hallan McCarthy, Ph. D., Franz Kampers, 
Ph. D., Professor of Medieval and Modern History, Breslau, Henri 
Froidevaux, Professor of Modern History, Institut Catholique, 
Paris, Henry J. Schroeder, 0. P., Professor of History, Providence 
College, Leo F. Stock, Ph. D., Lawrence J. Kenny, S. J., Patrick 
J. Healy, Ph. D., Richard J. Purcell, Ph. D. 



HISTORY IN THE PRESS 

BISHOP MULDOON RESIGNS FROM N. C. W. C. 
ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE 

Our readers will learn with deep regret of the resignation, due 
to ill health, of Rt. Rev. Peter J. Muldoon, D. D., Bishop of Rockford, 
as a member of the Administrative Committee of the National Cath- 
olic Welfare Conference, and episcopal chairman of the N. C. W. C. 
Department of Social Action. 

As one of the four Administrative Bishops of the National Catholic 
War Couscil and, since its organization, one of the seven Administra- 
tive Bishops of the National Catholic Welfare Conference, Bishop 
Muldoon has worked unselfishly and untiringly, not only in the 
organization and operation of his particular departmest, but in the 
promotion of the general objectives of the Conference as well. 

What this department has done under Bishop Muldoon 's sterling 
leadership to acquaint both Catholics and non-Catholics with the social 
teachings of the Church and to encourage the practice of those 
teachings, is well known to Bulletin reoAers. . The platf onn and policy 
of his department were built upon the wisdom of the illustrious Leo 
XIII and the Program of Social Reconstruction, which Bishop Mul- 
doon, with three other fellow members of the American Hierarchy, 
sponsored, embodied the teachings of that great pontiff and has been 
pointed to as one of the finest pronouncements of Catholic principles 
affecting the field of labor and industry ever issued. 

The Catholic Conference on Industrial Problems and the Catholic 
Rural Life Conference are two developments of Bishop Muldoon 's 
administration. The Civic Education Program of the Conference, 
another of his immediate responsibilities, has brought great credit to 
the Conference and the appreciation of numerous civic leaders out- 
side the Church. American Catliolics in the War, Michael Williams' 
stirring story of Catholic sacrifice and service, was dedicated to 
Bishop Muldoon. 

American Catholics owe a tremendous debt of gratitude to this 
Illustrious leader. It is hoped that, relieved of the numerous outside 
responsibilities which he so cheerfully assumed and so ably executed. 
Bishop Muldoon will regain his normal health. Members of the Bulle- 
tin family will, we know, earnestly pray that this may soon be so and 
will look forward to the time when, with health returned, he may 
again take up actively the work in which he has so spledidly served 
his Church and country.— N. C. W. C. Bulletin, May, 1927. 

73 



74 TERESA L. MAHER 

CATHOLIC WAR RECORDS 

The May issue of Extension Magazine presents a special article 
entitled ' ' When the War Drums Throbbed ' ' describing the magnitude 
of war facts as assembled by the N. C. W. C. Bureau of Historical 
Records. An opportunity is given to the reader to observe how 
generously Catholics in various states exceeded their quota contribu- 
tion to the armed forces. 

The Bureau's collection of death casualties of Catholics during 
the World War, as yet incomplete, numbers 22,000 or approximately 
23 per cent of the total American battle deaths. 

It is believed that facts assembled by the N. C. W. C. Bureau 
will show that Catholics of the United States furnished approximately 
120 per cent of their mathematical quota of service personnel for the 
World War, nowithstanding unavoidably is complete parish records 
that we are admitted in some communities. 

Hundreds of parishes are engaged in making up honor rolls of 
war service people or perfecting lists that were allowed to stand as of 
April or May of 1918. The lay societies in many dioceses are giving 
generous aid toward perfecting our Catholic war records. 

N. C. W. C. Bulletin, May, 1927. 

SPLENDID ORGANIZATION OP NATIONAL COUNCIL OF 

CATHOLIC WOMEN EFFECTED IN BELLVILLE 

DIOCESE 

The executive board of the National Council of Catholic AVomen 
of the Belleville Diocese held its meeting recently in the Community 
House, East St. Louis. Mrs. Louise Boismenue, diocesan chairman, 
presided and announced the appointment of diocesan committees. 
Limited space does not permit printing the list, but on reading it 
one realizes what a splendid piece of organization has been effected 
in the Belleville Diocese. The representatives came from every sec- 
tion. There cannot fail to develop a spirit of unity and Catholic 
zeal where Catholic women come together in this way. 

The special projects to be undertaken by the Council are : Rural 
vacation schools; hospital for tubercular patients; co-operation with 
Rev. John J. Fallon, superintendent of schools of the diocese, with 
Rev. Albert Zuroweste, in charge of juvenile court work, and with 
the secretaries of the Community House in immigration work. 

The program of the Council is under the direct supervision of 
Rt. Rev. Hemy Althoff, D. D., Bishop of Belleville, and Monsignor 
Charles Gilmartin, 



HISTORY IN THE PRESS 75 

The Board took advantage of this meeting to endorse whole-heart- 
edly the plans for the Northwestern Territory exposition at Cahokia, 
which is a part of the celebration of the one hundred and fiftieth anni- 
versary of the northwestern acquisition. The resolution emphasized the 
fact that Cahokia is the birthplace of Christianity in that part of the 
United States which lies west of the Allegheny mountains inasmuch 
as the first permanent parish was established there in 1699 by Fathers 
Pinet and St. Cosme. It emphasized also the services of Father 
Pierre Gribault, whose history is so intimately connected with the 
acquisition of the Northwest Territory. 

N. C. W. C. Bulletin, May, 1927. 



THE CATHOLIC OEDER OF FORESTERS 

On Wednesday, April 27th, the Catholic Order of Foresters pre- 
sented to the Catholic University of America at Washington, D. C, 
ai gift of $50,000.00 as a votive offering to the Shrine of the Immac- 
ulate Conception now in process of erection there. 

A tablet in memory of the soldiers and sailors of the Order who 
died during the World War will be install^ in the Shrine. Over 
10,000 members of the Catholic Order of Foresters, many of them 
from Illinois, answered the call of their country during the war, and 
of these 382 gave up their lives. 

During its 44 years of existence the Foresters have given liberally 
to all the works of religion, education and charity. To it credit 
stands the donation of $30,000.00 to the Catholic Church Extension 
Society of the United States, $25,000.00 to St. Mary's of the Lake 
Seminary at Mundelein, Illinois, large donations during the World 
War to the suffering people of Europe, contributions to sufferers 
in disasters, and innumerable contributions to churches, seminaries 
and charitable institutions throughout the land. $1,000,000.00 has 
thus been disbursed during the past 44 years. During the war the 
Society subscribed $2,000,000.00 in Liberty bonds. 

The good work of the Foresters is due in great measure to Thomas 
H. Cannon, High Chief Ranger, of Chicago. Other Illinois officers 
of the national organization are, Thomas F. McDonald, High Sec- 
retary, Dr. J. P. Smyth, High Medical Examiner, and John E. 
Stephan, Leo J. Winiecki and P. E. Callaghan, High Trustees, all 
of Chicago. 



76 TERESA L. MAKER 

AMERICAN CATHOLIC HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

The Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Meeting of the American 
Catholic Historical Association, reported in the Catholic Historical 
Review, April, 1927, New Series, V. VII, pp. 3-28, give proof again 
of the excellent work being done by American Catholic historians. 
The marvel of it is that the work is being carried on with practically 
no help from our fellow Catholics at large. We find for instance 
that the total membership, as of December 31, 1926, was only 517, 
that only 104 of this total were lay people. Coming to our own 
confines we note that Illinois has only 28 members; though it is en- 
couraging to read that one-fourth of that number were added, during 
the year. 

Why this apathy on the part of intelligent Catholics who are 
genuinely interested in matters historical? We venture to say that 
if an investigation were made it would be found that Well's Outline 
of History has been purchased by five to ten thousand Catholics since 
its first publication. Why then do we have only a meager half- 
thousand indicating their interest in Catholic history to the extent of 
becoming membei"s in the American Catholic Historical Association? 

The writer, who assisted in some measure to guide the destines 
of the Catholic Historical Review (the organ of A. C. H. A.) during 
the first year of its existence and who for the past few years has 
tenderly nurtured the financial well-being of our own Review, believes 
that this lack of appreciation is due to the fact that we are neglecting 
to let Catholics know what is being offered in the way of Catholic 
historical writings and activities. The budget of every Catholic his- 
torical organization should contain an appropriation for advertsing 
and publicity. This appropriation would, of course, have to be small 
in most eases, but the results would be most gratifying. 

Not that we believe in trying to cajole Catholics into subscribing 
to something in which they are not interested. It is unnecessary to 
point out that a majority of our Catholics (just as a majority of 
Americans) are not interested in the serious study of history. But 
it is our firm belief that among the twenty millions of Catholics in 
the United States, there are twenty thousand who are sufficiently 
interested in Catholic history and are sufficiently affluent to spend five 
dollars a year to become members of the A. C. H. A. And we believe 
also that of these twenty thousand there should be three or four 
thousand Catholics in Illinois who would be glad to spend another 
three dollars for membership in our own Illinois Catholic Historical 
Society. 



HISTORY IN THE PRESS 77 

It would be interesting to know what our readere think of this 
matter. Some of the members of the Society boil over at times with 
indignation at the fact that historical matters are so neglected by- 
Catholics. Our faith is firm however in the belief that our problem 
is not to arouse Catholics to an interest in Catholic history but simplj^ 
to make known to those who are interested what our Associations 
and Societies are doing. 

BOURBONNAIS WAS FIRST VILLAGE ON KANKAKEE 

RIVER 

Bourbonnais, 111., Feb. 27. — Her claims of distinction as being the 
mother of Kankakee, St. Anne, Le Erable, Papineau and all the 
French Canadian colonies of Kansas, Iowa, Minnesota, and the Dako- 
tas, have made this village of about 450 French descendants content 
to rest on her laurels while her children grow and thrive. 

The village is unique because its inhabitants are almost exclusively 
of French descent. It it the home also of St. Viator's college which 
has a student body numbering 410. 

It was the first settlement on the Kankakee River, and took its 
name from Francis Bourbonnais, Sr., whom historians say lived in 
this vicinity over a century ago. The exact date or year of his coming 
has not been ascertained. Tradition says that he married an Indian 
girl. 

An early trader by the name of Noel LeVasseur gave the settle- 
ment its French characteristics by settling here in 1832 and becoming 
Bourbonnais' first actual white settler. He also married an Indian 
woman, but she left him and went with her own people. 

LeVasseur, accounts say, then took a trip into Canada to secure 
more white people for his village. He came back without even one 
companion, but his stories of the fertility of the soil and the good 
fortunes awaiting settlers in this village had their effect and in 1844 
immigration from Canada to Bourbonnais began. 

That year came the Rivards, St. Pierres, Flageoles, Legris, Delu- 
nais, Lapoliee, Martins, and other prominent families whose descend- 
ants today form part of the population of the village. 

For years all immigrants from Canada whatever their ultimate 
objective, came first to Bourbonnais and made this the base of their 
first plans for journeys into surrounding lands and territories. The 
French immigration practically ceased in 1852. 

LeVasseur died in 1879 "full of years and honor," as one historian 
puts it. The village has not grown and still retains most of the 
characteristics of the early French towns in America. 



78 TERESA L. MAHER 

Its town roster contains French names with few exceptions. Its 
people are content to provide the home for St. Viators college, and 
live as they have for a century, without the humdrum of industry. 
Within four miles, the home of Governor Small, Kankakee is adding 
to its population of 19,000 people and a goodly number of industries. 

With a historical background that is unequalled in Illinois for 
Indian lore and quaint French tradition, Bourbonnais neither grows 
nor dwindles. 

ALTON PLANNING RIVER SIDE PARK TO REPLACE RUINS 

{By Associated Press) 

Alton, III., Jan. 6. — Plans for replacing charred ruins of the 
historic old city hall of Alton with a river side park are being con- 
sidered by the city council and Mayor George T. Davis of Alton. 

The city was forbidden by the Illinois supreme court recently to 
build a new city hall on the old grounds, for it held that the land 
was the property of the state and that it could not be used for 
municipal purposes. Accordingly Mayor Davis has proposed that the 
grounds which are in a beautiful location overlooking the river, might 
be improved with the consent of the state and made into a public park. 

The picturesque old building was razed about a year ago while 
a petition was being made to modernize it and make it fireproof. It 
has taken a large part in early Illinois history, and was the scene of 
many historic events in pioneer days. The burning of the building 
removed a landmark which has been pointed out to tourists by boatmen 
on the river for many years. 

The building had approached the century mark when it burned, 
and was filled with lore of the early days of the state. It stood near 
the place where the printing press belonging to Elijah P. Lovejoy, 
Bostonian anti-slavery agitator, was thrown into the river. Alton 
was at that time one of the rising cities of the middle west, and mail 
sent to St. Louis was addressed "near Alton." Lovejoy was finally 
killed by Illinois pro-slavery agitators and eastern capital which was 
responsible for Alton's prosperity was suddenly withdrawn. 

Daniel Webster once spoke from the steps of the building, and 
many other early figures in American and Illinois history spoke there. 

The blackened ruins of the building still stand as they did when 
the building was burned. Timbers and bricks lie about, and the cells 
of the jail are still intact underground. 

"While it is not mandatory upon us to remove the wreckage," 
Mayor Davis said in his message to the city council, "yet let us 



HISTORY IN THE PRESS 79 

demonstrate by our action that we possess pride in the appearance 
of our city and speedily take the necesary steps to remedy the un- 
sightly conditions as they exist today on the city hall square." 

CAIRO HAS NEW HOPE FOR GREAT CITY 

{By Associated Press) 

Cairo, HI., March 20.— Dreams of the Jesuit followers of Marquette 
and Joliet, of early explorers who followed the windings of the Missis- 
sippi and Ohio in their canoes, and of the men who stood at the 
convergence of the two streams and visioned a great city controlling 
lanes of traffic bearing the commerce of a nation are approaching 
realization in the dreams of a new Cairo, built by the trade along the 
improved waterways. 

Early plans for the city have been recalled following the improve- 
ment of the Ohio channel by the construction of fifty-two locks and 
dams, and the possibility of a lakes-to-gulf waterway from Chicago 
to New Orleans over the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. A bill now 
pending in Congress for the construction of a tri-state bridge connect- 
ing Cairo with Kentucky and Missouri, replacing the old ferries now 
in service, has also given rise to the hope that more roads will lead 
to Cairo. 

Such plans have figured in the life of Cairo since it was first 
considered as a site for a city. Jesuit priests who followed their 
Indian guides about over ^he rivers invariably spoke of the con- 
junction of the two rivers in their memoirs as the location of a 
future city which would control the trade and commerce of the empire 
lying in the basin of the two great streams. 

One of the first of the explorers to take advantage of the location 
was Juchereau de St. Denis, who established a trading post and tan- 
nery there in 1702. This first venture was unsuccessful, however, for 
the Indians, after waiting until his store of skins was ready for 
removal, swooped down upon him, killing most of the members of 
his party and taking the skins. St. Denis himself narrowly escaped 
with his life. 

The first organized attempt to develop the country was made by 
the Illinois Land Company. It was organized on July 5, 1773, and 
the territory between the two rivers as far north as a line between 
Shawneetown and Kaskaskia was purchased from the Indians. For 
this immense tract of land the company gave the Indians 250 blankets, 
260 strouds, 350 shirts, 150 pair of strouds and half-thick stockings, 
150 Stroud breechcloths, 500 pounds of gunpowder, 4,000 pounds of 



80 TERESA L. MAHER 

lead, one gross knives, 30 pounds of vermilion, 2,000 gun flints, 200 
pounds brass kettles, 200 pounds tobacco, 36 gilt mirrors, one gross 
gun warms, two gross awls, one gross fire steels, 16 dozen of gartering, 
10,000 pounds of flour, 500 bushels of Indian corn, 12 horses, 12 
horned cattle, 20 bushels of salt, 20 guns, and five shillings in money. 

Development of the important site at the junction of the two 
rivers did not come until some time later, however. The township 
was surveyed in 1807, and an act to incorporate the city and bank 
of Cairo was passed on January 9, 1818. This venture ended in 
failure as did several other attempts later. The fact that the swollen 
currents of the two streams inundated the site was an ever-present 
obstacle to those who tried to build a metropolis on the river banks. 

At one time a real estate company was organized and New York 
and London bankers were induced to invest money in a new enterprise. 
Charles Dickens was one of the men who bought stock. But even 
these loans failed to instill the life necessary for a successful execution 
of the plans for the promoters. Cairo remained a straggling village. 

Because of its strategic position, Cairo was a jealously guarded 
union stronghold during the Civil "War. At the close of the war, the 
city again revived its hopes, for it was thought that post-war develop- 
ment and progress would give it its place as head of traffic on the 
two rivers. But these hopes, like so many before them, were never 
realized. 

Now, the present-day Cairo, watching the long series of dams and 
locks in the Ohio River near completion, dreaming of the numerous 
barges which will ply back and forth throughout the year; listening 
to plans to make the Mississippi the greatest inland waterway in the 
world by the construction of the canal from Chicago to the Illinois 
River; and anxiously awaiting the action of Congress on the bill 
which will do away with its ancient ferries; Cairo, seeing these 
wonders planned, is hoping again. 

Compiled by Teresa L. Maher. 
Joliet, Illinois. 



Illinois 

Catholic Historical 

Review 

Volume X OCTOBER, 1927 Number 2 



(3lllm0t2 QIatlialtc ^tstortcal ^omtg 

28 NORTH FRANKLIN STREET, CHICAGO 



HONORART PRESIDENTS 

His Eminence C^eorge Cardinal Mundelein, Chicago 

Rt. Rev. Peter J. Muldoon, D. D., Rockford Rt. Rev. Henry Althoff, D. D., BellevUU 

Rt. Rev. Edmund M. Dunne, D. D., Peoria Rt. Rev. James A. Griffin, D. D., Springfield 

OFFICERS 

Pbksidbnt Financial Sbcrbtabt 

Bev. Frederic Siedenburg, S. J., Ohieago Francis J. Rooney, Chicago 
First Vicb-Pbksident 

Rt. Rev. F. A. Purcell, Chicago Recokdinq Skcbbtabt 

Second Vick-Pbesident Agnes Van Driel, Chicago 
James M. Graham, Springfield 

Tbbasxtbeb Abchivist 
John P. V. Murphy, Chicago Rev. Joseph P. Morrison, Ohieago 

TRUSTEES 

Yery Rev. James Shannon, Peoria Michael F. Girten, Ohieago 
Bev. William H. Agnew, S. J., Chicago James A. Bray, Joliet 

Mrs. Daniel V. Gallery, Chicago Frank J. Seng, WHmette 

D. F. Bremner, Chicago Mrs. E. I. Cudahy, Chicago 

Margaret Madden, Chicago John Coleman, Lake Forest 



^Iltnotg Catlfaltc ^tstorical ^e^tb^i 

Journal of the Illinois Catholic Eistorioat Society 

28 North Franklin Street, Chicago 

MANAGING EDITOR 
F. J. Rooney 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 

Joseph J. Thompson Chicago William Stetson Merrill Chicago 

Rev. Frederick Beuckman Belleville Rev. Paul J. Folk, C. S. C. . . .Austin, Texas 

Rev. J. B. Culemans Moline Rev. Gilbert J. Garraghan, S. J . . .St. Louis 



Published by 

The Illxngis Catholic Historical Society 

Chicago, III. 



CONTENTS 



Samttel Finlet Breese Morse and the Anti-Catholio Politioal Move- 
ments IN THE United States (1791-1872) 

Bev. Francis John Connors, A. F. M, 83 

Illinois — The Cradle of Christianitt and Civilization in Mid-America 
(Continued) 

Joseph J. Thampson, LL. D. 123 

Colonel Francis Vigo and George Rogers Clark 

Cedl H. Chamierlain, S. J. 139 

Letters of Bishop Benedict Joseph Fenwick of Boston to Bishop 
Joseph Eosati of St. Louis 

Bev. John Bothensteiner 145 



Editorial Comment -......- i67 



Gleanings From Current Periodicals ..... igg 



Book Reviews: 

The Bridge to France, (Edward N. Hurley). 

John V. McCormick, J. D. 173 

Tlie United States — A History for the Upper Grades of Catholic 
Schools, (William J, Kennedy and Sister Mary Joseph). 

John V. MoCormick, J. D. 174 

Chronicle : 

St. John the Baptist Church, Johnsburg, HI. 

Jeannette M. Smith, Ph. B. 175 



lotola university press 
chicago, illinois 

82 



Illinois 

Catholic Historical Review 



Volume X OCTOBER, 1927 Number 2 

SAMUEL FINLEY BREESE MORSE AND THE 
ANTI-CATHOLIC POLITICAL MOVE- 
MENTS IN THE UNITED STATES 

(1791-1872) 

Introduction 

The subject of this essay is the part played by the well-known 
inventor of the telegraph, Samuel F. B. Morse, in the rise and de- 
velopment of the anti-Catholic political movements in the United 
States. Morse's life spanned almost a century. He was born in 
1791 and died in 1872. Those years, particularly to the outbreak 
of the Civil War, witnessed a large output of anti-Catholic literature 
in the United States. Chief among the books published from 1791 
to 1860 must be placed Morse's violent attack upon the Catholic 
Church, which he published in 1835 under the title : Imyninent Dan- 
gers to the Free Institutions of the United States through Foreign 
Immigration and the Present State of Naturalization Laws. This 
little volume has become very scarce with the passing of the years, 
and we have been fortunate in having a photostatic copy from the 
transcripts in Dr. Guilday's collection for our use. An analysis of 
the volume is given in this essay. 

To bring out in relief the contrast of Morse's exceptional educa- 
tion and culture, his inventive genius, and his high literary taste 
with his rabid and violent intolerance towards the Catholic Church, 
it has been thought necessary to sketch Morse's life, his education, 
and his singular opportunities of learning the truth about Catholi- 
cism. The subject of religious intolerance is not a pleasant one; nor 
can it be approached without the fear that one's readers may suspect 
an ulterior motive in the treatment of its various phases. More- 
over, religious intolerance in the history of the United States has 
centered around one Church, namely, the Catholic Church. It has 

83 



84 REV. FRANCIS JOHN CONNORS 

been against Catholics that the periodic outbursts of religious bigotry 
have been directed ; and for that very reason, one will search in vain 
the historical literature of our country for a complete and adequate 
description of these anti-Catholic movements. The same is true to 
a large extent in the historical works of Catholics. The tendency is 
rather to forget these unpleasant episodes in our national history, 
on the score that such intolerance never represents the real heart of 
the American people, and that to revive these forgotten memories 
of vicious and unwarranted attacks upon the Church smacks some- 
what of a lessened patriotic outlook on our national past. Charity, 
would, indeed, suggest that these events be forgotten; but the truth 
is that even with the passing of the years which have brought a 
closer unity among the American people, the anti-Catholicism of the 
past is not a dead issue in our social and political development. Con- 
sequently, to meet the issues which arise at any moment, a thorough 
study should be made of all the causes underlying this apparently 
ineradicable attitude on the part of so many outside the Catholic 
Church. 

Each decade of the nineteenth century has its own peculiar method 
of giving life and support to anti-Catholicism in the United States. 
Each section of the country viewed the growing strength of the Cath- 
olic Church from its own local standpoint. Each movement, whether 
of the Native Americans, the Know-Nothings, the American Protec- 
tive Association, or the Ku Klux Klan, should have its own historian. 
To approach so large a problem in a general way is a very difficult 
proceeding, owing to the varied factors in each phase of the anti- 
Catholic movements of the past. Hence arises the necessity of a 
monographic treatment of the question. It will only be after each 
of these phases and factors and sectional viewpoints has been studied 
separately that the Church historian may proceed to a generalization 
of the facts contained in such monographs. 

The present essay centers its study about one man, and that man 
an outstanding figure in American life, Samuel F. B. Morse, who 
won undying celebrity to himself by the invention of the telegraph 
in 1844. The closer one approaches the casual elements of the various 
anti-Catholic movements, the clearer it becomes that in each of them 
one man is principally responsible for its rise and growth. This is 
especially true of Morse and the Native American Movement of the 
'40s. The exceptional part of Morse 's place in the movement was that 
he had a much better education and a much wider culture than most 
Americans of his day. This essay endeavors to explain his part in 
the unsavory story of Native-Americanism. 



SAMUEL FINLEY BREESE MORSE 85 

The method we have followed in treating the subject divides it 
naturally into two parts, the religious and the educational influences 
in Morse's life up to 1844, and the place he occupied after that his- 
toric year in the Native-Aftierican and Know-Nothing political camps 
until his death in 1872. 

The history of religious intolerance in the United States has never 
been fully treated. Such volumes, as Sanford Cobb's Rise of Re- 
ligious Liberty in America, contain much that is pertinent to the 
subject; but for the history of the opposition to Catholicism, only 
scattered references can be found in Shea's History of the Church in 
the United States, and in similar works. The opposition of Protes- 
tants toward the Catholic Church in the United States from the land- 
ing at Jamestown in 1607 to the present has not been caused solely 
by religious intolerance. There is another powerful factor which 
explains much of the bigotry — the political factor. When Columbus 
landed here in 1492, the settlements made by the Irish and the Norse- 
men in Greenland and Labrador had disappeared. During the 
period of colonization, from 1492 to 1690, three European coun- 
tries sent discoverers and colonizers to our shores. Spain colonized 
the West Indies, Florida, New Mexico and the Pacific Coast. Eng- 
land colonized the Atlantic seaboard or what are now the States along 
the Atlantic ocean. Prance colonized Canada, the Ohio and Mis- 
sissippi Valleys and parts of Maine. With every Spanish vessel came 
missionaries. Churches and schools were begun. The Indians were 
converted, and in every phase of their activity the Spaniards showed 
a benign interest for the red men. France had at the head of her 
colonizing activity the great figure of Cardinal Richelieu, who was 
one of the most broad minded Frenchmen of his time. The English 
colonies were peopled by settlers from England, Ireland and Scotland. 
The religious situation in the British Isles in the year 1607, the date 
of the first English settlement in America, gives rise to the question: 
did these early English settlers and those who followed them down 
to the American Revolution come to our shores imbued with the 
idea of religious liberty, or with the realization of the necessity of 
a separation between Church and State? 

Colonial legislation in the English settlements from Maine to 
Georgia, from the year 1607 to the outbreak of the Revolution in 
1775, points to the fact that, as far as religion was concerned, one 
fear predominated: — ^the presence of Catholics. Scarcely a single de- 
cade in that stretch of one hundred and sixty-seven years passed 
without a law in one or other of the colonies against the presence of 
the Church of Rome; and so imbedded were these anti-Catholic 



86 REV. FRANCIS JOHN CONNORS 

clauses in the Constitutions of the colonies, that when the Revolution 
was over and the treaty of Paris signed in 1783, the Fathers of the 
American Constitution, under which we now live, realized that they 
had to deal with a strong opposition in the country against granting 
full religious liberty of conscience to all the citizens of the New Re- 
public. American history has one great dividing line — the Declara- 
tion of Independence on July 4th, 1776. In the period preceding 
that tremendous day, there was not a single one of the thirteen colo- 
nies, which had not at some time or other proscribed those who pro- 
fessed faith in the Catholic Church. In some of the colonies there 
were penal laws, copied from those of England, forbidding and pun- 
ishing the practice of the Catholic religion, while in others. Catholics, 
though tolerated, were nevertheless taxed for the support of the 
Protestant Church, which they could not recognize and which taught 
that their religion was both superstitious and idolatrous and a menace 
to the safety of the State. Although subject to all the duties and 
burdens of citizenship, they were denied its privileges. They were 
practically disfranchised. Socially, they were ostracized. 

At the outbreak of the Revolution, there were about 25,000 Cath- 
olics in the United States. From the close of the war down to 1814, 
the Federalist party strove to preserve the political ascendency of 
Protestantism in the United States. They had not then accepted the 
principle of religious liberty as expressed in the American Consti- 
tution, and for this as well as for other reasons the Irish and other 
Catholic immigrants coming into the country joined what was then 
the anti-Federalist or Democratic party. That is the reason why 
even as late as twenty-five years ago, it was a surprise to find an 
Irish Catholic a member of the Republican party. The Irish settled 
mostly in the New England States, New York State and the Middle 
Western States. The South owing to slavery was a very unfavorable 
place to the Irish immigrant. 

In 1797 a bill was presented to Congress by Mr. Brooks placing 
a twenty dollar tax on all certificates of naturalization. A new 
law of June 18, 1798, provided that fourteen years of residence, and 
a declaration of intention five years prior to application, was neces- 
sary to naturalization. In 1802 the naturalization period was again 
placed at five years. The Native-Americans, with the object of 
placing difficulties in the way of immigration, wished to prevent 
naturalization until after a residence of twenty-five years ; on the 
plea that no immigrant could acquire the necessary knowledge in a 
shorter time and that a too early qualification of foreigners abridged 
and undermined the rights of native citizens. In 1842 a bill was 



SAMUEL FINLEY BREESE MORSE 87 

presented to Congress by Mr. Walker of Mississippi to reduce the 
term of residence required by law for naturalization from five to 
two years. Federal law today prescribes a residence of five years 
as the prerequisite for naturalization, but the term which enables a 
vote to be acquired is often shorter under State laws. The United 
States requires that all aliens admitted to citizenship shall conform 
to the country's distinctive conditions and accept its ideals; that all 
imported traits shall be pooled in the common stock of the one com- 
posite people. 

The hatred for the Irish Catholic immigrant is clearly set forth 
in Imminent Dangers to tJie Free Institutions of the United States 
through Foreign Immigration and the Present State of Naturalization 
Laws by Morse when he says : 

The notorious ignorance in which the great mass of these immi- 
grants have been all their lives sunk, until their minds are dead, 
makes them but senseless machines; they obey orders mechanically, 
•for it is the habit of their education, in the despotic countries of their 
birth. And can it be for a moment supposed by any one that by the 
act of coming to this country, and being naturalized, their darkened 
intellects can suddenly be illuminated to discern the nice boundary 
where their ecclesiastical obedience to their priests ends, and their 
civil independence of them begins? They obey their priests as demi- 
gods, from the habit of their whole lives ; they have been taught from 
infancy that their priests are infallible in the greatest matters, and 
can they, by mere importation to this country, be suddenly imbued 
with the knowledge that in civil matters their priests may err, and 
that they are not in these also their infallible guides? Who will 
teach them this? Will their priests? Let common sense answer this 
question. Must not the priests, as a matter of almost certainty, con- 
trol the opinion of their ignorant flock in civil as well as religious 
matters? and do they not do it? 

In spite of all that has been said and written, the Irish immigrant 
played a very important role, not only industrially but also politi- 
cally in the nation's growth. The Irish were a potent factor in fed- 
eral politics and still more so in municipal affairs. The full history 
of religious intolerance towards Catholicism cannot be told unless we 
take into consideration certain factors within the Church itself which 
occasioned to some extent the opposition. Chief among these factors 
was the problem of adjusting Catholic life to American ways. In 
adjusting Catholic life and action to the ideals of the new Republic 
during the first three decades of its organized government (1789- 
1820), several racial and administrative entities must be considered. 
The organization of the Church in the United States can be said to 
have begun with the consecration of Bishop John Carroll on August 



88 REV. FRANCIS JOHN CONNORS 

15,1790. Shortly after this, two remarkable projects were organized 
to encroach upon his authority and jurisdiction. The first was when 
Propaganda yielded to the wishes of the Scioto Company and on 
April 26, 1790, appointed Don Didier, a monk of St. Maur, vicar- 
general in spiritualihus for the space of seven years, on condition 
that such jurisdiction should not conflict with that of Dr. Carroll. 

Simultaneously with the Gallipolis bishopric occurred another of 
somewhat more ambitious design, namely, the creation of a separate 
bishopric for the Indians of New York State. "The consecration and 
installation of Bishop Carroll," writes Shea, "were coeval with a 
strange project to erect an episcopal See in the State of New York. 
"While the Church was slowly gaining a permanent footing in the 
cities of that State, there was an attempt to establish a French mis- 
sion, and strangest of all, a Bishop among the Oneida Indians, which 
forms one of the curious episodes in our history."^ The object of 
those who managed the scheme was no less than the foundation of 
an Indian Primacy over the Six Nations of New York State. The 
Oneida tribe constituted itself the spokesman for the rest of the Na- 
tions, and the plan was fully developed before the appeal was made 
to Rome. Appeal was made direct to the Papal Nuncio without 
Bishop Carroll's knowledge or authority. On September 11, 1790, 
Cardinal Antonelli answered to the effect that the project had his 
sympathy, but that the main question at issue was whether these 
Indians were within the Diocese of Baltimore or that of Quebec. 
After careful investigation, Propaganda informed the Indian agent 
that all application for spiritual direction of the Six Nations should 
be made directly to Bishop John Carroll of Baltimore. Internal 
troubles hindered for a time the complete administration of the 
American Church. Early in Carroll's episcopate, trusteeism made 
its appearance. The evils brought in in its train cannot be separated 
from the anti-Catholic movements, since once the quarrel became 
public, the enemies of the Church made use of these divisions as an 
argument for their main politico-religious thesis: that the Catholic 
Faith was incompatible with the republican liberties of the country. 

In Philadelphia, on March 22, 1789, Father John Heilbron was 
elected to the pastorate of Holy Trinity Church by the trustees 
* ' acting on their self assumed right. ' ' In Boston a schism broke out, 
which caused Dr. Carroll much anxiety during his absence (1790) 
from the United States. The presence of Father John Thayer, the 



^ John G. Shea, History of the Catholic Church in the United States, Vol. II, 
p. 58. New York, 1888. 



SAMUEL FINUEY BREESE MORSE 



89 



first convert from the American Protestant ministry to tlie Catholic 
Faith, and of Father Eousselet caused much trouble between the 
French and Irish Catholics in Boston. In 1791, Bishop Carroll went 
to Boston, where he succeeded in making peace between the French 
and Irish Catholics, when they accepted Father Thayer as their 
pastor. Father Eousselet was suspended in 1791. Boston was at that 
time, of all the cities in America, the most openly hostile to the Cath- 
olic Church, but Bishop Carroll's visit was the beginning of a better 
feeling. In one of his letters, June 11, 1791, written before leaving 
Boston, Bishop Carroll says: "It is wonderful what great civilities 
have been done to me in this town, where a few years ago, a 'popish' 
priest was thought to be the greatest monster in creation. Many 
here, even of their principal people, have acknowledged to me that 
they would have crossed the opposite side of the street, rather than 
meet a Eoman Catholic some time ago. " ^ It is difficult to analyze 
the anti-Catholic movements in the United States because they have 
been complex movements, the product of many and varied factors. 
Yet these movements are not without a moral and for the Catholic 
body of the United States, yesterday, today and perhaps tomorrow, 
they carry a special lesson. These spasmodic outbursts of anti-Cath- 
olicism teach the corporate Catholic body the lesson of the necessity 
of unity within its own ranks. The safest foundation for such unity 
is the knowledge of how the Protestants of these United States have, 
from the beginning, treated the Catholic Church in this country. 
The sordid pages of Protestant bigotry should be told often, not with 
bitterness, not with hatred, not for vengeance, but to venerate the 
bravery, loyalty and perseverance of the Catholics of the past who 
upheld that fundamental principle of the American Constitution: 
the guarantee of freedom of worship. With a knowledge of these 
movements in the past, we are better prepared today for the tactics 
of bigots and religious antagonists alike. Moreover, the better these 
anti-Catholic movements are known by our non-Catholic fellow-citi- 
zens, the surer we are that our rights as American citizens wiU re- 
ceive sympathetic consideration from that better informed and un- 
biased portion of the nation who has always sought the truth in 
history and has ever recognized Catholic devotedness and loyalty 
to this great country. 

With this general survey as a background, the purpose of this 
essay will be evident to the reader, namely, to describe the place 
Samuel F. B. Morse had in these political movements, between 1829 



■ Guilday, The Life and Times of John Carroll, New York, 1922. 



90 REV. FRAJvTCIS JOHN CONNORS 

and 1844, the purpose of which was the exclusion of Catholics in the 
political life of the nation. 



Early Years 
(1791-1806) 

Samuel Finley Breese Morse, American artist, poet and inventor, 
was born at the foot of Breed's Hill, in Charlestown, Massachusetts, 
April 27, 1791. 

Dr. Bellcnap, of Boston, writing to Postmaster-General Hazard in 
New York, says: "Congratulate the Monmouth Judge" (Mr. Breese, 
the grandfather) "on the birth of a grandson. Next Sunday he is 
to be loaded with names, not quite as many as the Spanish ambassador 
who signed the treaty of peace of 1783, but only four. As to the 
child, I saw him asleep, so can say nothing of his eye, or his genius 
peeping through it. He may have the sagacity of a Jewish rabbi, 
or the profundity of a Calvin, or the sublimity of a Homer, for aught 
I know. But time will bring forth all things. ' ' ^ This was a very 
curious prognostication on the birth of a child who became as widely 
known to the world as Calvin or Homer. 

Morse's father was the minister at the Congregational Church in 
Charlestown, whilst his grandfather, Samuel Finley, was President 
of the College of New Jersey. His mother was Elizabeth Ann Breese, 
the daughter of Samuel Breese and Rebecca Finley, whose father was 
the President of Princeton College. Hence the name Samuel Finley 
Breese Morse. 

The boy was trained by a father who was in advance of the age 
in which he lived. Parental discipline was not severe, but religious 
principles were inculcated as the source of highest enjoyment, as 
well as the basis of right action. When he was four years of age he 
was sent to a private school within a few hundred yards of the par- 
sonage. At the age of seven, he was sent to the preparatory school 
of Mr. Foster, at Andover, where he was fitted for entering Phillips 
Academy. It was about this time that Boston Catholics received as 
their permanent pastor. Father John Cheverus, who arrived in the 
little city on October 3, 1796. The spirit of the times can best be 
seen in an incident which occurred four years later. While in Maine, 
in January, 1800, in the performance of his duty. Father Cheverus 
married two Catholics. The law of Massachusetts (of which the dis- 



' Samuel I. Prime, Life of Samuel .F B. Morse. New York, 1875. 



SAMUEL FINLEY BREESE MORSE 91 

trict of Maine was then a part) prohibited all marriages except before 
a justice of the peace. Father Cheverus advised the couple to have 
the civil ceremony performed the following day. The Attorney-Gen- 
eral of the State, James Sullivan, was the son of Catholic parents, 
but had fallen away from the Church. He seemed moved to hostility 
against the religion of his parents, and instituted of his own accord 
legal proceedings against Father Cheverus, who was arrested in Octo- 
ber, 1800, and brought to trial at Wicasset. Two of the judges, Brad- 
bury and Strong, were rather vehement in their denunciation of the 
gentle priest, the former threatening him with the pillory. Cheverus 
was quite undismayed in the presence of this brutality; he had seen 
specimens of it in Paris in the days of the Jacobins, and he fought 
the cause to the end. The civil action was finally allowed to go by 
default. The Constitution of Massachusetts did not at that time con- 
tain a clause granting tolerance in religious affairs. The judges of 
the Supreme Court unanimously declared at Boston (March 5, 1801) : 
"The Constitution obliges everyone to contribute to the support of 
Protestant ministers, and them alone. Papists are only tolerated, 
and as long as their ministers behave well, we shall not disturb them ; 
but let them expect no more than that. ' ' * 

In spite of the many obstacles, Catholicism spread in Boston and 
in 1803 the first Catholic Church in Massachusetts, the Church of 
the Holy Cross, was completed and, on September 29th of that year, 
Bishop Carroll, who had journeyed to Boston for the occasion, dedi- 
cated the new house of worship. In 1808, John Cheverus was con- 
secrated as the first bishop of Boston. After his consecration at Balt- 
imore, Dr. Cheverus returned to his episcopal city and took up the 
old routine of duty without changing in the slightest his simple mode 
of life. Before Carroll's death, there were congregations at Boston, 
Salem and Newburyport, in Massachusetts; Damariscotta, Portland, 
New Castle and Point Pleasant, in Maine; at Portsmouth in New 
Hampshire; at Providence and Bristol in Rhode Island and at New 
Haven, Hartford and New London in Connecticut. The non-Cath- 
olics at Boston considered Bishop Cheverus as "a blessing and a 
treasure" to their social community. 

The Congregational Church, in which young Morse had been bap- 
tized was the earliest religious body in New England. Congrega- 
tionalism was introduced by the Pilgrims in 1620 and was in reality 



* Guilday, op. cit., citing, Cheverus to Carroll, March 10, 1801, Baltimore 
Cathedral Archives, Case 2-N3; Matignon to Carroll, Boston, March 16, 1801. 
Ibid., Case 5-G4. 



92 REV. FRANCIS JOHN CONNORS 

the dominant faith, of the people of Massachusetts until 1785, when a 
split occurred and Unitarianism arose. Chief among the leaders of 
the Congregationalist party was the father of Samuel Morse, the 
gifted and polemic Jedadiah Morse, who was pastor of the Congrega- 
tional Church in Charlestown from 1789 to 1820. Under his guid- 
ance the spirit of true Congregationalism in New England was re- 
kindled. In Essex County, for instance, during the decade of 1791 
to 1801, the churches were aroused to scrutinize more carefully the 
doctrinal views of their pastors; vacated pulpits were sure to be 
filled with men of the orthodox stamp. 

In 1803, the foundations of a new state ministerial gathering were 
laid, the Massachusetts General Association. The new organization 
met with much difficulty. Two parties were formed, the Liberals and 
the Orthodox. The first real test of strength between the two parties 
took place over the choice of a successor to a decidedly old Calvinist, 
the Rev. Dr. Davis Tappan, whose death, in August, 1803, left vacant 
the Hollis Professorship of Divinity in Harvard College. A long 
and bitter struggle ensued and in 1805, a literary warfare opened. 
The Rev. Jedidiah Morse attacked the whole transaction in his True 
Reasons on vjMch the Election of the Hollis Professor of Divinity in 
Harvard College Was Opposed. In June, 1805, largely through the 
influence of Morse, the Panoplist was founded, as an active defender 
of the older faith. However, Henry Ware, an avowed and repre- 
sentative Unitarian, was finally elected in 1805 to the chair. 

In May, 1808, Jedidiah Morse, then the recognized champion of 
Congregationalism, procured the appointment of Rev. Joshua Hunt- 
ington, a Yale graduate, as colleague pastor of the Old South Church, 
the most conservative of all Boston churches. The same year the 
doors of Andover Seminary were opened to students and in 1810 the 
Dutch Seminary was begun at New Brunswick. Such a religious 
influence on the character of young ]\Iorse had much to do, no doubt, 
with his religious prejudice in later life against any sect opposed to 
Congregationalism, 

II 

Student Days 
(1806-1818) 

At the age of fourteen (1805) Morse entered Yale and was gradu- 
ated in 1810 with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. Timothy Dwight 
was a warm personal friend, correspondent and counselor of Dr. 
Morse, Samuel's father, and at his expressed desire as well as from 



SAMUEL FINIiEY BREESE MORSE 93 

the promptings of his own feelings of friendship, Dr. Dwight took 
the deepest personal interest in the young student confided to his 
care. The President was a man of vast and varied learning, and of 
strong original powers of mind. He was a master of inductive phil- 
osophy. Few men in America at that time possessed such knowledge. 
It was President Dwight who prepared for publication the most 
atrocious of all anti-Catholic publications. The Awful Disclosures of 
Maria Monk. Whether or not Morse imbibed any of his anti-Catholic 
tendencies while at Yale is hard to say. 

Yale was at this time governed by very stringent religious rules 
and anyone convicted of spreading heresy or schism was immediately 
expelled. There were compulsory morning and evening prayers, and 
anyone absenting himself without permission was fined. On Satur- 
day night and Sunday the "Blue Laws" were strictly enforced. 
However, there was no Prohibition in those days, even in college, as 
can be inferred from a letter written by Morse to his father asking 
for money to buy brandy, wine and cigars for his room. On the 
fourth of July, a barrel of wine was placed on a table in the refectory 
and no one could leave until it was empty. 

While studying electricity at Yale under the instruction of Jere- 
miah Day, Professor of Natural Philosophy, Morse received those 
impressions which were destined to produce so great an influence 
upon him personally and upon his later researches. However, he 
chose art as his profession and in 1811 became the pupil of Wash- 
ington Allston, American historical painter and poet, and accom- 
panied him to England where he remained four years (1811-1815). 

Washington Allston was born November, 1779, at Waccamar, 
South Carolina, where his father was a painter. He early displayed 
a taste for the art to which he was afterwards to devote himself. 
He was graduated from Harvard College in 1800, and for a short 
time persued his artistic studies at Charleston with Malbone and 
Charles Fraser. Shortly afterwards he removed to London and en- 
tered the Eoyal Academy as a student of Benjamin West, with whom 
he formed a lifelong friendship. After spending some time in Lon- 
don and Paris, Allston then went to Eome where he spent nearly four 
years studying Italian art and scenery. In color and management 
of light and shade he closely imitated the Venetian school, and hence 
has been styled, "The American Titian." He returned to America 
in 1809 and remained here till 1811. He then sailed for England, 
accompanied by Morse. Morse became the pupil of Benjamin West 
in England. The fame of this master was as wide as the world of 
art. Morse's success at this period was considerable, as is shown by 



94 REV. FRANCIS JOHN CONNORS 

the gold medal he won in London for his painting, the "Dying Her- 
cules." This medal was offered by the Society of Arts in London. 

The progress of painting in America up to this time was quite 
meager. The earliest painter of American birth of whom we have 
record is Robert Feke, who painted portraits at Philadelphia about 
the middle of the eighteenth century. Specimens of his work are in 
possession of Bowdoin College, the Redwood Athenaeum, Newport, 
R. I., and the Rhode Island Historical Society. Next in point of 
time was Matthew Pratt (1734-1805). The portrait of Cadwallader 
Golden, which he painted for the New York Chamber of Commerce 
in 1772 attests his undoubted talent. The most noted painters of 
the last half of the eighteenth century were John Singleton, Copley 
and Benjamin "West. Copley's "Death of the Earl of Chatham" has 
become famous. "West produced a large number of historical and 
scriptural paintings of high order, his best being, "Christ Healing 
the Sick." 

The next period, that of the Revolution, produced two painters 
whose names stand high in the list of American artists, Gilbert Stuart 
and John Trumbull. Stuart studied for several years under Benja- 
min West in London. "When he returned to America in 1793 he 
painted a large number of national portraits, the most important of 
which is that of "Washington, loiown as the "Athenaeum Head." 
Trumbull also studied under "West, but his talents were most con- 
spicuous in historical composition. Some of the best specimens of 
his skill, such as "The Siege of Gibraltar" and "The Declaration of 
Independence," may be seen at Yale College. Among the less re- 
nowned American painters who flourished from 1780 to 1820, we 
might mention Charles W. Peale, who painted several portraits of 
"Washington, and Joseph Wright. Of the many landscape painters of 
this period, Albert Burstadt's painting, the "Rocky Mountain 
Scenery" is probably the best, althought mention must be made of 
Thomas Hill and Thomas Moran. James Hamilton, a native of Ire- 
land, was no doubt the best marine painter of his day. William 
Bradford and Edward Moran also having produced effective mari- 
time pictures. Apart from these few painters, art was neglected in 
this country. 

In the year 1815 Morse returned to the United States and opened 
a studio in Boston. The fame of the young artist preceded him, and 
hundreds of people went to see a picture by the favorite pupil of 
Allston and West. He set up his easel with the confident expectation 
that his fame and his work would bring him orders and money. An 
entire year (1816) dragged itself along without an offer for his pie- 



SAMUEL FINLiEY BREESE MORSE 95 

tures or even an order for a painting. Disappointed in his expecta- 
tions of encouragement in his historical painting, Morse resolved to 
go into the country and earn money by painting the portraits of the 
people. During the autumn of 1816 and the following winter, he 
visited several towns in New Hampshire and Vermont, where he 
painted portraits with moderate success. 

Ill 

Morse, the Artist, Poet, Litterateur and Inventor 

Samuel Morse was twenty-seven years old when, at a party given 
by Mr. Sparhawk in Concord, New Hampshire, in 1818, he was in- 
troduced to Miss Lucretia Walker, daughter of Charles Walker. 
She was accounted the most beautiful and accomplished lady of the 
town. Dr. Bout on in his History of Concord, says: "She was a 
young lady of great personal loveliness and rare good sense. The 
eye of the artist was attracted by her beauty, her sweetness of temper 
and her high intellectual culture, which fitted her to be his com- 
panion. Her sound judgment and prudence made her a counsellor 
and friend." After a short courtship, they were married on October 
1, 1818, at Concord, New Hampshire, and their wedded life was 
blessed with two children. 

At this time, there broke out at Dartmouth CoUege a bitter re- 
ligious controversy. The founder of the College, Dr. Eleazer 
Wheelock, was a Congregationalist minister in Lebanon, Connecticut, 
but when he came to Hanover, New Hampshire, he adopted the Pres- 
byterian religion. Hence the question came up as to what should 
be the official faith at Dartmouth. 

Slight differences of opinion between the second president and 
his colleagues sprang up from the very beginning of his administra- 
tion. The matters in dispute were at first only local and ecclesiasti- 
cal ; then literary and financial, and finally they became personal and 
official. They agitated first the Church, then the village and faculty. 
They passed to the legislature and the State Court, and finally by 
an appeal, the controversy was decided by the Supreme Court of 
the United States. 

There was to be but one Church, Presbji:erian, in connection with 
Dartmouth College, consisting of two branches. Congregational on 
the west side, and Presbyterian on the east side of the Connecticut 
River; each branch had an independent and exclusive right of ad- 
mitting and disciplining its own members; each the privilege of 
employing a minister of its own choice. 



96 REV. FRANCIS JOHN CONNORS 

About the same time the conversion of the Barber family and the 
subsequent devotion of all its members to the service of God, at- 
tracted great attention. Rev. Daniel Barber, a native of Sinsbury, 
Connecticut, served as a soldier in the State Line during the Revolu- 
tion, but when peace come he revolted, as his father had done before 
him, against the tyranny of the Congregational Church. In his 
History of My Own Times he states that his "father and mother 
were Congregational dissenters of strict Puritanic rule." Seeing 
one of his denomination utterly discomforted in an argument with 
an Episcopalian, he sought refuge in the Church of the victorious 
disputant. There he resolved to devote himself to the ministry, and 
after a course of study entered upon his duties. In time a Catholic 
book fell into his hands and awakened some doubts in his mind as 
to the soundness of his own position. He called on Bishop Cheverus, 
about 1812, to whom he made known some of his doubts. Books lent 
by Dr. Cheverus were read by him and his family, and by some of 
his flock. Towards the close of 1818, he was in a most undecided 
position, when his son, Virgil Horace Barber, who had also become 
an Episcopal minister, called on him accompanied by Rev. Charles 
P. Ffrench, 0. P. To his surprise, he found that his son, harassed by 
doubts like himself, had sought the Rev. Benedict J. Fenwick, S. J., 
at New York in 1816, and renouncing all worldly prospects had been 
received by him into the Catholic Church. Virgil's wife, Jerusha, 
and five children followed his example. Three years later husband 
and wife met in the chapel of Georgetown convent to make their vows 
in religion. Jerusha first went through the formula of the profes- 
sion of a Visitation Nun, and Virgil the vows of a member of the 
Society of Jesus. Before they died, they had the happiness to see 
all their children embrace the religious life. Mrs. Daniel Barber and 
her daughter, Mrs. Tyler, and her eldest daughter, Rosetta, openly 
professed the Catholic faith and were received into the Church. 
These two revolts from Congregationalism, especially the last, left a 
lasting impression upon Morse's mind since he know the Barbers 
personally. 

In November, 1818, a month after his marriage to Lucretia 
Walker, Morse and his wife sailed from New York to South Carolina. 
Here he continued his portrait painting, meeting with fairly good 
success. This kind of work kept him busy until 1823 when he in- 
vented a machine for cutting marble. The death of his wife on 
February 8, 1825, was a sorrow he never fully recovered from. On 
November 8, 1825, a meeting of artists, probably the first ever held 
in the city of New York, took place in the rooms of the Historical 



SAMUEL FINLEY BREESE MORSE 97 

Society for the purpose of taking into consideration, "the formation 
of a Society for Improvement in Drawing." This society was after- 
wards known as the "New York Drawing Association." Morse was 
president of this society from 1826 to 1845. During the year 1826 
the name of the society was again changed to the "National Academy 
of the Arts of Design," and as such it has since remained. 

In the year 1827, Morse renewed his study of electricity, and par- 
ticularly of electro-mag-netism. At that time he was intimately 
associated with James F. Dana of Columbia College, who delivered 
a course of lectures on the subject, before the New York Athenaeum. 
Unfortunately, Professor Dana died on the 15th day of April, 1827, 
and Morse once more turned to the painting of portraits. During 
the years from 1827 to 1829, Morse resided in the city of New York 
pursuing with great industry his profession as a painter; but often- 
times discouraged to the very last degree by a want of success com- 
mensurate with his ambition. Poverty, so often the lot of men of 
genius and of the highest capacity, pressed him continually. 

The first volume that appeared over his name was a memoir on 
the Remains of Lucretia Maria Davidson, New York, 1827. Morse 
was not only a portrait painter but also a poet. He is the author of 
The Serenade, published in the Talisman for 1828. 

IV. 

Morse and Anti-Catholic Politics 
, (1829-1844) 

An important event occurred in 1829 which was to have a tre- 
mendous effect in the United States. During the previous year, 1828, 
Daniel O'Connell was elected to Parliament, as the recognized leader 
of six million people. O'Connell presented himself in Parliament 
but refused to take the customary oath which was offered to him. 
This refusal forced a crisis. Millions of Irish Catholic were organ- 
ized and defiant, and encouraged by moral and financial backing 
from American sympathizers, they seemed on the brink of civil war. 
To avoid the calamity the English Parliament passed the Act of 
Emancipation the following year, 1829. 

Catholics in Great Britain and Ireland were at last free men. 
After centuries of dishonor for adhering to a proscribed religion they 
were now liberated from bondage. The proscription maintained 
against them by Act of Parliament was aggravated by the illegal 
persecution carried on by the "Orange Lodges" whose undisguised 
purpose was the extermination of "Popery." In Ireland the cruel 



98 REV. FRANCIS JOHN CONNORS 

servitude in which the great body of Catholic peasantry was com- 
pelled to live, the almost inhuman conditions under which they had 
to slave to earn a living and maintain existence, their religion pro- 
scribed, their race hated, they themselves regarded as a stratum 
slightly above barbarians by the handful of English and Scotch 
Protestants who legislated for them, all these had concurred to drive 
them from their hearths and homes and country, and they sought 
America as a refuge and a haven where they might enjoy both reli- 
gious and political liberty. The event of Emancipation, then, was 
celebrated as well in America as in Ireland. In America public 
Masses of Thanksgiving were sung, and the Church belfries and 
municipal towers bells were tolled and rung. 

An Englishman, James Stuart, was visiting in America at this 
time. On his return to England he published a book, Three Years 
in North America, which appeared in 1833 and had two editions its 
first year. Stuart is the only foreign traveller, of whom we can find 
record, who mentioned the demonstrations with which the people of 
the United States greeted the news of the Catholic Emancipation Bill. 
Stuart writes : 

While I was at Philadelphia, the news arrived there of the Royal 
assent being given to the Catholic Emancipation Bill. Great rejoic- 
ings took place. The mayor ordered the bells, especially the great 
old bell which first proclaimed the independence of the United States, 
in 1776, to be tolled and to ring during the whole day. Public re- 
joicings on this occasion took place in all the towns of the United 
States, especially at New York and Baltimore. Contributions had 
been sent to the subscriptions in Ireland for the forwarding of the 
Catholic Emancipation from the United States, especially from Mary- 
land, a considerable part of the population of which consists of 
Roman Catholics. 

And he writes later : 

I was at Philadelphia when the news of the emancipation of the 
Roman Catholics in Ireland arrived and I do not believe that greater 
public joy was shown in London on account of that long delayed 
triumph of justice and liberality, than in Philadelphia. 

The Irish then came here as to a land where they would be free 
to practice the faith for which their forefathers had suffered so much 
from the persecuting English, where they could work and thus give 
themselves and family a comfortable home. Their brothers in the 
Continental army and navy had done valiant service in the cause of 
liberty. But alas, religious prejudice in America during this period 
was very strong. Every anti-Catholic manifesto issued was framed 



SAMUEL FINLEY BREESE MORSE 99 

to work upon the ignorance and prejudice of the masses by advocat- 
ing, first, the duty of all good Americans to preserve their country, 
its government and liberties against all enemies ; and second, by com- 
piling with this the calumnious statements that American indepen- 
dence was in imminent danger of being annihilated by the machina- 
tions of the Pope, the Jesuits, the "Romish" priesthood and the ad- 
vent of foreigners who yielded blind obedience to the Pope, and that 
all Catholics were in a conspiracy to subvert the government. Hence it 
was thought to be the right and duty of American citizens to exclude 
all foreigners and particularly Irish Catholics from public office, to 
deny them practically all the rights of citizenship, and to ostracize 
them socially and politically so that, while they would not be pre- 
vented from coming here or remaining in the country, yet their "in- 
fluence for harm" would be reduced to the lowest degree possible. 

In this very year of Catholic Emancipation, 1829, Morse sailed 
from New York with his mind saturated with this background of 
popular prejudice. Morse was an American of the day, and, like 
his Protestant brethren, he thought the Irish Catholics in America 
should be kept in bondage, at least in political and social bondage. On 
December 4, he landed in Liverpool where there prevailed a popular 
sentiment the reverse of which he had left on the other side of the 
Atlantic in America. The Catholics in England were that year lib- 
erated from the political and religious bondage of three centuries. It 
does not appear that Morse caught the new spirit in England ; per- 
haps, on the other hand, contact with the spirit of liberality aggra- 
vated the prejudice of his own heart. 

Morse had left his children with relations in New York so he 
was free to roam Europe at will. After spending some time in Eng- 
land, he toured France, visiting Paris, and from there he set out for 
Italy. On February 20, 1830, he arrived in Rome where he spent a 
year and a half, until the autumn of 1831. During his stay in the 
Eternal City, Morse attended many solemn functions at St. Peter's 
and other Catholic basilicas. Very often on returning to his lodgings 
from these celebrations, he penned notes and impressions in his per- 
sonal diary. Morse was ignorant of the significance, symbolism and 
purpose of Catholic ceremonies and these diary notes heap ridicule 
on the sacred functions of the Catholic Church. It is to be remem- 
bered, however, that Morse received the social inheritance of Puritan 
stock and what they hated in religious worship was the appearance 
of formalism and the emotional. Added to this Morse was introduced 
to the beautiful Roman Catholic ritual in a foreign land, among 
a people, the Italians, whose racial trait is to display, and not re- 



100 REV. FRANCIS JOHN CONNORS 

strain, the emotions and workings of the heart. Considering, then, 
his temperament, his bias and the environment in which he witnessed 
the exemplification of the Catholic ceremonial, it is not surprising 
that, without grace, he did ridicule the holy ceremonies. 

During this year and a half in Rome, Morse became acquainted 
with several ecclesiastics. His diary mentions that on a visit to a 
cardinal whose name is not given, this Prince of the Church made a 
vehement attack upon the faith of the 3'oung American. Morse 
writes that the cardinal told him that a young man so cultured and 
educated, and so influential in America, should be a Catholic; if he 
were a Catholic he would give the Church of Rome more prestige in 
America. A correspondence between them ensued and they met fre- 
quently thereafter to discuss the matter. 

Perhaps the cardinal was imprudent in his attack on Morse's 
religion. But just what he did say and what was his purpose does 
not appear for the account is entirely one-sided, written by a pre- 
judiced man, in his diary. Diaines at best are not a sound source for 
fact, for diaries are often written with preconceived purposes, in the 
heat of very recent events and under the stress of varied emotions. 
But there is no denying the effect this cardinal had on Morse. As a 
result of his conversations and correspondence, Morse believed firmly 
that there was on foot a political conspiracy of the Pope, masquerad- 
ing in the cloak of a religious mission, against the Government of the 
United States; that the Pope was availing himself of every hidden 
means of getting spies into the controlling forces of the American 
Government and that the Pope wanted to make a Catholic of Morse 
himself so as to use his influence as another instrument in attaining 
that end. 

Morse then returned to Paris where he celebrated the Fourth of 
July, 1832, in the American colony. There was a banquet and much 
rejoicing for the occasion. Lafayette attended that banquet. Morse 
and Lafayette were bosom friends with mutual confidences. The 
scenes and affairs of Rome together with the forced conclusions he 
drew, plagued the mind of Morse so he laid open his thoughts to the 
erstwhile young staff officer of the Revolutionary army. Morse later 
wrote that General Lafayette had concurred fully with him in the 
idea of the reality of a conspiracy of the Church of Rome to grasp 
the power from the United States. It is generally understood today 
that Lafayette was misquoted and there are not a few, from the days 
of Archbishop Spalding's controversy, who deny flatly that Lafayette 
ever said anj'thing that would give grounds for the implication made 
by Morse. 



SAMUEL FINLEY BREESE MORSE 101 

On October 1, 1832, Morse sailed from Havre for New York on 
the packet-ship Sully. One day at dinner, during the early part of 
the voyage, the general conversation turned upon recent discoveries 
in electro-magnetism, and the experiments of Ampere with his electro- 
magnet. A long discussion followed on the importance, and on the 
commercial and practical value of such scientific studies and re- 
searches. Morse, who was more thoughtful than talkative during this 
discussion, arose and said : 

"If the presence of electricity can be made visible in any part of 
the circuit I see no reason why intelligence may not be transmitted 
instantaneously by electricity. ' ' He withdrew from the table and went 
upon deck. After several sleepless nights while his mind was in labor 
with the subject, he announced his discovery of the telegraph dot 
and dash system at the breakfast table and explained the process 
by which he proposed to accomplish it.^ 

The education, culture, artistic sense, practical mind and inventive 
genius of Morse elevated him head and shoulders over the average 
American of the early nineteenth century. Morse sensed his own 
importance. When the Sully docked in New York, Morse was landed 
in the metropolis he had three years before turned his back upon. 
The man was hardly changed in externals, but his mind harbored one 
new idea, the telegraph, and his mind had developed and grown on 
one old idea, papal conspiracy. Most inventors are possessed with 
their discoveries in novel fields, not so Morse. He never became so ab- 
sorbed in his inventions as to forget the freedom given Catholics in 
England and Ireland and the false impressions he received in Eome 
and Paris regarding the intrigues of the Pope to get control of the 
American commonweal. This conviction was so strong that he adopted 
the fad, developed to an intense degree in his absence, of maligning 
the Catholic Church through the medium of the press. He gave 
much time in subsequent years to publishing in periodicals, pamphlets 
and separate volumes, the facts, indeed falsified, and arguments, 
which in his judgment were fundamental to an understanding of the 
papal menace. 

Morse was not the inceptor of this mass of vilifying journalism; 
he simply threw his forces into a movement which was initiated in. 
1830, while he was in Europe. But Morse is the most important of 
these writers, he towers above his brethren, his faculties sharpened by 
education were whetted by prejudice, his accusations are the most 
villainous, his pen the most vehement; and this yellow journalism 

• Prime, op. cit. 



102 REV. FRAJSrCIS JOHN CONNORS 

was the more venemous because there was subscribed to it the signa- 
ture, "Samuel F. B. Morse," whose authority was weighty in the 
popular mind. 

The anti-Catholic writings of this particular period, then, began 
in 1830, when with a view to extend the anti-Catholic movement 
throughout the country certain ministers in New York attached to 
the Presbyterian and Dutch Reformed Churches associated them- 
selves in establishing and conducting a newspaper which was called 
The Protestant. It had as its patrons some seventy-two ministers, 
under the direction of Parson Brownlee, who from their pulpits ad- 
vertised the paper and promoted its circulation. Its attacks on Eo- 
man Catholics were so bitter that The Jesuit, the earliest Catholic 
paper of Boston, described it as "a paper so notoriously infamous as 
to reflect disgrace upon the very name it has assumed, — a paper 
from whose profligacy of expression, Satanic baseness, anti-social, 
anti-christian spirit, the sensible, respectable, and virtuous Protes- 
tants of New York and union at large shrink with honest Christian 
indignation. ' ' ® The Protestant pulpits were fiUed with preachers 
whose sermons waxed eloquent with the bitterest possible attacks on 
the Church, and especially against the Irish immigrant. Public 
meetings were held in New York, Philadelphia and Boston where 
"Popery" was exposed. 

In addition to the work Protestant religious newspapers were 
doing in fomenting anti-Catholic prejudice, the printing press was 
utilized to turn out a variety of books whose titles, to say nothing 
of their contents, were such as to attract the attention of unthinking 
or evil-minded persons to the iniquities which were charged against 
bishops, clergy and religious women of the Catholic Church. The 
printing-press has always been one of the deadliest agencies employed 
in the warfare against the Church, and this is especially true during 
this period. Among the books published were: Six Months in a Con- 
vent, by Rebecca Theresa Reid, alias Sister Agnes ; Plea for the West, 
by Lyman Beecher; The Downfall of Babylon, by Samuel Smith; 
Rosamond Culbertson, by Prances Partridge, a pretended runaway 
nun; Louise, a Canadian Nun; Open Convents; Secrets of Nuneries. 
Disclosed; Thrilling Mysteries of a Convent Revealed; and the most 
shameless of all impostures, the Awful Disclosures of Maria Monk. 
About 1830 appeared An Exposition of the Principles of the Roman 
Catholic Religion with remarks on its influence in the United States. 



•Guilday, Anti-Catholic Movements in the United States, Private publication, 
1916. 



SAMUEL FINLEY BREESE MORSE 103 

The author, who concealed his identity under the signature Philale- 
thas, assured his readers that the rapid spread of the Roman Catholic 
religion was the chief danger which threatened the Republic. As 
a result of these writings, anti-Catholic mobs were organized all along 
the Atlantic seaboard. Churches were burned in New York; a sem- 
inary in Nyack, New York, was reduced to ashes ; Irishmen lost their 
posts for voting for Jackson; Catholics were compelled to work on 
Sundays and Holydays so that they could not attend Church or receive 
the Sacraments ; means were also devised to compel the Irish Catholics 
to attend the Evangelical Church. The noxious bud bloomed forth into 
its flower in Massachusetts. In 1834 came the burning of the Ursuline 
Convent in Charlestown, Massachusetts, within sight of Bunker Hill 
monument, by an anti-Catholic mob, who drove out the nuns and 
their pupils, with the eventual loss of two lives ; and the only prisoner 
convicted for a share in the outrage was pardoned by the governor. 
During the night after the burning of the convent a mob of half- 
grown lads and men paraded the streets of Boston, menaced the 
Catholic Church on Franklin Street, marched to the convent, burned 
the fence, tore up the grapery and destroyed the orchard and the 
garden. That the Catholics, after so much provocation, should remain 
quiet seemed hardly possible. Indeed, rumors were afloat of vengeance 
threatened, and an army of Irish laborers from the "Worcester, Lowell, 
and Providence railroads were on the march to Boston to avenge the 
insult to the Catholic Church. Some actually started, but Bishop 
Penwick sent priests in every direction to turn them back, summoned 
his people to meet him in the Franklin Street Church, told them that 
an eye for an eye' and a tooth for a tooth formed no part of the 
religion of Jesus Christ, and bade them raise not a finger in their own 
defense as there were those around who would see full justice done.'' 

The Philadelphia Native-Americans, who were meeting with grand 
success in their own city, planned to send a delegation to New York 
and a public meeting was called to assemble in the City Hall Park 
there to welcome the visitors and to celebrate the triumph of Native- 
American principles. Bishop Hughes at once caused a notice to be 
published warning the Irish to keep away from this meeting, and 
he called on the Mayor and warned him against the danger of allow- 
ing the proposed demonstration to take place. 

"Are you afraid," asked the Mayor, "that some of your churches 
will be burned?" 



' Peter Condon in the Historical ^Records and Studies, Vol. IV. New York, 
1906. 



104 REV. FRANCIS JOHN CONNORS 

''No sir," answered the Bishop, "but I am afraid that some of 
yours will be burned. We can protect our own. I come to warn you 
for your own good." 

The Native-Americans took alarm, and posters were issued con- 
taining a notification that the meeting to welcome the Philadelphia 
delegation would not take place. The visitors arrived, but there was 
no public reception and no demonstration. The Natives kept dis- 
creetly quiet and there was no disturbance.® 

In the South the few cities were no better governed than those 
of the North, and there was a greater indifference to human sufferings, 
and to the brutal treatment of prisoners and other defenceless people. 
Alongside the strength, vigor, and hopefulness of the frontier was 
the uncouthness, the ignorance, the prejudice, and the latent bar- 
barism of the man who spent his life in conquering nature and the 
savage. 

From 1834 to 1840, no city of the Unitd States was without its 
Society of Protestants willing to exterminate the Church by force 
if necessary. In the year 1834, Mr. Morse published a series of 
papers, which the year following were issued in a volume entitled: 
Foreign Conspiracy against the Liberties of the United States revised 
and corrected, mith Notes by the Author. The papers as they first 
appeared, were copied widely, and, pervading the whole country, 
made a deep and permanent impression. The volume passed through 
numerous editions, and has proved to be one of the most efficient 
works that has appeared in that prolific discussion. 

Probably in no other place is the anti-Catholic feeling more 
vividly described than in the book written by S. F. B. Morse en- 
titled: Imminent Dangers to the Free Institutions of the United 
States through Foreign Immigration and the Present State of 
Naturalization Laws, New York, 1835. 

In 1835, Morse was appointed Professor of the Literature of the 
Arts of Design in the New York City University. It was here that 
he immediately commenced, with very limited means to experiment 
upon his invention. On September 2, 1837, he exhibited for the 
first time his instrument to a few friends in New York City. En- 
couraged by his friends, Morse then petitioned for a patent and for 
an appropriation of $30,000 to defray the expenses of setting up 
telegraph wires between Baltimore and Washington. The committee 
on commerce to whom the petition was referred after seeing his 



' Guilday, Anti-Catholic Movements. 



SAMUEL FINLEY BREESE MORSE 105 

instrument in operation, reported favorably but Congress adjourned 
without making any appropriation. 

This very year, 1837, Professor Morse edited and published, with 
an introduction by himself: Confessions of a French Catholic Priest, 
to which are added. Warnings to the People of the United States, by 
the same author. This volume bore upon the title-page the line, 
"American liberty can be destroyed only by the popish clergy — 
Lafayette." The declaration was not placed upon the title-page by 
the editor but by the author of the book. 

The newspapers continued to carry on an anti-Irish campaign 
for political purposes, the intensity of which we can hardly realize in 
these days. The religion of Catholics was constantly misrepresented, 
and her ministers vilified. The poverty of many of the immigrants 
equalled by their attachment to the faith, was made the subject of 
ridicule by Protestant religious papers and by many of the secular 
newspapers, so that religious controversy, or rather the denunciation 
of the religion of Roman Catholics, became the order of the day. 
The proposition which was constantly argued in the pulpit as well 
as in the press, was that Eoman Catholics could not consistently 
with their allegiance to the Pope become or remain loyal citizens 
of the Republic, and consequently that "foreigners", meaning there- 
by Roman Catholics, ought not to be entrusted with any office of 
honor or profit in the State. 

In Boston, one Sunday in June 1836, as a company of firemen 
were returning from a fire, they met a number of Irishmen waiting 
to form a funeral procession. A fight followed, but was soon quelled, 
and the engine company went on to its house. Meantime, an alarm 
of fire was given, and as another company was on its way in search 
of the supposed fire it came suddenly on the funeral procession, 
broke through its ranks and threw it into confusion. A rush was 
made by the Irishmen for a neighboring woodpile, and, thus armed, 
they fell upon the firemen. Two other companies now arrived, and 
a general fight ensued. The spectators took sides as natives or Irish- 
men, and the latter were driven down Broad Street to Purchase. 
There the mob, which had followed in the rear of the firemen, attacked 
the houses of the Irish, sacked them, threw the contents into the street 
and demolished everj^thing. The furniture, beds, bedding, trunks, 
and the contents of a couple of groceries were strewn about the 
streets, and several Irishmen who were found hiding in cellars were 
dragged out and beaten. The air, it was said, was filled with feathers, 
and some thirty houses were sacked. After three hours of rioting 
the militia appeared and made some arrests. Beyond the fact that 



106 REV. FRANCIS JOHN CONNORS 

the men of one party were Irish and those of the other natives, no 
cause whatever could be found for the riot.^ At the next session of 
Congress the Native American Association at Washington presented 
a memorial, signed by nearly nine hundred members, praying that 
the naturalization act be amended. Such was the treatment meted 
out to the Catholics and especially the Irish Catholics during the 
period 1830-1840. 

On May 16, 1838, Morse again sailed to England for the purpose 
of obtaining letters-patent for the Electro-Magnetic Telegraph Sys- 
tem. He was refused the patent and told that his "invention had 
been published, ' ' and in proof a copy of the London Mechanics Maga^ 
zine, No. 737, for February 10, 1837, was produced, and he was told, 
"that in consequence of said publication he could not proceed." 
Morse then went on to Paris and succeeded in obtaining a patent 
there. He then returned to London and exhibited the telegraph at 
the home of Lord Lincoln, afterwards the Duke of Newcastle. Morse 
returned to the United States the following year and from then till 
1843 Morse's one ambition was the perfection of his telegraph. His 
efforts were crowned with success when, in 1843, Congress passed a 
bill appropriating $30,000 for a telegraph line between Baltimore and 
Washington. On the 24th day of May, 1844, Professor Morse was 
prepared to put to the test the great experiment of which his mind 
had been laboring for twelve anxious, weary years. He invited his 
friends to assemble in the chamber of the United States Supreme 
Court, where he had his instrumentt, from which the wires extended 
to Baltimore. The calmest person in the company was Professor 
Morse. Taking his seat by the instrument, he proceeded to manipu- 
late it. Slowly, steadily, and successfully he wrote the selected words, 
in the Morse telegraphic alphabet, as follows: What hath God 
wrought? It was instantaneously received by Mr. Vail in Baltimore, 
who was ignorant of the message to be sent. Two days afterwards, 
May 26th, the National Democratic Convention for the nomination 
of candidates assembled in Baltimore. It was during this convention 
that Morse's telegraph was first publicly used and proved successful. 
From this time the extension of the telegraph proceeded step by step, 
and sometimes with rapid strides, over the United States of America. 
Professor Morse had the proud satisfaction of seeing his invention 
acknowledged before the world as an American invention. 

During these years of the successful completion of Morse's tele- 



• John B. MeMaster, History of the People of the United States, Vol. V., New 
York, 1906. 



SAMUEL FINLEY BREESE MORSE 107 

graphic plans, 1840-1850, there occurred demonstrations of bigotry 
and prejudice which make this period probably the most unhappy 
in our religious history. The labors and distractions involved in the 
building of the first telegraph did not occupy his mind, as they 
would the mind of an ordinary man, as to make him forget the ghost 
of his life — the papal menace. Catholic prejudice was his life's 
obsession and, in 1841, there came from his prolific pen a series of 
diatribes, first appearing in the Journal of Commerce and later pub- 
lished in a separate volume under the title : Our Liberties defended; 
the Question discussed : is tJie Protestant or Papal System most favor- 
able to Civil and Religious Liberty? Added to the authority of the 
name Morse, the author now appended his new distinction, Professor. 
These particular anti-Catholic essays were but a small part of his 
writings at this time for from the moment his telegraph became a fact 
his time and talents were required to defend his proprietorship of 
the invention. 



V. 

"Imminent Dangers to the Free Institutions op the United 

States Through Foreign Immigration and the Present 

State of Naturalization Laws" 

In January, 1815, a convention was held at Hartford, Connecticut. 
The delegates were from the various parts of New England, conven- 
ing for the purpose of recommending certain amendments to the 
Federal Constitution. One of these amendments was to exclude all 
naturalized citizens from all civil offices and from being elected to 
Congress. This was in an anti-Irish spirit. James Bryce, in The 
American Commonwealth, sums up the position of the Irish at that 
time when he says: "There is a disposition in the United States to 
use the immigrants, and especially the Irish, much as the cat is used 
in the kitchen to account for broken plates and food which disap- 
pears. New York was not an Eden before the Irish came ; and would 
not become an Eden were they all to move on to San Francisco." 

This anti-Irish movement spread throughout the eastern States 
and eventually blossomed into the Native American Party. Anti- 
Catholic literature during the decade 1830-1840 became very bitter. 
Books and pamphlets appeared as fast as the printers could turn 
them out. The daily newspapers carried the most bitter anti-Catholic 
articles. Everyone seemed to be imbued with the spirit and the cry 
became, "Down with Popery." 



108 REV. FRANCIS JOHN CONNORS 

In 1835, there appeared a series of numbers in the New York 
Journal of Commerce written By An American, entitled : Imminent 
Dangers to the Free Institutions of the United States through For- 
eign Immigration and the Present State of Naturalization Laws. 
These were soon printed in pamphlet form because up to that date 
it was the most violent anti-Catholic literature that had been written. 
The author who signed himself An American was none other than 
the inventor of the telegraph, Samuel Finley Breese Morse. In his 
preface he states very clearly that "Foreign Immigration" is the 
cause of the degrading American character brought on "by numer- 
ous instances of riot and lawless violence in action, and a dangerous 
spirit of licentiousness in discussion." He also says, "There are 
other causes of a deeply serious nature, giving support, and strength, 
and systematic co-operation to all these adverse effects of foreign 
immigration, and to which it is high time every American should 
seriously turn his thoughts." Hence it was a national question of 
great importance and one distinctly separated from party politics. 
The aim was to unite all Americans of every party into one true 
American party in order to uphold the "principles which are dis- 
tinctive of American institutions, principles opposed most thoroughly 
to absolute or priestly power." 

After tracing very briefly the difference of conditions of the alien 
in France, where "a residence of ten years gives to the alien all the 
rights of a citizen" and America, where a residence of five years is 
all that is required to give the foreigner "a direct influence on its 
political affairs," Morse goes on to show that the principles of our 
democratic liberty are in great jeopardy due to Europe's despotism. 
Popery is in favor of monarchial power. The Pope is sending his 
representatives over here to instill into the hearts and souls of our 
American people a hatred for Republican liberty. All the countries 
of Europe have taken up the ideas of the Pope, especially Austria. 
One of the Austrian Cabinet, Frederick Schlegel, in a lecture given 
to strengthen the cause of absolute power, demonstrated one of the 
principal connecting points between European and American poli- 
ties," when he said: "The great Nursery of these destructive prin- 
ciples (the principles of Democracy), the Great Revolutionary school 
for France and the rest of Europe, is North America. ' ' Austria could 
not attack us except through Popery, because to send her armies 
would be useless. Hence Austria has set out to spread throughout 
the country the Popish religion. The passage in question follows: 

Immediately after the delivery of Schlegel's (a devoted Roman 
Catholic, and one of the Austrian Cabinet) lectures, which was in 



SAMUEL FINLEY BREESE MORSE 109 

the year 1828, a great society was formed in the Austrian capital, in 
Vienna, in 1829. The late Emperor (Charles X), and Prince Met- 
ternieh, and the Crown Prince (now emperor), and all the civil and 
ecclesiastical officers of the empire, with the princes of Savoy and 
Piedmont, Hungary, Italy and Catholic France, uniting in it, and 
calling it after the name of a canonized King, St. Leopold. This 
society is formed for a great and express purpose. It has all the 
officers of government interested in it, from the Emperor down to the 
humblest in the Empire. It is not a small private association, but 
a great and extensive combination. And what is its purpose? Why, 
that ' ' of promoting the greater activity of Catholic missions in Amer- 
ica;" these are the words of their own reports. Let us examine the 
operation of this Austrian society for it is hard at work all around 
us. Prom a machinery of such a character and power, we shall 
doubtless be able to see already some effect. With its headquarters 
at Vienna, under the immediate direction and inspection of Metter- 
nich, the well known great managing general of the diplomacy of 
Europe, it makes itself already felt through the Republic. Its em- 
issaries are here. And who are the emissaries? They are Jesuits. 
This society of men, after exerting their tyranny for upwards of 200 
years, at length became so formidable to the world, threatening the 
entire subversion of all social order, that even the Pope, whose de- 
voted subjects they are, and must be, by vow of their society, was 
compelled to dissolve them. They had not been suppressed, however, 
for fifty years, before the waning influence of Popery and Despotism 
required their useful labours, to resist the spreading light of Demo- 
cratic liberty, and the Pope (Pius VII), simultaneously with the 
formation of the Holy Alliance, revived the order of the Jesuits in 
all their power. Prom their vow of "unqualified submission to the 
Sovereign Pontiff" they have been appropriately called the Pope's 
body guard. It should be known that Austrian influence elected the 
present Pope; his body guard are therefore at the service of Austria 
and these are the soldiers that the Leopold Society has sent to this 
country, and they are agents of this society, to execute its designs, 
whatever their designs may be. And do Americans need to be told 
what Jesuits are? If any are ignorant, let them inform themselves 
of their history without delay ; no time is to be lost ; their workings 
are before you in every day 's events ; they are a secret society, a sort 
of Masonic order, with superadded features of most revolting odious- 
ness, and a thousand times more dangerous. They are not confined 
to one class in society; they are not merely priests, or priests of one 
religious creed, they are merchants, and lawyers, and editors, and 
men of any profession, and no profession, having no outward badge 
(in this country) by which to be recognized; they are about in all 
your society. They can assume any character, that of angels of 
light, or ministers of darkness to accomplish their one great end, 
the service upon which they are sent, whatever that service may be. 
"They are all educated men, prepared, and sworn to start at any 
moment in any direction, and for any service commanded by the 
general of their order, bound to no family, community or country, 



110 REV. FRANCIS JOHN CONNORS 

by the ordinary ties which bind men ; and sold for life to the cause 
of the Roman Pontiff." ... Is there no danger to the Democracy 
of the country from such formidable foes arrayed against it? Is 
Metternich its friend ? Is the Pope its friend 1 Are his official docu- 
ments now daily put forth democratic in their character? 

0, there is no danger to the Democracy, for those most devoted 
to the Pope, the Roman Catholics, especially the Irish Catholics, are 
all on the side of Democracy. Yes, to be sure they are all on the side 
of Democracy. They are just where I should look for them. Judas 
Iscariot joined with the true disciples. Jesuits are not fools. . . . 
This is a Democratic country, and the Democratic party is and ever 
must be the strongest party, unless ruined by traitors and Jesuits in 
the camp? . . . Let every real Democrat guard against this common 
Jesuitical artifice of tyrants, an artifice which there is much evi- 
dence to believe is practising against them at this moment, an artifice 
which, if not heeded, will surely be the ruin of democracy; it is 
founded on that well-known principle that "extremes meet." . . . 

That Jesuits are at work upon the passions of American com- 
munity, managing in various ways to gain control, must be evident 
to all. . . . There are some, perhaps, who are under the impression 
that the order of Jesuits is a purely religious Society for the dis- 
semination of the Roman Catholic religion, and, therefore, comes 
within the protection of our laws, and must be tolerated. There 
cannot be a greater mistake. It was from the beginning a political 
organization, an absolute Monarchy masked by religion. It has been 
aptly styled "tyranny by religion." . . , 

It is this (Roman Catholic) form of religion that is most impli- 
cated in the conspiracy against our liberties. It is in this sect that 
the Jesuits are organized. It is this sect that is proclaimed by one 
of its own most brilliant and profound literaiy men to be hostile in 
its very nature to republican liberty; and it is the active extension 
of this sect that Austria is endeavoring to promote throughout the 
Republic. . . . 

It is in the Roman Catholic ranks that we are principally to look 
for material to be employed by the Jesuits, and in what condition 
do we find this sect at present in our country? We find it spreading 
itself into every nook and corner of the land; churches, chapels, col- 
leges, nunneries and convents, are springing up as if by magic every- 
where; and activity hitherto unknown among the Roman Catholics 
pervades all their ranks, and yet whence the means for all these 
efforts? Except here and there funds or favours collected from an 
inconsistent Protestant (so called probably because born in a Protes- 
tant country, who is flattered or wheedled by some Jesuit artifice to 
give his aid to their cause), the greatest part of the pecuniary means 
for all these works are from abroad. They are contributions of his 
Majesty the Emperor of Austria, of Prince Metternich, of the late 
Charles X, and the other despots combined in the Leopold Society. 
And who are the members of the Roman Catholic communion ? "What 
proportion are natives of this land, nurtured under our own institu- 



SAMUEL FINLEY BREESE MORSE 111 

tions, and well versed in the nature of American liberty? Is it not 
notorious that the greater part are foreigners from the various Cath- 
olic countries of Europe? Emigration has of late years been speci- 
ally promoted among this class of foreigners and they have been in 
the proportion of three to one of all other emigrants arriving on our 
shores; they are from Ireland, Germany, Poland, and Belgium. 
From about the period of the formation of the Leopold Society, Cath- 
olic emigration increased in an amazing degree. . . . The principal 
emigrants are from Ireland and Germany. We have lately been told 
by the captain of a lately arrived Austrian vessel which, by the by, 
brought seventy emigrants from Antwerp, that a desire is suddenly 
manifested among the poorer class of the Belgian population, to 
emigrate to America. They are mostly, if not all, Eoman Catholics, 
be it remarked, for Belgium is a Catholic country and Austrian 
vessels are bringing them here. Whatever the cause of all this move- 
ment abroad to send to this country, their poorer classes, the fact is 
certain, the class of emigrants is known, and instrument, Austria, is 
seen in it — the same power that directs the Leopold Foundation. 

Hence we should have a change in our naturalization laws. Just 
what this change should have been was a serious question. The 
editor of the Evening Post suggested that foreigners be admitted 
"to citizenship the moment they set foot in the country, provided 
they make suitable declaration of their intention of residence." 
Others wanted a change with the view of discouraging immigration 
completely or a change in the right of suffrage. Others held that the 
immigrant has a merit superior to the Americans because he has 
made this the country of his choice. "The claim of the foreigner 
to equal right with native citizens, on the ground of the declared 
principles of the government, and of abstract natural rights" is 
groundless. The Jesuits, the Pope's emissaries, are to be watched 
carefully. The nature of the Roman Catholic system ought to be 
examined. The system that Austria and the other despots of Europe 
are promoting in these United States is ' ' Popery. ' ' 

"What is the character of Popery?" You must not ask that ques- 
tion,' says one. 'You have no right to ask it' ... . 'No Church and 
State,' cries a third. ... 'It is persecution, and intolerance, and 
illiberality, and bigotry,' cries a sixth, 'for the Roman Catholic re- 
ligion is changed; it is not that bloody persecuting religion that it 
was in by-gone times, when John Huss and others were burnt as 
heretics. Roman Catholics have grown tolerant and liberal; they 
are now favorable to liberty; they advocate all the rights of man, 
such as, right of private judgment; the liberty of the press. They 
have imbibed the spirit of the age.' Yet, who says it is changed? 
Will any Roman Catholic Bishop say it has changed any of its prin- 
ciples one iota? And is there any Roman Catholic ecclesiastic who, 



112 EEV. FRANCIS JOHN CONNORS 

authorized by his superior, will dare to deny, under his own proper 
name, 

1st. That the Roman Catholic priesthood are taught at this day 
(A. D. 1835), to account Protestants worse than Pagans. 

2nd. That they are taught to consider all who are baptized, even 
by those they term heretics, as lawfully under the power of the 
Church of Rome, over whom the Pope has rightful domination. 

3rd. That they are taught, that they cannot tolerate the rites of 
any who are not of the Church of Rome, and that whenever it is for 
the good of the Church, they must exterminate them. 

4th. That they are taught, that they may compel, by corporal 
punishments, all who are baptized; and consequently nearly all, if 
not all, of every Protestant religious denomination, to submit to the 
Roman Church. 

5th. That they are taught that these punishments may be con- 
fiscation of property, exile, imprisonment, and death. 

6th. That they are taught, that expediency alone may restrain 
them from the exercise of any of these rights of compulsion against 
heretics; and that consequently, whenever they have the power, and 
it shall be thought expedient, it is their duty to exercise them. Are 
these startling propositions? Consider them well, Americans. They 
are the doctrines of the Church of Rome. 

It is little wonder that the Imminent Dangers to the Free Institu- 
tions of the United States through Foreign Immigration and the 
Present State of Naturalization Laws, became a political pamphlet 
of supreme importance in the eyes of the Native American Political 
Party. By party is meant any section of men who nominate candi- 
dates of their own for the presidency and vice-presidency of the 
United States. In the United States, the history of party politics 
begins with the Constitutional Convention of 1787 at Philadelphia. 
On the drafting of the Constitution, during its debates and discus- 
sions, two opposite tendencies, which soon afterwards appeared on 
a larger scale in the State conventions, to which the new instrument 
was submitted for acceptance, were revealed. There were the cen- 
trifugal and centripetal tendencies — a tendency to maintain both the 
freedom of the individual citizen and the independence in every- 
thing except foreign policy and national defense, of the several 
States. When George Washington was chosen as the first President 
of the United States and with him a Senate and House of Represen- 
tatives, the tendencies which had opposed or supported the adoption 
of the Constitution reappeared not only in Congress but also in the 
President's cabinet. Alexander Hamilton, secretary of the treasury, 
counselled a line of action which assumed and required the exercise 
of large powers by the Federal government, while Thomas Jefferson, 



SAMUEL FINLEY BREESE MORSE 113 

the secretary of state, desired practically to restrict its action to 
foreign affairs. Hence two parties were formed. The Federalists, 
the first party government under the Constitution, were under the 
leadership of Hamilton. It was this party that had passed, on June 
18, 1789, the new law requiring that fourteen years of residence, and 
a declaration of intention five years prior to application, were neces- 
sary for naturalization. The old Federalist party fell in 1800 and 
disappeared in 1814. The party under Jefferson took the name of 
Democratic-Republicans. The Federalists claimed to be the apostles 
of liberty, while the Eepublicans represented the principle of order. 
The disappearance of the Federal party in 1814 left the Eepublicans 
master of the field until about 1830 when sectional divisions arose 
thereby forming two new parties, the Democrats and the National- 
Republicans, ultimately the Whig Party. The Democrats carried on 
the dogmas and traditions of the old Jeffersonian Republicans while 
the Whigs represented many of the views of the former Federalists. 
In 1831 and 1832 two minor parties arose. They were called the 
anti-Masonic party and the Liberal party. These parties revealed 
the fact that a popular vote when backed by party organizations 
might force issues to a hearing and might threaten the governing 
parties into compliance. The anti-Masonic party had its stronghold 
in New York State. 

Samuel S. Smith, a renegade priest, who published in New York 
a filthy sheet styled The Downfall of Babylon and neglected no 
opportunity to assail the Catholic Church, annoiuiced that the 
formal organization of the Native-American Party took place at 
a meeting held at the North American Hotel, New York City, 
June 10, ]835. The organization adopted the name, "Native 
American Democratic Association," and resolutions were passed la- 
menting the coming of so many foreigners into the country, saying 
that it was not compatible with their honor as native citizens to aid 
in the election of any foreigner to any office of trust, or power, and 
that native citizens ought always be preferred for every civil or 
municipal office. The Doivnfall hailed the association as a ''religious 
scheme for the salvation of our country." In a short time, an or- 
ganization was so far effected as to warrant the nomination of a 
distinct American ticket for local office. The second purpose of the 
Native- American Party was to extend the time required for citizen- 
ship from five to twenty-one years. It will be found that the out- 
bursts of Nativism are always concomitants to an immigrant wave. 
Know-Nothingism, for example, which was the first pronounced mani- 
festation of Nativism, was at its height in 1855, the year after the 



114 REV. FRANCIS JOHN CONNORS 

first great immigrant wave reached its peak. Sporadic Nativist socie- 
ties had begun to appear prior to Know-Nothingism, such as the Pa- 
triotic Sons of America, 1847, and the Native-American Party, 1835. 
The peak year of the second wave was 1873, the effect of which was 
seen in the planks introduced into Republican and Democratic plat- 
forms in 1876 in support of Nativism, the Republican plank again 
going so far as to recommend a constitutional amendment preventing 
the use of public funds or property in support of sectarian schools. 
The third peak of immigration was reached in 1882 with a slightly 
lesser peak in 1892. During this period Nativism asserted itself in 
the American Protective Association organized in 1887. The peak 
of the fourth and last immigrant wave was 1907 with a slightly lesser 
peak in 1914. The Ku Klux Klan was organized in 1915. The 
Klan has become a national movement mainly because it has tapped 
the old stream of Nativist traditions. 

The growing antagonism to the Irish immigrant during the de- 
cade, 1830-1840, and the formation of the so-called "Native American 
Association" were due in part to the aggressive self -consciousness 
and political activities of the large masses of Irish immigrants in the 
Eastern cities. Foreign nationalistic societies of all kinds were a 
great irritant. Even so harmless an organization as the Boston 
Hibernian Lyceum aroused the wrath of the unreasonable "Na- 
tivists. ' ' 

VI. 

Later Life and Death 
(1845-1872) 

Professor S. F. B. Morse, the soul of the anti-Catholic movement 
during this period, was chosen in 1835 as the Native-American can- 
didate for the office of Mayor of New York, but in spite of the large 
vote he polled he was defeated. Morse gives a "Native American 
View" of the situation in his pamphlet: Imminent Dangers. Morse 
says: 

Few, out of the great cities, are aware what sophistry has of late 
been spread among the more ignorant class of foreigners, to induce 
them to clan together, and to assert what they are pleased to call 
their rights. The ridiculous claim to superior privileges over native 
citizens, which I have noticed, is a specimen. . . . Already has the 
influence of bad councils led the deluded emigrant, particularly the 
Irish emigrant, to adopt such a course as to alienate from him the 
American people. Emigrants have been induced to prefer such arro- 
gant claims, they have nurtured their foreign feelings and their for- 



SAMUEL FINLEY BREESE MORSE 115 

eign nationality to such a degree, and manifested such a determina- 
tion to create and strengthen, a separate and a foreign interest, that 
the American people can endure it no longer, and a direct hostile 
interest is now in array against them. This is an effect natural from 
such a cause; it is one long predicted in the hope of avoiding the 
evil. If evil is the consequence, the writer at least washed his hands 
of the guilt. The name and character of foreigners has, by this con- 
duct of emigrants and their advocates, become odious, and the public 
voice is becoming louder and louder, and it will increase to unani- 
mity, or at least so far as real American feeling pervades the hearts 
of America, until its languages will be intelligible and audible even 
to those deaf ears, who no affect neither to hear nor to heed it. . . . 
It is that anamalous, nondescript . . . thing, neither foreign nor 
native, yet a moiety of each, now one, now the other, both or neither 
as circumstances suit, against whom I war; a naturalized foreigner, 
not a naturalized citizen; a man from Ireland, or France, or Ger- 
many or other foreign lands, renounces his native country and adopts 
America, professes to become an American and still, being received, 
sworn to be a citizen, talks (for example) of Ireland as "his home," 
as "his beloved country," resents anything said against the Irish 
as said against him, glories in being Irish, forms and cherishes an 
Irish interest, brings hither Irish local feuds, and forgets, in short, 
all his new obligations as an American, and retains both a name and 
a feeling and a practice in regard to his adopted country at war with 
propriety, with decency, with gratitude, and with true patriotism. 
I hold no parley with such contradictions as Irish fellow- citizens, 
French fellow- citizens, or German fellow-citizens. "With as much 
consistency might we say foreign natives, or foreign friends. But 
the present is no time either for compliment or nice discrimination. 
When the country is invaded by an army, it is not the moment to 
indulge in pity towards the deluded soldiers of the various hostile 
corps, who act as they are commanded by their superior officers. It 
is then no time to make distinction among the officers, lest we injure 
those who are voluntarily fighting against us, or who may be friends 
in the enemy's camp. The first thing is to bring the whole army to 
unconditional surrender, and when they have laid down their arms 
in a body, and acknowledged our sovereignity, then good fellowship, 
and courtesy, and pity will have leisure to indulge in discriminating 
friends and foes, and in showing to each their respective and appro- 
priate sympathies. 

We have now to resist the momentous evil that threatens us from 
foreign conspiracy. The conspirators are in the foreign importa- 
tions. Innocent and guilty are brought over together. We must of 
necessity suspect them all. That we are most seriously endangered, 
admits not of the slightest doubt; we are experiencing the natural 
reaction of European upon American principles, and it is infatua- 
tion, it is madness not to see it, not to guard against it. A subtle 
attack is making upon us by foreign powers. The proofs are as 
strong as the nature of the case allows. They have been adduced 
again and again and they have not only been uncontradicted, but 



116 REV. FRANCIS JOHN CONNORS 

silently acquiesced in, and have acquired fresh confirmation by every 
day's observation. The arbitrary governments of Europe — those 
governments who keep the people in the most abject obedience at the 
point of the bayonet, with Austria at their head, have combined to 
attack us in every vulnerable point that the nation exposes to their 
assault. They are compelled by self-preservation to attempt our 
destruction — they must destroy democracy. It is with them a case 
of life and death, they must succeed or perish. If they do not over- 
throw American liberty, American liberty will overthrow their des- 
potism. . . . Will you despise the cry of danger? Well, be it so. 
Believe the foreign Jesuit rather than our own countrjonen. Open 
wide your doors. Yes, throw down your walls. Invite, nay, allure, 
your enemies. Enlarge your almshouses and your prisons; be not 
sparing of your money ; complain not of the outrages in your streets, 
nor the burden of your taxes. You will be repaid in praises of your 
toleration and liberty. What though European despots have com- 
pelled you to the necessity of employing your lives in toiling and 
providing for their outcast poor, and have caused you to be vexed, 
and your habit outraged by the expatriated turbulence of their cities, 
instead of allowing you to rejoice in the prosperity, and happiness, 
and peaceful neighborhood of your own well-provided, well-instructed 
children. . . . 

What were the circumstances of the country when laws so favor- 
able to the foreigner were passed to induce him to emigrate and 
settle in this country? The answer is obvious. Our early history 
explains it. In our national infancy we needed the strength of num- 
bers. Powerful nations, to whom we were accessible by fleets, and 
consequently also by armies, threatened us. Our land had been the 
theatre of contests between French, and English, and Spanish armies, 
for more than a century. Our numbers were so few and so scattered, 
that as a people we could not unite to repel aggression. The war 
of Independence, too, has wasted us. We wanted numerical strength ; 
we felt our weakness in numbers. Safety, then, national safety, was 
the motive which urged us to use every effort to increase our popula- 
tion and to induce a foreign emigration. Then foreigners seemed all 
important, and the policy of alluring them hither, too palpable to be 
opposed successfully even by the remonstrances of Jefferson. We 
would be benefited by the emigrants and we in return could bestow 
on them a gift beyond price, by simply making them citizens. Mani- 
fest as this advantage seemed in the increase of our numerical 
strength, Mr. Jefferson looked beyond the advantage of the moment, 
and saw the distant evil. . . . Now, if under the most favorable cir- 
cumstances for the country, when it could most be licncfited, when 
numbers were most urgently needed, Mr. Jefferson could discover the 
evil afar off, and protest against encouraging foreign immigration, 
how much more is the measure to be deprecated, when circumstances 
have so entirely changed, that instead of adding strength to the coun- 
try, immigration adds weakness, weakness physical and moral. And 
what overwhelming force does Mr. Jefferson's reasoning acquire, by 
the vast change of circumstances which has taken place both in 



SAMUEL FINLEY BREESE MORSE 117 

Europe and in this country, in our earlier and in our later condi- 
tions? Then we were few, feeble and scattered. Now w eare numer- 
ous, strong, and concentrated. Then our accessions by immigrations 
were real accessions of strength from the ranks of the learned and 
good, from the enlightened mechanic and artisan, and intelligent hus- 
bandman. Now immigration is the accession of weakness, from the 
ignorant and the vicious, or the priest-ridden slaves of Ireland and 
Germany or the outcast tenants of the poorhouses and prisons of 
Europe. And again: Then our beautiful system of government had 
not been unfolded to the world to the terror of tyranny; the rising 
brightness of American Democracy was not yet so far above the 
horizon as to wake their slumbering anxieties, or more than to gleam 
faintly, in hope, upon their enslaved subjects. Then immigration 
was natural, it was an attraction of affinities, it was an attraction of 
liberty. Immigrants were proscribed for conscience's sake, and for 
opinions' sake, the real lovers of liberty, Europe's loss, and our 
gain. . . . Now emigrants are selected for a service to their tyrants, 
and by their tyrants, not for their affinity to liberty, but for their 
mental servitude, and their docility in obeying the orders of their 
priests. They are transported in thousands, nay, in hundreds of 
thousands, to our shores, to our loss and Europe's gain. Again I 
say ... let the law of the land be so changed that no foreigner who 
comes into the country after the law is passed shall ever be entitled 
to the right of suffrage. This is just ground; it is practicable 
ground; it is defensible ground, and it is safe and prudent ground; 
and I cannot better close than in words of Mr. Jefferson, "The time 
to guard against corruption and tyranny is before they shall have 
gotten hold on us ; it is better to keep the wolf out of the fold, than 
to trust to drawing his teeth and talons after he has entered . . . . " 

.... What reason can be assigned, why they who profess to have 
become Americans, should organize themselves into Foreign National 
Societies all over the country; and under their foreign appellation, 
hold correspondence with each other to promote their foreign in- 
terest? Can any good reason be given why such foreign associations 
should be allowed to exist in this country? The Irish have been thus 
organized for many years. The objects of one of three Irish societies 
will serve to illustrate the objects generally of all these associations 
in the midst of us. ' ' The Boston Hibernian Lyceum, ' ' says the Cath- 
olic Diary of March 14, 1835, "organized about two years ago, is 
composed of Irish young men for the diffusion among each other" — 
of what ? " of mutual sympathy and mutual co-operation, in whatever 
may aid to qualify them to meet and discharge their responsibilities 
as the representatives of their native as well as citizens of their 
adopted country, as Irishmen and Americans." Here we have an 
avowal directly of an organization to promote a foreign interest in 
the country. . . , 

It is notorious that the excitement respecting the Eoman Catholic 
emigrant had existed scarcely a year. The exposure of foreign de- 
signs through the Roman Catholic religion, and the discussions 
arising out of it, all the riotous conduct of Catholics and others, and 



118 REV. FRANCIS JOHN CONNORS 

among other things the public notices of these very organizations, 
have all occurred within the last year. But the organizations of the 
Catholics, and particularly of the Irish, are of many years standing. 
The Society at Boston, above quoted, and one of the most recent, was 
formed long before any excitement on the subject "two years ago," 
says the Catholic Diary. It was discovering these organizations, al- 
ready formed on the part of foreigners, that excited the jealousy and 
distrust on the part of the American people. 

The first National Convention of the Native-Americans as- 
sembled at Philadelphia, on the 4th day of July, 1845, for the 
purpose of devising a plan of concerted political action in de- 
fense of American institutions against the encroachments of foreign 
influence open or concealed. This is sufficient to make clear that 
the antagonism to foreigners was linked with opposition to the 
Catholic faith; and in this respect the story is the same down 
to the present moment. Hatred for Irish ascendancy in this 
country has gone hand-in-hand with hatred for the Church. The 
main idea has been to keep the Irish out of the professions, out of 
civil offices of trust, and thus to impoverish them financially and 
intellectually. The point of attack was not primarily in their being 
Catholic, but in their being Irish. The persistence and development 
of this illiberal and un-American spirit found our people ill-prepared 
to defend themselves against the attacks made upon them, emanating 
for the most part from the ministers and disseminated by sectarian 
newspapers all over the land. The Catholic clergy of those days 
were men of peace who had been trained to suffer persecution for 
conscience' sake and who would have preferred to escape from the 
strife and public disputation over matters of religion which the exi- 
gencies of the times forced upon them. 

Professor Morse was a Christian in his faith and practice. He 
first made a public profession of religion in Charlestown, Mass., in 
the Church (Congregational) of which his father was pastor. He 
was the superintendent of its Sabbath-school. 

Those who knew him most intimately, and held communion with 
him in hours of retirement from the conflicts of the world, know that 
he was governed in all his actions by the fear of God and love of his 
fellow-men. Few men have given more in proportion to their wealth 
than he did. The first earnings of the telegraph he gave to the 
Church. Colleges and theological seminaries received liberal dona- 
tions from him. Missionary and other religious charities were con- 
stant recipients of his benefactions. Art and science were always 



SAMUEL FINLEY BREESE MORSE 119 

regarded by him as proper objects for the use of his money .^° And 
yet, his attitude towards the Irish Catholics in this country was far 
from being charitable. 

From 1840 on, emigration from Europe had steadily increased. 
As Morse describes it, 

It is estimated from official statistics that about 1,160,000 people 
had arrived in the United States from 1840-1850, mostly from Ire- 
land on account of the Famine. With the steady growth of Catholi- 
city new churches were erected, new dioceses begun and bishops ap- 
pointed; and these evidences of Catholic progress filled the souls of 
the Protestant American citizens with alarm. The spirit led to the 
formation of the Know-Nothing or American Party, pledged to the 
same principles as the Native American Party which had preceded it 
— anti-Catholicism and anti-Foreign Know-Nothingism was the first 
pronounced manifestation of Nativism, and reached its height in 
1855, the year after the first great immigrant wave reached its peak. 
The first act of the Know-Nothings was at Providence, R. I., in 1852. 
The students of Harvard and Yale were leaders in the movement and 
their recreation times in Boston and New Haven were spent in break- 
ing the windows of Catholic houses, churches and convents, and in 
insulting the Sisters and priests on the streets. At Providence, the 
conversion of a Protestant lady, the daughter of a prominent Ameri- 
can family, and her reception into the Sisters of Mercy Convent 
there, was the signal for the attack. The town was placarded calling 
on all loyal citizens to assist in destroying the convent. The Mayor 
came to the convent and advised the Sisters to leave. On their re- 
fusal, he left them at the mercy of the mob.^^ 

The inveterate hatred many Americans had for all things Catholic 
is shown very clearly by the bigotry in the Army and Navy, where 
Catholic soldiers and sailors were forced at the point of the bayonet 
to attend Protestant sermons. The history of the Know-Nothingism 
from 1852 down to our Civil War (1861) is but another chapter in 
the record of American folly. In Manchester, N. H., Lowell, Mass., 
and throughout New England, churches were burnt, priests and 
Sisters attacked ; the Fourth of July was used as an occasion to burn 
down Catholic property, while Thanksgiving day was used as a day 
of excitement from Protestant pulpits against the Church. Among 
the acts brought about by the Know-Nothing influence were the 
Convent Inspection Bill of Massachusetts, in 1835; the attack on St. 
Mary's Church, Newark, New Jersey, in September, 1854; the Bloody 
Monday of August 5, 1855, in Louisville, Kentucky; the disgraceful 
treatment meted out to Archbishop Bedini, who had been sent by 



"Prime, op. dt. 
"Condon, op. cit. 



120 REV. FRANCIS JOHN CONNORS 

Pius IX to examine into numerous ecclesiastical matters here, and 
the plot to assassinate him; and the spread of anti-Catholic street 
preaching in New York and Philadelphia. The backbone of the 
Know-Nothing movement collapsed in 1861, when at the first call of 
President Lincoln, 150,000 Irish Catholics volunteered for the war. 

In 1854, appeared a secret political society, pledged to the exclu- 
sion from office of all except native-born and those friendly to such 
exclusion. This society was opposed to any who professed the Cath- 
olic religion. 

The Patriotic Sons of America, founded in Philadelphia in 1847 
and reorganized in 1866, sought to inculcate pure Americanism by 
opposing all foreign influence, by insisting upon the separation of 
Church and State, by keeping public schools free from ecclesiastical 
influence and by requiring longer residence of foreigners before ad- 
mission to citizenship. This has remained the general platform of all 
subsequent Nativist organizations. 

The rapid growth of the Catholic Church called out, in 1894, 
another anti-Catholic movement in American history, namely, the 
American Protective Association. Its aim was the destruction of 
the Catholic Church's influence; and the exclusion of the Catholic 
immigrants from our shores. The A. P. A. asserts: "We attack no 
man's religion as long as he does not attempt to make his religion 
an element of political power. ' ' ^^ Yet a member of the A. P. A. 
was bound by his oath never to favor the nomination of a Catholic 
for public office nor to employ a Catholic in any services where a 
Protestant could be obtained. The A. P. A. movement boasted a 
system of espionage by which spies were detailed to report the doings 
of prominent Catholics and to make public the secret plottings of 
these "enemies of the republic." 

The mantle of the American Protective Association has fallen 
upon the shoulders of the Ku Klux Klan so far as anti-Catholicism 
is concerned. In parts of the Middle West, where the American 
Protective Association found its main support, the Klan organizers 
have been endorsed by former members of the A. P. A., thus indi- 
cating the kinship of the two movements. There is in existence today 
about thirty-five periodicals in different parts of the country, more 
abominable in tone and more immoral than those of the early '30s 
devoted to one purpose — the villification of our Church, and the 
determination to arouse the uneducated element of the American 
people to violence against the liberty the Catholic religion enjoys in 



"John M. Meeklin, The Ku Klux Klan, New York, 1924. 



SAMUEL FINLEY BREESE MORSE 121 

this country. The Klan is a lineal descendant of Know-Nothingism 
and the American Protective Association and hence of the Native 
Americanism of 1835, whose fundamental political dogma was: 
"Americans alone shall govern America." 

In 1848, Morse was compelled to defend his invention in the 
courts. His case was brought to the Supreme Court who on January 
30, 1854, handed down the decision that "Samuel F. B. Morse is the 
true and first inventor of the recording telegraph. "^^ In 1847, Morse 
purchased a home in Poughkeepsie, and the following year, 1848, he 
married Miss Sarah G. Griswold, the daughter of his cousin. Except 
for an occasional trip to Europe, Morse spent his summers with his 
family in Poughkeepsie and his winters in New York City, till his 
death, April 2, 1872, in New York. 

The New York World for Wednesday, April 3, 1872, the day 
after his death, says of him : 

Professor Morse has died in a green old age — he almost completed 
his eighty-first year. To few men has it been permitted to assist 
at their own apotheoses, and yet such has been his privilege.^ He 
has lived long enough to hear the favorable verdict of posterity — 
for no future revision will fundamentally alter or amend the view 
taken of his work. He has been fortunate in his ancestors, relatives 
and friends. He has had "honor, love, obedience, troops of friends." 
He has not only taken, but given. And today the civilized world 
goes into mourning for a plain, American citizen — an artist and 
inventor — who, true to himself, never dabbled in politics or took part 
in war. We weave an oaken garland today not for the king, states- 
man, or conqueror, but for the man who unostentatiously benefited 
his fellow men. 

The New York Daily Tribune for April 4, 1872, speaking of his 
world-wide fame says: 

His last hours were passed so quietly that there is nothing of 
interest to record concerning them, and when he peacefully breathed 
his last he was surrounded only by the members of his family. 
Governor Hoffman (New York) sent the following communication 
to the (State) Legislature: "The telegraph today announces the 
death of its inventor, Samuel F, B. Morse. Born in Massachusetts, 
his home has for many years of his eventful life been New York — 
his fame belongs to neither, but to the country and the world. Yet 
it seems fitting that this great State in which he lived and died, 
should be the first to pay appropriate honors to his memory. Living, 
he received from Governments more public honors than was ever 
paid to any private citizen. Dead, let all the people pay homage to 
his name. 

" Prime, op. cit. 



122 REV. FRANCIS JOHN CONNORS 

The same paper for April 5, 1872, the day of his funeral in 
New York City, says: 

The telegraph circuit of the world will today be tremulous with 
the announcement that the mortal remains of S. F. B. Morse, the 
great electrician, are borne to their last resting place. Wherever 
the sensitive vibrations have penetrated there will be a new sense 
of loss as men reflect that the great man has passed forever out of 
the reach of the world's honors and reverence. His fame has en- 
compassed the globe, and everywhere his name will be held in high 
esteem. ... As an artist, philosopher, public benefactor, useful 
citizen, and Christian gentleman, he has gained the admiration and 
affections of many and different classes ; the Art, Science, and Philan- 
thropy will do honor to the memory of the man whose death, coming 
when he was full of years and honors, is thus shorn of half its 
gloomy surroundings. 

Many American cities, towns, and States, the United States gov- 
ernment and foreign countries passed resolutions expressing their 
sorrow at the death of a great artist, poet, litterateur and inventor 
— Samuel Finley Breese Morse. 



Eev. Francis John Connors, A. F. M. 
MaryknoU, N. Y. 



ILLINOIS: THE CRADLE OF CHRISTIANITY 
AND CIVILIZATION IN MID-AMERICA 

{Continued from July issue) 

CHAPTER IV 

Father ELennepin's Part in La Salle's Voyages 
By reason of a book that was published closely subsequent to the 
La Salle explorations attributed (falsely we think) to Father Louis 
Hennepin in which false claims were made for him of a visit to the 
Gulf of Mexico many writers have denounced him as a prevaricator 
and a fraud. 

It is certain, however, that all that appears in his authentic writ- 
ings was true and a better understanding of the La Salle journeys 
may be had by reading Father Hennepin's works from which we 
quote : 

Before leaving Fort Creve Couer (at the present site of Peoria) 
La Salle directed Tonti to take charge and left with him the two 
Eecollect Fathers, Ribourde and Membre. For Father Hennepin he 
had another mission — the exploration of the Mississippi to its source. 

Taking two companions in a canoe, Father Hennepin paddled 
down the Illinois to the Mississippi and pursued his journey up the 
Mississippi. The journey was practically without incident until on 
April 12, 1680, they encountered a party of Sioux Indians, were 
captured and held prisoners until released at the behest of Daniel 
Greysolon d'Lhut, a noted French hunter for whom the city of 
Duluth is named. They were able to proceed on their journey to 
near the headwaters of the Mississippi and passed and named St. 
Anthony's Falls. In his letters he tells the story: 

Father Hennepin's Story 

An Account of the building of a New Fort on the River of the 
Illinois, named by the Savages Checagou, and by us Fort Crevecoeur; 
as also a barque to go down the River Mississippi. 

I must observe here that the hardest winter lasts not above two 
months in this charming country; so that on the 15th, of January 
there came a sudden thaw which made the rivers navigable and the 
weather so mild as it is with us in the middle of the Spring. M. la 
Salle improving this fair season, desired me to go down the river 
with him to choose a place fit to build our fort. After having viewed 
the country we pitched upon an eminence on the bank of the river, 
defended on that side of the river and on two others by two ditches 
the rains had made very deep by succession of time ; so that it was 

123 



124 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

accessible oaaly by one way; therefore we east a line to join those two 
natural ditches, and made the eminence steep on every side, support- 
ing the earth with great pieces of timber. We made a hasty lodg- 
ment thereon, to be ready to defend us in case the Savages would 
obstruct the building of our fort; but nobody offering to disturb us, 
we went on diligently with our work. Fathers Gabriel, Zenobe and I 
made in the meantime a cabin of planks, wherein our worlanen came 
to prayers every morning and evening; but having no wine, we could 
not say jMass. The fort being half finished, M. la Salle lodged himself 
in the middle with M. Tonti and everybody took his post. We placed 
our forge along the courtin on the side of the wood and laid in a 
great c^uantity of coals for that use. 

In the meantime our thoughts were always bent towards our dis- 
covery, and M. la Salle and I had frequent conferences about it: 
But our greatest difficulty was to build a barque, for our sawers 
being gone, we did not know what to do. However, as the timber 
was cheap, we told our men that if any of them would undertake to 
saw boards for building the said barque, we might surmount all other 
difficulties. Two men undertook it ; and though they had never tried 
it before, they succeeded very well, so that we began to build a barque, 
the keel whereof was forty-two feet long. Our men went on so 
briskly with the work, that on the first of March our barque was half 
built and all the timber ready prepared for the finishing of it. 
Our fort was also very near finished; and we named it the Fort of 
Creveeouer, because the desertion of our men, and the other difficul- 
ties we labored under had almost broke our hearts. 

Though the winter is not harder nor longer in the country of 
the Illinois than in Provence, the snow remained upon the earth in 
the year 1680 for twenty days together, which had not been seen in 
the memory of man. This made the Savages mightily concerned, and 
brought upon us a world of inconveniences besides the many others 
we suffered. In the meantime, we perfected our fort ; and our barque 
was in such a forwardness, that we might have expected to be in a 
condition to sail in a very short time, had we provided with all other 
necessaries; but hearing nothing of our ship, and therefore wanting 
the rigging and other tackle for our barque, we found ourselves in 
great perplexity, and did not know what to do in this sad juncture, 
being above five hundred leagues from Fort Frontenac, whither it 
was almost impossible to return at that time, because the snow made 
the traveling very dangerous by land, and the ice made it imprac- 
ticable to our canoes. 

M. la Salle did not doubt then but his beloved Griffin was lost; 
his great courage buoyed him up, and he resolved to return to Fort 
Frontenac by land, notwithstanding the snow, and the unspeakable 
dangers attending to so great a voyage. We had a long conference 
about it in private, wherein having examined all things, it was re- 
solved that he should return to Fort Frontenac with three men to 
bring along with him the necessary things to proceed on our dis- 
covery, while I with two men should go in a canoe to the River 



ILLINOIS : THE CRADLE OF CHRISTIANITY 125 

Mississippi and endeavor to get the friendship of those nations in- 
habiting the banks of that river. Our resolution was certainly very 
great and bold, but there was this essential difference, that the in- 
habitants of the countries through which M. la Salle was to travel, 
knew the Europeans; whereas those Savages whom I designed to 
visit, had never heard of us in their life ; and had been represented 
by the Illinois, as the most barbarous nation in the world. However, 
M. la Salle and I had courage enough to undertake our difficult task, 
but we had much ado to persuade five of our men to follow us or to 
engage to expect our return at Fort Crevecoeur.^ 

Containing an Account of what was transacted at Fort Creve- 
coeur before M. la Salle's return to Fort Frontenac; and the instruc- 
tions we received from a Savage concerning the River Mississippi. 

Before M. la Salle and I parted, we found means to undeceive 
our men, and removed the groundless fears they had conceived from 
what the Illinois, through the suggestions of Monso, had told us 
concerning the dangers or rather the impossibility of sailing upon 
the Eiver Mississippi. Some Savages inhabiting beyond that river, 
came to the Camp of the Illinois and gave us an account of it, very 
different from what Nikanape had told us ; some other Savages owned 
that it was navigable and not interrupted by rocks and falls, as the 
Illinois would make us believe; and one of the Illinois themselves, 
being gained by some small presents, told us in great secrecy that 
the account their Chief had given us was a downright forgery, con- 
trived on purpose to oblige us to give over our enterprise. This 
revived somewhat our men ; but they were still wavering and irreso- 
lute, and therefore M. la Salle said that he would fully convince 
them that the Illinois had resolved in their council to forge that 
account in order to stop our voyage, and a few days after we met 
with a favorable opportunity for it. 

The Illinois had made an excursion Southward, as they were re- 
turning with some prisoners, one of their warriors came before their 
comrades and visited us at our Fort; We entertained him as well as 
we could, and asked him several questions touching the River Mis- 
sissippi, from whence he came, and where he had been oftentimes, 
giving him to understand that some other Savage had given us an 
account of it. He took a piece of Charcoal and drew a map of the 
course of that river, which I found afterwards pretty exact ; and told 
us that he had been in a pyrogue, that is, a canoe made of the trunk 
of a tree from the mouth of this river, very near the place where the 
Mississippi falls into the great Lake ; for so they called the sea. That 
there was neither falls nor rapid currents as we had been told; that 
it was very broad towards the great Lake, and interrupted with 
banks of sand; but that there were large canals betwixt them, deep 
enough for any pyrogue. He told us also the name of several na- 



Thwaites: A New Discovery of a Large Country in America, pp. 170-173. 



126 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

tions inhabiting the banks of the Mississippi and of several rivers 
that fall into it. I set down in my journal all that he told us, of 
which I shall perhaps give a larger account in another place. We 
made him a small present to thank him for his kindness in discover- 
ing a truth which the chief of his nation had so carefully concealed. 
He desired us to hold our tongue and never mention him, which we 
promised, and gave him an axe, wherewith we shut his mouth, ac- 
cording to the custom of the Savages when they recommend a secret. 
The next day after prayers, we went to the village of the Illinois, 
whom we found in the cabin of one of their chiefs, who entertained 
them with a bear whose flesh is much valued among them. They 
desired us to sit down upon a fine mat of rushes: And sometimes 
after our interpreter told them that we were come to acquaint them 
that the Maker of all things and the Master of the lives of men took 
a particular care of us and had been pleased to let us have a true 
account of the river Mississippi; the navigation whereof they had 
represented to us as impracticable. We added all the particulars we 
had learned, but in such terms that it was impossible they should 
suspect any of their men. 

The Savages were much surprised, and did not doubt but we had 
that account by some extraordinary way; therefore, they shut their 
mouths with their hands, which is their usual custom to express their 
admiration by. They told us frankly afterwards that the great desire 
they had to stop amongst them our Captain and the grey-coats or 
barefoot, as they called the Franciscans, had obliged them to forge 
the stories they had told us, and to conceal the truth; but since we 
had come to the knowledge of it by another way, they would tell us 
all that they knew, and confirmed every particular their warrior had 
told us. This confession removed the fears of our men, who were a 
few days after still more fully persuaded that the Illinois had only 
designed to frighten us from our discovery: For several Savages of 
the Nations of Osages, Cikaga and Akansas came to see us, and 
brought fine furs to barter for our axes. They told us that the Mis- 
sissippi was navigable almost from its source to the sea, and gave us 
great encouragement to go on with our design, assuring us that all 
the nations inhabiting along the river from the mouth of that of the 
Illinois to the sea would come to meet us and dance the Calumet of 
Peace as they express it, and make an alliance with us. 

The Miamis arrived much about that time and danced the Calu- 
met with the Illinois, making an alliance with them against the Iro- 
quois, their implacable enemies. We were witnesses to their treaty, 
and M. la Salle made them some presents, the better to oblige both 
parties to the observation of their league. 

We were three missionaries for that handful of Europeans at Fort 
Crevecoeur, and therefore we thought fit to divide ourselves: Father 
Gabriel being very old, was to continue with our men; and Father 
Zenobe among the Illinois, having desired it himself, in hopes to con- 
vert that numerous nation : And I, as I have already related, was to 
go on with our discovery. Father Zenobe lived already among the 



ILLINOIS : THE CRADLE OF CHRISTIANITY 127 

Illinois but the rude manners of that people made him soon weary 
of it. His landlord, whose name was Omahouka, that is to say Wolf, 
was the head of a tribe, and took a special care of Father Zenobe, 
especially after M. la Salle had made him some presents: He loved 
him as a child, but however, I perceived in the visits he made us, 
(for he lived but within half a League of our Fort) that he was not 
satisfied to live amongst that brutish nation, though he had already 
learned their tongue. This obliged me to offer him to take his place, 
provided he would supply mine, and go on with our discovery 
amongst several nations, whose language we did not understand, and 
who had never heard us; but Father Zenobe forseeing the danger 
and fatigue I was like to be exposed to, chose to remain with the 
Illinois, whose temper we knew and with whom he was able to con- 
verse. 

M. la Salle left M. Tonti to command in Fort Crevecoeur, and 
ordered our carpenter to prepare some thick planks of oak to fence 
the deck of our barque in the nature of a parapet, to cover it against 
the arrows of the Savages in case they designed to shoot at us from 
the shore. Then calling his men together, he desired them to obey 
M. Tonti 's orders in his absence, to live in a Christian union and 
charity ; to be courageous and firm in their design ; and above all to 
give no credit to the false reports that the Savages might make unto 
them, either of him, or of their comrades that were going with me. 
He assured them that he would return with all the speed imaginable 
and bring along with him a fresh supply of men, ammunition and 
rigging for our barque, and that in the meantime, he left them arms 
and other things necessary for a vigorous defence in case their enemies 
should attack them before his return. 

He told me afterwards that he expected I should depart without 
any further delay, but I told him that though I had promised him to 
do it, yet a defluxion I had on my gums a year since, as he knew very 
well, obliged me to return to Canada to be cured, and that I would 
then come back with him. He was very much surprised and told me 
he would write to my superiors that I had obstructed the good success 
of our mission, and desired Father Gabriel to persuade me to the con- 
trary. That good man had been my master during my Novitiate in 
our Convent of Bethune in the Province of Artois, and therefore I 
had so great a respect for him that I yielded to his advice, and con- 
sidered that since a man of his age had ventured to come along with 
me in so dangerous a mission, it would look as pusilanimity in me 
to return and leave him. That Father had left a very good estate, 
being heir of a Noble family of the Province of Burgundy, and I 
must own that his example revived my courage upon several occa- 
sions. 

M. la Salle was mightily pleased when I told him I was resolved 
to go, notwithstanding my indisposition: He embraced me and gave 
me a Calumet of Peace, and two men to manage our canoe, whose 
names were Anthony Auguel, surnamed the Picard du Gay and 
Mitchel Alto, of the Province of Poictou to whom he gave some com- 



128 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

modities to the value of about 1000 livres to trade with the Savages 
or make presents. He gave to me in particular and for my own use, 
ten knives, twelve shoe-maker's auls or bodkins, a small roll of to- 
bacco from Martinico, about two pounds of Raffade; that is to say 
little pearls or rings of colored glass, wherewith the Savages make 
bracelets and other works, and a small parcel of needles to give to 
the Savages, telling me that he would have given me a greater quan- 
tity if it had been in his power. 

The reader may judge by these particulars of the rest of my 
equipage for so gi^eat an undertaking ; however, relying myself on the 
Providence of Crod, I took my leave of M. la Salle and embraced all 
our men, receiving the blessing of Father Gabriel who told me several 
things to inspire me with courage; concluding his exhortation by 
these words of the Scripture, Viriliter age, & confortetur Cor tuum. 
M. la Salle set out a few days after for Canada, with three men, 
without any provisions but what they killed in their journey, during 
which they suffered very much by reason of the snow, hunger and 
cold weather.^ 

The Author sets out form Fort Crevecoeur to continue his 
voyage. 

Whosoever will consider the dangers to which I was going to 
expose myself in an unknown country, where no European had trav- 
eled before, and amongst some Savages whose language I did not 
understand, will not blame the reluctancy I expressed against that 
voyage: I had such an idea of it, that neither the fair words or 
threats of M. la Salle would have been able to engage me to venture 
my life so rashly, had I not felt within myself a secret but strong 
assurance, if I may use that word, that God would help and prosper 
my undertaking. 

We set out from Fort Crevecoeur on the 29th, of February 1680, 
and as we fell down the river, we met with several companies of 
Savages who returned to their habitations with their pirogues or 
wooden canoes loaded with the bulls they had killed : they would fain 
persuade us to return with them, and the two men who were with 
me were willing to follow their advice; telling me that M. la Salle 
had as good to have murdered us: But I opposed their design, and 
told them that the rest of our men would stop them as they should 
come from the Fort if they offered to return, and so we continued 
our voyage. They confessed to me the next day that they had re- 
solved to leave me with the Savages and make their escape with the 
canoe and commodities, thinking that there was no sin in that, since 
M. la Salle was indebted to them in a great deal more than their 
value, and that I had been very safe. This was the first discourage- 
ment I met with, and the forerunner of a great many others. 

The River of the Illinois is very near as deep and broad as the 
Meuse and Sambre before Namur; but we found some places where 

'Thwaites: A New Discovery of a Large Country in America, pp. 174-181. 



ILLINOIS : THE CRADLE OF CHRISTIANITY 129 

it is about a quarter of a league broad. The banks of the river are 
not even, but interrupted with hills disposed almost at an equal dis- 
tance and covered with fine trees. The Valley between them is a 
marshy ground which is overflowed after great rains, especially in 
the Autumn and Spring. We had the curiosity to go up one of those 
hUls, from whence we discovered vast meadows with forests such as 
we had seen before we arrived at the village of the Illinois. The 
river flows so softly that the current is hardly perceptible except 
when it swells : But it will carry at all times great barques for above 
100 leagues; that is, from the said village to its mouth. It runs 
directly to the South-west. On the 7th, of March we met, within 
two leagues from the River Mississippi, a nation of the Savages called 
Tamaroa or Maroa consisting of about 200 families. They designed 
to bring us along with them to their village, which lies to the West 
of Mississippi about seven leagues from the mouth of the river of the 
Illinois ; but my men f ellowed my advice and would not stop, in hopes 
to exchange their commodities with more advantage in a more remote 
place. Our resolution was very good ; for I don 't question but they 
would have robbed us ; for seeing we had some arms, they thought we 
were going to carry them to their enemies. They pursued us in their 
pyrogues or wooden canoes, but ours being made of bark of birch- 
trees, and consequently ten times lighter than theirs, and better 
framed, we laughed at their endeavors and got clear of them. They 
had sent a party of their warriors to lie in ambuscade on a neck of 
land advancing into the river, where they thought we should pass 
that evening or the next morning, but having discovered some smoke 
on that point, we spoiled their design, and therefore crossed the river 
and landed in a small island near the other side, where we lay all 
night, leaving our canoe in the water under the guard of a little dog, 
who doubtless would have awakened us if anybody had offered to 
come near him, as we expected the Savages might attempt it, swim- 
ming over in the night, but nobody came to disturb us. Having thus 
avoided those Savages, we came to the mouth of the river of the 
Illinois, distant from their great village about 100 leagues, and 50 
from Fort Crevecoeur. It falls into the Mississippi between 35 and 
36 degrees of latitude, and within 120 or 130 leagues from the Gulf 
of Mexico, according to our conjecture, without including the turn- 
ings and windings of the Mississippi from thence to the sea. 

The angle between the two rivers on the South side is a steep 
rock of forty feet high, and flat on the top, and consequently a fit 
place to build a fort ; and on the other side of the river, the ground 
appears blackish, from whence I judge that it would prove fertile and 
afford two crops every year for the subsistence of a colony. The soil 
looks as if it had been already manured. 

The ice which came down from the source of the Mississippi 
stopped us in that place till the 12th, of March, for we were afraid 
of our canoe: But when we saw the danger over, we continued our 
course, sounding the river to know whether it was navigable. There 
are three small islands over against the mouth of the river of the 
Illinois, which stop the trees and pieces of timber that come down 



130 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

the river, v/hich by succession of time has formed some banks: But 
the canals are deep enough for the greatest barques, and I judge that 
in the driest summer there is water enough for flat-bottom boats. 

The Mississippi runs to the South-South- West, between two ridges 
of mountains which follow the great windings of the river. They are 
near the banks at the mouth of the river of the Illinois, and are not 
very high ; but in other places they are some leagues distant ; and the 
meadows between the river and the foot of those hills are covered 
with an infinite number of wild bulls. The country beyond those 
hills is so fine and pleasant that according to the account I have had, 
one might justly call it a delight of Amet-ica. 

The Mississippi is in some places a league broad and half a league 
where it is narrowest. The rapidity in its current is somewhat abated 
by a great number of islands covered with fine trees interlaced with 
vines. It received but two rivers from the west side, one whereof is 
called Otontenta, and the other discharges itself into it near the Fall 
of St. Anthony of Padoua, as we shall observe hereafter, but so many 
others run into the Mississippi from the North that it swells very 
much toward its mouth.^ 

La Salle's Further Efforts 

We left La Salle loaded with misfortunes at Fort Frontenac. A 
stout heart even would quail under such burdens, but La Salle was 
invincible. He had at least the necessary materials for his vessel on 
the Illinois and the necessarj^ tools and supplies for his Illinois party. 
His chief concern was to get them to their destination. This diffi- 
culty, too, was overcome on the 10th of August, 1680, when he set 
out for the Illinois again accompanied by another faithful lieutenant, 
Francois Dauphine de la Forest, a surgeon, ship carpenters, joiners, 
masons, soldiers, voyageurs and laborers, twenty-five men in all. 

Leaving a portion of his men with La Forest, he pushed on with 
the others and reached the ruined fort at St. Joseph (in Indiana) 
on November 4th. He ascended the St. Joseph River, crossed the 
portage to the Kankakee and reached the Illinois. Parkman calls 
attention to a novel experience of the intrepid explorer as he passed 
down the Illinois: 

"Far and near," says Parkman, "the prairie was alive with buf- 
falo ; now like black specks dotting the distant swells ; now trampling 
by in ponderous columns or filing in long lines morning, noon and 
night to drink at the river — wading, plunging and snorting in the 
water; climbing the muddy shores and staring with wild eyes at the 
passing canoes.* 



' Thwaites: A New Discovery of a Large Country in America, pp. 182-186. 
* Parkman : La Salle and the Discovery of the Great West, p. 151. 



ILLINOIS : THE CRADLE OF CHRISTIANITY 131 

His party shot several of the big cattle and other game during 
a hunt which they organized and pressed on. They passed through 
the great Kaskaskia village and found it deserted and in ruins. They 
also found abundant and ghastly evidence of the slaughter which the 
Iroquois had committed. With fainting hearts they passed on down 
the Illinois which they now found a valley of horrors. On one side 
of the river they saw successive abandoned camps of the Iroquois 
and on the other of the Illinois, evidences of the flight of the Illinois 
and the pursuit of the Iroquois. They passed Peoria Lake and 
reached Fort Crevecouer which they found demolished as they ex- 
pected from previously obtained information. The vessel on the dock 
was entire, but the Iroquois had drawn out the nails and spikes which 
held it together. On one of the planks was written in French, no 
doubt by one of the deserters, "nous sommes tons sauvages: ce 15- 
1680," meaning we are all savages. 

As they drew near the mouth of the stream (the Illinois River) 
they saw a meadow on their right, and on its farthest verge several 
human figures erect yet motionless. They landed and cautiously 
examined the place. The long grass was trampled down and all 
around were strewn the relics of the hideous orgies which formed the 
ordinary sequels of an Iroquois victory. The figures they had seen 
were the half consumed bodies of women still bound to the stakes 
where they had been tortured. Other sights there were too revolting 
for record. All the remains were those of women and children, the 
men it seemed had fled and left them to their fate.^ 

Again entering fheir canoes they descended to the mouth of the 
river, and La Salle's eyes for the first time rested upon the Missis- 
sippi. This great waterway had been the subject of his dreams and 
ambitious for years, but there was no time for reflection. He must 
use every effort to find Tonti and his party. Stripping the bark from 
a great tree overhanging the river he made it more conspicuous and 
fastened to it a board with a drawing of his party and a peace pipe 
for the information of the Indians and for Tonti 's information should 
he happen that way, a letter stating that he had been at that point 
and had returned up the river. 

Retracing their course in feverish anxiety for the object of their 
search — Tonti and his men — the great explorer was not so engrossed 
but that he was able to note cooly and record his observations of a 
great comet that caused much excitement in civilized centers of the 
world. 



"Parkman: La Salle and the Discovery of the Great Northwest, p. 197. 



132 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

By the 6th of January, 1681, La Salle's little party reached the 
junction of the Kankakee and Illinois Rivers and instead of branch- 
ing off into the Kankakee the stream on which they came, they 
pressed up the Illinois and soon discovered a rude cabin in which 
they found evidences as they believed of the recent presence of Tonti 
and his companions. Cheered by their discovery, they hurried on. 
overland towards the St. Joseph, and after a very difficult tramp, 
reached Fort Miami where La Forest and the men left with him 
welcomed them. 

Here La Salle spent the winter, but not idly. His energies were 
devoted to establishing good relations with the various tribes of In- 
dians and in much other important work. He never lost sight of his 
purpose to explore the Mississippi to the sea, and with the Spring 
began active preparations for a continuance of this enterprise. 

**To this end," says his biographer, "he must return to Canada, 
appease his creditors and collect his scattered resources." Near the 
end of May he set out from Fort Miami and reached Michilimackinae 
after an easy voyage. Here at last he found Tonti and Father 
Membre who had lately arrived from Green Bay. As might be ex- 
pected, the meeting was a joyful one — each had for the other a story 
of disaster. Tonti in his succinct manner only says: "He (La Salle) 
was very glad to see us again, and notwithstanding all reverses, we 
made new preparations to continue the exploration which he had 
undertaken. ' ' 

Without delay, La Salle, Tonti and Father Membre embarked 
together for Fort Frontenac, paddling their canoes a thousand miles, 
and reached their destination safely. 

Again was La Salle confronted with his misfortunes; harrassed 
by his creditors and forced to beg additional help, his position was 
extremely difficult. So loyal was Count Frontenac, however, that 
through his assistance and that of his secretary, Barrois, an able 
business man, and the help of a wealthy business relative, he satisfied 
his creditors and secured sufficient additional means to undertake 
another journey. 

After making his will in favor of a cousin, Francois Plet, to whom 
he was greatly indebted, he gathered a new force and set forth once 
more. 

Writing to a friend in France, he expressed the hope that this 
journey would ' ' turn out well : for I have M. de Tonti, who is full of 
zeal; thirty Frenchmen, all good men without reckoning such as I 
cannot trust; and more than a hundred Indians, some of the Shaw- 



ILLINOIS : THE CRADLE OF CHRISTIANITY 133 

noes and others from New England, all of whom know how to use 
guns. ' ' 

As the party proceeded, others were added and there were some 
desertions, so that the expedition finally included fifty-four persons. 
In the dead of winter, the last days of December, they reached the 
Chicago River. There they made sledges upon which they placed 
their canoes, the baggage and a disabled Frenchman, and dragged 
them from the Chicago to the northern branch of the Illinois Eiver 
and proceeded down its frozen course. It was not until they passed 
Lake Peoria that they found open waters. 

For this trip through Illinois, Tonti's Memoir is interesting. 

Tonti's letter describes the remainder of the journey, but the 
item of greatest interest concerns the journey's end and the ceremony 
of taking possession of the country in the name of the King of 
France. 

Taking Possession in the Name op France 

This ceremony of taking possession was a most interesting pro- 
ceeding. Once before on June 14, 1671, at the Sault Ste. Marie, 
in territory now lying within the boundaries of the United States, 
had the standard of France and the Cross been raised and possession 
of the country claimed in the name of the King. These new discov- 
eries, however, justified a further ceremony which La Salle had 
elaborately carried out. 

From a document in the Department of Marines Paris appears 
the following: 

"A column was erected, and the arms of France were affixed 
with this inscription : 

'Louis Le Grand 

Rio De France Et Navarre, Regne; 

Le Neuvieme Avrip.' 1682" 

The following ceremonies were then performed, viz.: "The whole 
party, under arms, chanted the Te Deum, the Exaudiat, the Domine 
Salvum fac Regem; and then after a salute of firearms, and cries of 
Vive le roi, the column was erected by M. de la Salle, who, standing 
near it, said with a loud voice in French, 'In the name of the most 
high, mighty, invincible, and victorious prince, Louis the Great, by 
the grace of God king of France and Navarre, fourteenth of that 
name, this ninth day of April, one thousand six hundred and eighty- 
two, I, in virtue of the commission of his majesty, which I hold in 
my hand, and which may be seen by all whom it may concern, have 
taken, and do now take, in the name of his majesty, and of his sue- 



134 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 

cessors to the crown, possession of this country of Louisiana, the seas, 
harbors, ports, bays, adjacent straits, and all the nations, peoples, 
cities, town, \dllages, mines, minerals, fisheries, streams, and rivers 
comprised in the extent of said Louisiana, from the mouth of the 
great River St. Louis, on the eastern side, otherwise called Ohio, 
Alighin, Sipore, or Chuckagona. and this with the consent of the 
Chouanons, Chickachas, and other people dwelling therein, with 
whom we have made alliance ; as also along the River Colbert, or 
Mississippi, and rivers which discharge themselves therein, from its 
source beyond the country of the Kious or Nadouessious, and this 
with their consent, and with the consent of the Motantees, Illinois, 
Mesigameas, Coroas, and Natchez, which are the most considerable 
nations dwelling therein, with whom we also have made alliance, 
either by ourselves, or by others in our behalf, as far as its mouth 
at the Sea or Gulf of Mexico, about the twenty-seventh degree of the 
elevation of the North Pole, and also to the mouth of the River of 
Palms; upon the assurance which we have received from all these 
nations, that we are the first Europeans who have descended or 
ascended the said River Colbert, hereby protesting against all those 
who may in future undertake to invade any or all of these countries, 
people, or lands above described, to the prejudice of the right of his 
majesty, acquired by the consent of the nations herein named. Of 
which, and of all that can be ceded, I hereby take to witness those 
who hear me, and demand the act of the notary as required by law. ' 

"To which the whole assembly responded with shouts of Vive le 
roi, and with salutes of firearms. Moreover, the Sieur de la Salle 
caused to be buried at the foot of the tree to which the cross was 
attached, a leaden plate with the arms of France ,and the following 
Latin inscription: 

Ludovicum Magnus Regnat, 
Nono Aprilis, CI I C LXXXII. 

"Robertus Cavalier, CVM Domino De Tonti, Legato, R. P. 
Zenobia Membre, Recollecto, Et. Viginti, Callis, Primis Hoc Flvmen, 
Inde AB Illineorvm Pago Enavigavit, Ejvsqve Ostivm Fecit Pervivm, 
Nono Aprilis, Anno CI I C LXXXII.' " 

The whole ceremony was witnessed by attendants in a proces 
verbal, which concludes in the following words, viz.: 

"After which the Sieur de la Salle said, that his majesty as 
eldest son of the Church, would annex no country to his crown with- 
out making it his chief care to establish the Christian religion therein, 
and that its symbol must now be planted; which was accordingly 
done at once by erecting a cross, before which the Vexilla and the 
Domine Salvum fac Regem were sung. Whereupon the ceremony 
was concluded with cries of Vive le roi. 

Of all and every of the above, the said Sieur de la Salle having 
required of us an instrument, we have delivered to him the same, 



ILLINOIS : THE CRADLE OF CHRISTIANITY 135 

signified by us, and by the undersigned witnesses, this ninth day of 
April, one thousand six hundred and eighty-two. 

La Metaire, Notary." 

De La Salle. Pierre You. 

P. Zenobe, Eecollect Missionary. Gilles Meuoret. 

Henry De Tonti. Jean Michel, Surgeon, 

Francois De Boisrondet. Jean Mas. 

Jean Bourdon. Jean Dulignon. 

Sieur d ' Autray . Nicholas De La Salle. ' ' ® 

Jacques Cauchois. 

The Te Deum with which the song service was opened is the 
renowned triumphal hymn of the Church, sung on all occasions of 
rejoicing for merited success. There is a tradition that it was com- 
posed "spontaneously and sung alternately" by Saints Ambrosius 
and Augustine on the night of St. Augustine's baptism A. D. 378, 
and while the tradition is rejected by many scholars, no other au- 
thority has been suggested, and the hymn has been set down in 
Catholic hymnals and rubrics at least as early as A. D. 502.^ 

The following is a translation found in the hymnals : 

The Domine Salvum Fac Regem or prayer for the king or ruler 
is found in a Latin prayer-book as follows : 

Versicle. Domine, salvum fac regem nostrum. (Lord, save our 
king.) 

Response. Et exaudi nos in die qua invocaverimus te. (And 
hear us on the day which we have called upon thee.) 

Versicle. Domine, exaudi orationem meam. (Lord, hear my 
prayer. ) 

Response. Et clamor mens ad te veniat. (And let my outcry 
reach thee.) 

Versicle. Dominus vobiscum. 

Response. Et cum spiritu tuo. 

Oremus. Let us Pray! 

Pateant aures misericordiae Let the ears of thy mercy, 

tuae, Domine, precibus suppli- Lord, be open to the prayers of 

cantium; et, ut petentibus desi- the suppliants and as thou grant- 

derata concedas, fac eos, quae est what they wish, make them 

tibi sunt placita postulare. Per petition the things that are pleas- 

Dominum nostrum J. C. filium ing to thee through Jesus Christ, 

tuum, qui tecum vicit, etc. thy Son, who with thee . . . ete. 

It was chanted at the conclusion of the Mass on solemn occasions, 
and perhaps the prayer varied on various occasions.* 



'Sparks' Life of La Salle, pp. 199, 200. 

' Catholic Encyclopedia, xvi. 468. 

"Coelestes Palmetiim (1895), p. 739. Published by H. Dessain of Mechlin. 



136 JOSEPH J. THOMPSON 



TE DEUM 



God, we praise Thee as true God, 

And we confess Thee Lord; 
Thee, the Eternal Father, who 

Art everywhere adored : 
All Angels, Cherubs, Heavenly Powers, 

And Seraphim, proclaim, 
"With ceaseless canticles of praise, 

Thy ever-glorious Name. 
Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord, 

And God of Hosts, they cry; 
The glory of Thy Majesty 

Fills earth and Heaven high. 
The glorious Apostles' Choir, 

The numerous Prophets too. 
And white-robed Martyrs' armies, aU 

Declare Thy praises due. 
Throughout the universal world, 

The Holy Church doth sing 
Thy Holy Name, and doth confess 

Thee for her Lord and King: 
Father of Majesty immense. 

Thy true and Only Son 
Ever revered, and Holy Ghost, 

Thrice Blessed Three in One. 
Christ Jesus, Thou of glory art 

The rightful King and Lord ; 
And Thou art the Father born, 

Eternal Son and Word. 
Thou, when on earth, to save mankind, 

Man's nature Thou wouldst take. 
Thy dwelling in the Virgin's womb 

Didst not disdain to make. 
When Thou the cruel darts of death 

Hadst bravely overcome, 
Thou Heaven to believers aU 

Didst open for their home. 
Thou, seated at Thy Father's right, 

In glory e 'er dost reign. 
We all believe that, as our Judge, 

Thou art to come again; 
We pray Thee, then. Thy servants' help, 

Whom, on Thy Holy Rood, 
Thou deignedst to redeem and save. 

With Thy most Precious Blood: 
And grant to them the precious grace. 

That they may numbered be, 
In glory, with Thy Saints above, 

Through all Eternity. 



ILLESrOIS: THE CRADLE OP CHRISTIANITY 137 

Ah ! save Thy people, dearest Lord, 

And make them ever live, 
And ever to Thy heritage 

Thy special Blessing give. 
Vouchsafe to rule and govern them 

Thyself Eternally, 
And to exalt them, and to raise 

Them up on high to Thee. 
Each coming day, Lord, to Thee 

We hymns of blessing raise. 
And praise and glorify Thy Name, 

Through everlasting days. 
To keep ourselves from sin this day 

The grace on us bestow. 
And always, dearest Lord, to us 

Thy loving mercy show. 
Show mercy to us. Lord, as we 

Have put our trust in Thee, 
I've hoped in Thee, Lord, then let 

Me ne'er confounded be. Amen. 

The Exaudiat sung on this and similar occasions is the XIX 
Psalm of David and reads as follows : 

PSALM XIX 
Exaudiat te Dominus. A Prayer for the King. 

1. Unto the end. A psalm for David. 

2. May the Lord hear thee in the day of tribulation: may the 
name of the God of Jacob protect thee. 

3. May he send thee help from the sanctuary: and defend thee 
out of Sion. 

4. May he he mindful of all thy sacrifices: and may thy whole 
burnt-offering be made fat. 

5. May he give thee according to thy own heart: and confirm 
all thy counsels. 

6. We will rejoice in thy salvation; and in the\ name of our God 
we shall be exalted. 

7. The Lord fulfil all thy petitions: now have I known that the 
Lord hath saved his anointed. 

He will hear from his holy heaven: the salvation of his right hand 
is in powers. 

8. Some trust in chariots, and some in horses: but we will call 
upon the name of the Lord our God. 

9. They are bound, and have fallen; but we are risen, and are 
set upright. 

Lord, save the king: and hear us in the day that we shall call 
upon thee. 



138 joseph j. thompson 

La Salle The Fort Builder 

During his several voyages La Salle constructed a number of forts, 
with a view to having a chain of communication and defence from 
Quebec to Louisiana. It should be said here that La Salle made 
another voyage, starting this time from France and sailing down the 
Atlantic and through the Gulf of Mexico. That his navigators 
missed the mouth of the Mississippi and his ship was stranded on 
the coast of Texas, where a settlement was begun, which, after much 
hardship, perished. It was while endeavoring to plant this settle- 
ment that La Salle, in making further explorations, was murdered by 
members of his own party. The story of this journey, as best told 
by Parkman, is one of the saddest narratives of American history. 

Joseph J. Thompson. 
Chicago, Illinois. 



COLONEL FRANCIS VIGO AND GEORGE 
ROGERS CLARK 

Of George Rogers Clark's conquest of the Illinois country a recent 
writer says, "A more daring offensive is hardly to be found in his- 
tory."^ The credit for conceiving this conquest of the Northwest 
Territory with a mere handful of pioneers belongs to Clark; but the 
credit for accomplishing it is to be shared equally with Francis Vigo, 
an American patriot of Italian descent and Spanish citizenship. 
Vigo risked his life and gave his fortune and years of service to a 
country which proved forgetful and ungrateful. Eightly is he 
grouped with Clark and Gibault as one who suffered the "penalty 
of patriotism"^ — accused, neglected, forgotten, left to die in pov- 
erty. Clark, keen judge of men, wrote of him: "A man who has 
always occupied a distinguished place in my affection and esteem — 
an affection, the result not so much of being associates in the placid 
stream of tranquility and the benign sunshine of peace, as compan- 
ions amidst the din of war and those struggles when the indefatigable 
exertion of every muscle and nerve was demanded. ' ' ^ Such this 
Vigo, a Catholic gentleman and patriot, whom the historians have 
woefully neglected. 

Francis Vigo was born in Mondovi, Sardinia, in the year 1747, 
and at an early age enlisted in a Spanish regiment which soon sailed 
for New Orleans. Evidently he left the army shortly after, for his 
name appears in St. -Louis records in 1770,* when he was but twenty- 
three years old. Vigo was attracted to St. Louis and the Illinois 
country by the lucrative fur-trade, and became a partner in the firm 
of Vigo and Gosti of St. Louis.^ He was also, it seems, a partner of 
the Spanish Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Louisiana, Don Fernando 
de Leyba,^ a connection which was later to prove quite valuable for 
George Rogers Clark, who obtained considerable aid from de Leyba 
on the strength of Vigo's introduction. 



* Temple Bodley in George Bogers Clark: Eis Life and Fuilic Services. 
(Houghton, Mifflin and Cb., 1926). 

'Joseph J. Thompson, in Journal of Illinois State Historical Society, vol. 9. 

» Clark to Vigo, August 1, 1811. Vigo Mss. X, 102, in Virginia State Library. 

*Houck, History of Missouri, p. 51-52. (Chicago, 1908) 

'Consul Butterfield, History of G. B. Clark's Conquest of the Illinons, p. 298. 
(Columbus, Ohio, 1904). 

•Draper Collection, Clark Mss. 8, p. 33. 

139 



140 CECIL H. CHAMBERLAIN, S. J 

Vigo, as merchant, had branch trading-posts in the Illinois towns 
Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Vincennes; but we do not hear of him in 
connection with Clark until after the retaking of Vincennes by Ham- 
ilton (Dec. 17, 1778). Clark, with his little band of 170 backwoods- 
men, had in July, 1778, captured Kaskaskia, Prairie du Rocher, St. 
Philip's, and Cahokia without bloodshed, and by the help of Father 
Gibault and Dr. Laffont, had secured possession of Vincennes.^ Clark 
was unable, however, to spare a garrison for Vincennes, except four 
or five Americans under Captain Helm, who organized the Creoles 
of Vincennes into militia. The Creoles, however, proved unreliable, 
and when Hamilton with his force of 800 British and Indians fell 
upon Vincennes in December (1778), he recaptured the town prac- 
tically without opposition, and again hoisted the British flag. 

Had Hamilton continued his campaign then to Kaskaskia and 
Cahokia, in all probability Clark and his forces would have been 
overcome and the whole of the Illinois country lost to the American 
cause. But Hamilton elected to winter at Vincennes and gather a 
large army in the spring to capture and destroy the entire American 
force in the Illinois, and eventually drive the Americans from Ken- 
tucky and back across the Alleghanies. Clark's situation was des- 
perate ; he must choose one of the three alternatives ; either abandon 
the country'' to Hamilton and return to Kentucky (which would mean 
failure of his whole project and be fatal to the American cause in the 
West) ; or await the overwhelming British force to arrive in the 
spring and probably be butchered by Hamilton and his Indian allies; 
or make a surprise attack on Hamilton in the depth of winter at 
Vincennes. At this juncture, with the French inhabitants of the 
Illinois villages thoroughly discouraged and Clark in a quandary, 
arrived Vigo, to do his first great service to the American cause. 

Early in December, Captain Helm, commander at Vincennes, had 
written Clark about his need for supplies and equipment. Clark 
chose the merchant Vigo to go to Vincennes and see about providing 
the necessary articles, as Vigo had a trading store there and was on 
the best of terms with the Creoles. Vigo set out on the eighteenth 
of December (1778), all unconscious of the fact that the British had 
recaptured Vincennes on the previous day. When he neared Vin- 
cennes® he was taken into custody by some of Hamilton's Indian 
allies, stripped of his clothes, money, and horse, and brought before 
Hamilton as prisoner. Hamilton soon found, however, that instead 



'Clark's Memoir, and his Letter to Mason. 

' Six miles from Vincennes, on the Embarass River. 



COLONEL FRANCIS VIGO AND GEORGE ROGERS CLARK 141 

of a prisoner, he had a hornet on his hands. Vigo was a Spanish 
citizen, and no legal prisoner. Besides, he was of such high stand- 
ing with the French of Vincennes (whom Hamilton wished to propi- 
tiate) that they daily made intercession for him at the fort, and one 
author says that even Father Gibault, that power with the people, 
pleaded for Vigo." Vigo meanwhile, as a privileged prisoner, kept 
his eyes and ears open, gathering all the information he could for 
the plan that was in his heart. After some days Hamilton decided 
to allow him to go free, demanding first that he sign a promise not 
to do anything prejudicial to the British cause during the period of 
the war. This the patriotic Vigo flatly refused to do; so Hamilton 
had to be content with a promise that he would do nothing prejudi- 
cial to the British on Ms way Jiome to St. Louis. The wily Vigo made 
that promise and hurried off to St. Louis, but had hardly touched 
foot there when he hastened to Clark at Kaskaskia with the news. 
He arrived there on January twenty-ninth (1779), giving him, as 
Clark relates, "every information that we could wish for, as he had 
good opportunity and had taken great pains to inform himself with 
a design to give intelligence. ' ' ^" The information was mainly con- 
cerning the size of Hamilton's force, the dispersion of his Indian 
allies until the spring, and the unpreparedness for an attack during 
these winter days. 

With this, the first reliable and accurate information Clark had 
about the capture of Vincennes, his indecision was immediately dis- 
pelled. Hastily he gathered his recruits from Cahokia, and, using 
these skilfully, aroused the mercurial Creoles of Kaskaskia from dis- 
couragement to a high pitch of enthusiasm for the campaign. A 
large bateau was fitted out, loaded with powder, several cannon, and 
forty-six men and dispatched in charge of Captain John Rogers to 
descend the Mississippi River, push up the Ohio and the Wabash to 
where they would meet Clark's main force proceeding overland. 
Vigo and several other merchants in Vincennes loaned Clark money 



" This however seems impossible. Father Gibault was at Kaskaskia at the 
time, and was sent to Spanish territory by Clark. Besides, Hamilton was so in- 
censed at Gibault for aiding the American cause that he would certainly have 
taken him into custody. On December eighteenth, the day after the capture of 
Vincennes, he wrote to the Governor at Detroit, "Could I catch the priest, Mr. 
Gibault, who has lately blown the trumpet of rebellion for the Americans, I should 
send him down unhurt to your Excellency, to get the reward of his zeal. (111. 
His. Coll. I, 234). Father Gibault was certainly at Kaskaskia on February fifth, 
for he gave a blessing to the troops leaving for "Vincennes. 

"Hlinois Historical Collection I, 237 seq. 



142 CECIL H. CHAMBERLAIN, S. J 

and supplies, and with about 130 men, mostly "Long Knives," as 
the Indians called the rangy Kentucky backwoodsmen, Clark started 
(February 5, 1779) on one of the most daring and heroic marches 
of American history. Throughout eighteen days, in the depth of 
winter, the little army marched through the flooded lowlands be- 
tween Kaskaskia and Vincennes, often marching with the icy water 
up to their waists or higher. The last six days and nights were 
spent almost entirely in the water, and well nigh without provi- 
sions.^^ But Vincennes was surprised and fell into Clark's hands, 
and the English flag was hauled down, never again to fly over Illi- 
nois territory. 

Thus dramatically, through the information leading to this re- 
markable victory, Vigo's services to America came into the limelight. 
Then began for Vigo a life of service to his adopted country, and 
for America a shameful page of ingratitude. Virginia, heedless of 
the needs of her little western army,^^ furnished scanty supplies and 
money, and for some years next to nothing. It was only through 
the personal sacrifice of Clark and his ofticers, and of Vigo and a 
few other patriotic merchants that we were able to retain possession 
of this entire Northwest Territory, a possession so valuable when the 
Treaty of Paris was to be arranged. Whatever little financial aid 
Virginia did send out was in Continental currency, paper money, 
which tended to depreciate more and more. If it would become 
worthless in the West, as it had in the East, Clark would have no 
way of supplying his army or holding it together. Vigo, at tremen- 
dous personal sacrifice, upheld the value of the paper money by 
redeeming and offering to redeem it at face value for anyone de- 
manding it. Vigo himself advanced more than $20,000 to Clark for 
the support of the troops," risked his life, and lost clothing, horses, 
and personal belongings in the service of his adopted country; and 
the reward of his services was ingratitude. His claims on Virginia 
were ignored; he gave his whole life to the service of Virginia, the 
Northwest Territory, and finally Indiana, and yet was allowed to 
die uncompensated, poor, although the State owed him so much, not 



'' Clark 's Memoir, and Captain Bowman 's Journal. Quoted by English, Con- 
quest of the N. W. Territory, I, 287 seq. 

" It should be remembered that the Illinois country still belonged to Virginia, 
and it was as a citizen of Virginia, and for Virginia that Clark was leading his 
army, however great his own foresight of the benefits to accrue to the whole 
country from the possession of this territory. 

"Cf. for example, Illinois Hist. Coll., vol. 19, p. 274: Draft of Clark on 
Vigo for $8,716.40 On page 275, same for $1,452.00. 



COLONEL FRANCIS VIGO AND GEORGE ROGERS CLARK 143 

only for his services in her regard but for actual money and goods 
advanced. Old John Law, the historian of the Northwest Territory, 
says that it is to Clark and Vigo that the United States are more 
indebted for the accession of the old Northwest than to any other 
man. 

After the capture of Vincennes, Vigo did not lapse into the state 
of a plain merchant and financial agent, but as a true public-spirited 
citizen, gave his services unsparingly to help the State and its gov- 
ernment. He is constantly mentioned in letters as helping this or 
that military officer as messenger between posts; in 1792 he is even 
mentioned as carrying a letter from Bishop Carroll to Father Gibault 
at Vincennes ; ^* in another, from Major Hamtramck at Detroit to 
the commandant at Vincennes.^^ Vigo himself was a militia officer, 
in 1790 signing himself as "Major Commandant of Militia, "^^ and 
somewhat later as "Colonel Vigo," by which title he was more gen- 
erally known later. In 1803 he was elected delegate from Knox 
County, Indiana, to a general convention of the Northwest Territory 
called by Governor William Henry Harrison.^^ He was always a 
trusted friend of Governor Harrison, and was frequently sent on 
confidential missions by him, particularly to the Indians, by whom 
he was trusted and loved.^^ In 1806 he was elected a member of the 
first board of trustees of Vincennes University, and until the end of 
his life was active in advancing the educational facilities and gov- 
ernment of Indiana Territory. 

Vigo keenly felt, however, the injustice and neglect of the gov- 
ernment towards himself, and after a reversal of fortune in the 
later years of his life, he was heard to say: "I guess the Lord has 
forgotten me." He might with justice have more truly added "my 
government has forgotten me."^ He died poor, without having been 
compensated by either Virginia or the United States, so abandoned 
that even the date of his gravestone was incorrect. He died near 
Vincennes in 1836, not in 1835 as the gravestone has it; and even 
the expense of his funeral was not paid until forty years after his 
death. 

Vigo was born a Catholic and seems to have practiced his faith 
throughout life. He was always intimate with Father Gibault, and 



"Illinois Hist. Coll., vol. 5, p. 597. Carroll to Gibaiilt. 

^Ihid. 506-508, Hamtramck to Harmar. Also 511. 

"Esarey's History of Indiana, p. 137. 

^' Jacob P. Dunn, Indiana and Indianans, p. 235. 

"Draper Mss. YY, 11. 

"English, p. 271. 



144 CECIL H. CHAMBERLAIN, S. J 

from 1810-1821 was one of the trustees of the Catholic Church at 
Vincennes. Bishop Brute used to visit him during the times of his 
illness, and just a year before his death he told the Bishop that if 
his claim before Congress were paid, the Church should have it.^° 
He died, however, without the consolations of religion, and was buried 
in the public cemetery. How this occurred is unknown. Probably 
it was because his will provided that he should be buried as his 
executors should think proper. 

And so ends another chapter on the ingratitude of democracies. 
Governor Harrison paid the following beautiful tribute to Vigo: "I 
have been acquainted with Colonel Francis Vigo for thirty-nine years, 
and during the thirteen years that I was Governor of Indiana I lived 
in the same town with him and upon terms of the most intimate 
friendship. I solemnly declare that I believe him utterly incapable 
of making a misrepresentation of the facts however great may be 
his interest in the matter, and I am also confident that there are 
more respectable persons in Indiana who would become the guaran- 
tees of his integrity than could be induced to lay under a similar 
responsibility for any other person. His whole life, as long as his 
circumstances were prosperous, was spent in acts of kindness and 
benevolence to individuals, and his public spirit and attachment to 
the institutions of our country proverbial. ' ' ^i 

A man to, whom such a tribute could be paid seems worthy of a 
better fate, both in life and in history. 

Cecil H. Chamberlain, S. J. 
Detroit, Michigan. 



' lUd. 

'Virginia State Library, HI. Papers, X, 95, Quoted by Bodley. 



LETTERS OF BISHOP BENEDICT JOSEPH 

FENWICK OF BOSTON TO BISHOP 

JOSEPH ROSATI OF ST. LOUIS 

This series of sixteen letters here published for the first time from 
the originals preserved in the archives of Archdiocese of St. Louis, 
covers a period of ten years in the history of the Catholic Church in 
New England. They are fine examples of epistolary writing, spon- 
taneous, unaffected and at times, slily humorous. Their historical 
value, as sources of recondite information, may not be very great; 
yet as giving a full and harmonious picture of one of our greatest 
churchmen, a true apostle, full of faith and zeal and childlike trust 
in God, they will serve, we hope, a good and high purpose. 

Bishop Fen wick of Boston was truly "one of the great bishops 
of the Church, learned and prudent in the Council, eloquent in the 
pulpit, energetic and active in his episcopal duties, a father of his 
clergy and his people. ' ' ^ The work he accomplished in his diocese 
which comprised all of the New England States, was truly wonderful. 
When he entered upon his episcopal duties in 1825, the entire diocese 
of Boston had but four churches and only two priests remaining, the 
Rev. Patrick Byrne of Boston, and the Rev. Dr. Dennis Hyan in the 
wilds of Maine. Among the numerous converts gained for holy 
Church by the piety and deep learning of Bishop Fenwick was the 
great Orestes A. Brownson. It was largely through his brave and 
magnanimous defense that the rampant and at times murderous spirit 
of New England puritanism was broken. 

Of all these things and more we catch a rapid glance, as we peruse 
these letters of Bishop Fenwick to one of his confidential friends, the 
saintly Joseph Rosati. In editing them we have thought proper to 
give a running commentary on matters not expressed fully or only 
alluded to. Many things that were quite well known in the writer's 
day, may have fallen into oblivion. It is the office of an editor to 
dig them up again and make them presentable. As each letter is 
independent and complete in itself the elucidations mentioned above 
may serve to make the context for the various parts of the series. 

Boston, April 30, 1830. 
Rt. Rev. Dear Sir: 

I received your kind and obliging favor about two weeks ago, and 
should have answered it immediately, but for the excessively hard 
duty I had to perform during the Easter term, and which has en- 

^John Gilmary Shea, Defenders of Our Faith, p. 89 

145 



146 REV. JOHN ROTHENSTEINER 

grossed my whole time ever since. You may form some idea of our 
ministerial labors here, when I inform you, that four and sometimes 
five confessionals have been occupied from seven o'clock until one 
o'clock A. M., and from three o'clock until nine o'clock P. M. during 
the space of three weeks. Upwards of two thousand persons were 
admitted to communion within that space of time. Among these, 
children under twelve years were not included. These will be pre- 
pared for the festival of Pentecost. The Catholic religion is begin- 
ning to do well here. The Jesuit with all its asperity has contributed 
a good deal to it. Notwithstanding its many faults it has already 
removed many prejudices from the minds of our good "Yankees" 
who begin now to look upon Catholic principles in a far more favor- 
able light. One of the main pillars of the Methodist Church has 
already joined us, a man of high standing in society, and who by 
his piety and zeal will be a credit to us. We owe his conversion, 
after God, to the reading of the Jesuit. He is now laboring to bring 
over his wife and his wife's mother and in a few weeks we hope to 
see the whole of that interesting family united in the family of the 
one true Church. A spirit of inquiry has gone abroad which I think 
will be the means of gathering many more into the fold. 

I fear it will not be easy to borrow the money you require from 
any of our bankers, upon any security which might be given upon 
property in Missouri. The distance is too great. They are not suf- 
ficiently acquainted with the value of property there to let it out 
upon a mortgage. 

We have begun to issue another paper called the Expostulator or 
Young Catholic's Guide. Five numbers have already appeared. It 
is calculated particularly for the youth of our country and will prove 
highly instructive and useful to them. I have ordered several to be 
sent to Mr. Wiggins at St. Louis. I hope they will fall into your 
handsi before you leave it for New Orleans. What you recommended, 
I have directed to be done. We have already printed one book from 
the Jesuit viz: Wardmann's Letters, which are now for sale very 
cheap. We are now about forming into a book the Letters on the 
Inquisition which appear also in the Jesuit and which are translated 
from the French of Compte de Maistre, with notes and additions. It 
will form a very neat volume which cannot be too much spread in 
this country where prejudice runs so strong. We shall publish two 
books from the Expostulator which I am persuaded will greatly please 
you when you see them. They will consist of the first and the next 
to the last articles which will regularly appear in that interesting 
little paper. These are to be our first fruits. I hope you will en- 
courage us to proceed by taking a good number of all that we shall 
publish. Our Convent does well. It has forty-eight pupils and the 
school flourishes. Mais Helas! Nous avous grande besoin de Re- 
ligieuse. Comment les procurer? Voila la difficulte. Mais — patience! 

I hope you enjoy good health — take great care of it at New 
Orleans. Apropos! what is this I hear of the Church there being 
shut up by order of the Mayor ? There is also a report here — indeed 



LETTERS OF BISHOP FENWICK TO BISHOP ROSATI 147 

I have read the article in one of our Boston papers, that a Catholic 
Priest at New Orleans has been converted to the Methodist Church. 
Write me and let me know whether there be any truth in it ? If not 
I shall contradict it in the Jesuit. Adieu. 

Respectfully, 

t Benedict, Bp. Bn. 

Bishop Fenwick introduces himself to his correspondent first of 
all as a publisher and journalist. On September 8, 1829, he had 
begun for the defense of the Faith a weekly paper called The Jesuit 
or Catholic Sentinel, one of the earliest Catholic papers in the United 
States. It was sometimes accused of asperity. For a short period, 
as the Catholic Herald of January 17, 1833, tells us, it had exchanged 
its name for the more sounding one of United States Catholic Intel- 
ligencer, but early in 3833 it had resumed its old name, The Jesuit.'^ 
Thomas J. 'Flaherty, a physician from Kerry, was raised to the 
priesthood in 1829. As editor of The Jesuit he translated Count 
Joseph De Maistro's book on the "Spanish Inquisition." It was 
published in book form with notes and additions. An occasional con- 
tributor to the Catholic Press weis the Rev. Jeremiah O'Callaghan, 
whose strict ideas on the subject of usury had involved him with his 
bishop in Ireland. After preaching in Irish in the Cathedral of 
Boston in July, 1830, he proceeded to the Vermont missions to which 
he had been assigned, where he labored most zealously for many years, 
relieving the monotony of his severe duties in that mountain state 
with writing books against usury, pew-rents and other points of a 
similar nature. 

Boston, March 17, 1832. 
Rt. Rev. Dear Sir: 

By a letter just received from my good friend, Rev. Mr. Van de 
Velde, I am informed that my last to him was not received. In that 
letter I communicated to him what the price of printing was in 
Boston, in answer to your request. I regret that the letter miscarried, 
as it may have been the cause of delaying the publication of your 
excellent book on the Ceremonies, so long and so anxiously looked for, 
and so much wanted. 

I have been speaking to a printer who tells me that he will print 
it, at the following rate : 

For setting the type, he demands 30 cents per page, when the page 
is about 6 inches long and 3 1-2 wide. 

For press work, 2 dollars for a thousand copies of 36 pages, that 
number of pages constituting a form. 

Good paper will cost 3 dollars 25 cents per ream. 

The binding of such a book in plain sheep will cost 8 dollars per 
hundred. 



^ Becords of the American Catholic Historical Society, vol. xxix, no. 4, p. 343. 



148 REV. JOHN ROTHENSTEINER 

These are the ordinary prices in. Boston. It may be done cheaper, 
but I fear, not well. 

I wrote to the Archbishop some time ago, respecting the Book 
Association as agreed upon in Council. I proposed to him a plan for 
carrying it into effect, but he seems, by his answer, to be averse to 
the whole and not at all vnlling to undertake it. Thus the whole 
seems to be doomed to be laid aside. I am sorry for it for religion's 
sake. 

My book, the Catholic Repository, vdll be published toward the 
end of this year. It will be very large — hence the delay. It will 
contain 500 pages octavo. I would have published it long ago, but 
for fear of debt. I am now still waiting for the subscription list to 
be fixed. 

I rejoice to hear of the progress religion is making in your diocese. 
Great are the exertions of the sectarians against you ; but I trust with 
the blessing of God, you will triumph in spite of them. With us, 
things go on as fast as can be expected, considering the field I have 
to labor in. Calvinism has suffered much and can never have again 
the same influence it once possessed. What I chiefly want is priests — 
a number of good priests. I have now twenty churches and only 
thirteen priests and shall build two more this summer. It is some 
consolation, however, to me to have eight young men who will be 
ready for Orders next fall. I shall endeavor to build another church 
in Boston very soon. I only wish it may be half as beautiful as yours 
in St. Louis. 

Adieu — take good care of your health and believe me ever to 
remain. 

Yours sincerely, 

t Benedict, Bp. Bn. 

The Rev. Mr. Van de Velde mentioned in the foregoing letter was 
a distinguished member of the Society of Jesus, who became suc- 
cessively Professor at the St. Louis College, Vice Provincial of the 
Missouri Province, President of the St. Louis University, Bishop of 
Chicago, and Bishop of Natchez. He died of yellow fever, November 
13, 1855. 

The 36th decree of the First Provincial Council of Baltimore had 
reference to such a Society for the dissemination of good books, but 
no further action was taken and no one appointed to carry out the 
plan. The Holy See had specially desired the establishment of such 
an Association. The Archbishop of Baltimore at this time was James 
Whitfield, who had succeeded Marechal on May 25, 1828. 

The twenty churches were scattered over the five states of New 
England, two in Connecticut, two in Rhode Island, seven in Massa- 
chusetts, five in Maine, two in New Hampshire and two in Vermont. 
The majoi'ity of the thirteen priests were stationed in Massachusetts. 
In the following year the diocese numbered twenty-two priests. 



LETTERS OF BISHOP FENWICK TO BISHOP ROSATI 149 

Boston, April 24, 1832. 
Rt. Eev. Dear Sir: 

I received last night your kind favor and hasten to reply to it. 
The Book of Ceremonies which you are so kind as to offer, I cheerfully 
accept and shall take all possible care to have it printed in a neat and 
correct manner, with all reasonable dispatch. There are two ways of 
forwarding the copy to me, viz: by the way of New Orleans by 
vessel, and by the regular letter mail. The first will be long, circuit- 
ous and safer of the two; but I think the latter (as few accidents 
happen) will be safe enough, if you will but take the precaution of 
having the copy put into as small a compass as possible, then carefully 
sealed, and afterwards delivered into the hands of the postmaster 
himself, with a request to have particular care taken of it on the 
route. I think then there will be but little danger of its arriving 
safely. This way is so much the more expeditious, and therefore 
desirable. The expense, it is true, is much greater; but I do not 
imagine, after all, it would amount to more than four or five dollars, 
and that would be as nothing in comparison to the advantages and 
satisfaction of having so useful a book printed as soon as possible. 
However, I shall leave that to your better judgment. 

I have no objection whatever to the removal of the CatJioUc Press 
to St. Louis : on the contrary, I shall rejoice to see it made the in- 
strument of propagating our holy faith in the Valley of the Missis- 
sippi. I have no doubt also but that it will do a great deal more 
good at St. Louis than at Hartford. In fact the Priest at Hartford 
has so much to do in missionary duty that he can hardly spart time 
to attend to more. 

I admire very much the plan of your church, a copy of which 
has been kindly forwarded to me. I think it will be the handsomest 
church in the United States. I wish I had but the means of putting 
up a similar one in Boston. How proud I should then be ! We shall 
notwithstanding attempt something this year, poor as we are. I 
have just bought the entire lot of ground, next to where I live, for 
a Seminary. It has already a very good house on it, 90 feet long by 
26 feet broad, three stories high and capable of lodging fifty students, 
which has cost me eleven thousand five hundred dollars, two thousand 
five hundred of which I have paid, and have six years to pay the 
balance. You must put in a good word for me with the Society de la 
Propagation in France, otherwise I know not how I shall he able to 
extricate myself. It is well for me that I have so much courage. 
This enables me still to sleep soundly, spite of this new and great 
debt. The Propagation gave me last year a very small sum, indeed, 
but I rejoice that my name is still on their book. This is some com- 
fort at least, since it inspires hope. I expect three Sisters of Charity 
here daily, for whom I have prepared a beautiful house — a palace 
when compared with mine. They will have 300 female children under 
their care. Thus we move along, advancing, though not very fast in 
consequence of our poverty, still we keep moving, I have a thousand 



150 REV. JOHN ROTHENSTEINER 

things yet to say to you, but find I am come to the end of my paper. 
I shall, however, write again soon In the meantime, I remain, etc. 

t Benedict, Bp. Bn. 
P. S. It is quite certain now that our famous Calvinist Beecher 
is about to leave Boston to try his luck in the Valley of the Missis- 
sippi. I hope you will render his time as unpleasant to him there, 
as we did last winter here. Our lectures have completely broken him 
up in this quarter. 

Bishop Rosati had been requested by Fathers of the Council to 
compile a Book of Ceremonies, a work for which he was eminently 
fitted. The Catholic Press was the name of a weekly paper published 
in Hartford, Connecticut, before 1832. In the Letter-Book of Bishop 
Eosati I found, under date of May 19, 1832, the following entry: 
"Mr. Taylor leaves Hartford; Catholic Press will be published in St. 
Louis by July 1, 1832. Joseph and Deodat Taylor were converts to 
the Faith, and men of superior character and ability. If a paper 
by the name, "The Catholic Press," was really published by either 
one of the brothers Taylor, we have found no trace of it. Yet, there 
must have been a Catholic paper in St. Louis about this time, as 
Father John McMahon on his way to Galena writes to Bishop Rosati 
on August 27, 1832 : "A Dialogue on the Real Presence, which passed 
between an intelligent passenger and myself on our way hither (i. e. 
Keokuk), may be somewhat entertaining to some of Mr. Taylor's 
readers. If you think so, I am determined to lend it to you ; you will 
please hand it to him for insertion. ' ' Now what was the name of the 
Catholic St. Louis paper edited by Mr. Taylor? Most probably it 
was "The Shepherd of the Valley." It must be remembered, how- 
ever, that there were two distinct "Shepherds of the Valley," the 
first being published during the administration of Bishop Rosati and 
edited by Joseph Taylor, the second in Bishop Kenrick's days, and 
edited by Robert A. Bakewell. ' ' ^ 

"The handsomest church in the United States" is the encomium 
bestowed by Bishop Fenwick on the Old Cathedral of St. Louis. In 
its classic simplicity and majestic calm it is still one of the chief 
attractions of the city; the great monument of its first Bishop's love 
and undaunted desire. 

The Society of the Propagation of the Faith, with headquarters in 
Lyons and Paris, which with its sister societies of Vienna in Austria 
and Munich in Bavaria, did so very much for almost all the much- 
harassed Bishops of our early days, is meant here. 

The Roman Congregation of the Propaganda also gave substantial 

• "A Sketch of Catholic Journalism in St. Louis" by Eev. John Eothensteiner. 



J 



LETTERS OF BISHOP PEN WICK TO BISHOP ROSATI 151 

aid, but not in the measure of the Associations we have mentioned. 
Bishop Fen wick's allusion to "our famous Calvinist, Beecher," refers 
to Lyman Beecher, a man of genius like two of his children, Henry 
Ward and Harriet, but as self-centered and fanatical a man as ever 
spat venom against the Pope. Furiously assailing the Catholic Church 
and influencing the public mind, he met a severe setback in the lec- 
tures the Bishop delivered during the winter of 1830-1831. The 
Cathedral was thronged with Protestants, who listened with deep 
interest to the clear logic and impassioned argument of the Catholic 
champion. Lyman Beecher withdrew from the field to make forays 
into less dangerous fields. But he was to return to the final charge 
which ended in the destruction of the Ursuline convent at Charleston 
in 1834.* 

Boston, November 14, 1832. 
Et. Eev. Dear Sir: 

I received your highly esteemed favor the day before yesterday. 
I need not express to you how delighted I was to hear from you after 
so long a silence, nor how very anxious your letter has made me for 
your health. The cholera has already deprived the Province of one 
of her most efficient Bishops in taking off my late highly esteemed 
and venerable cousin. I sincerely hope it will not include you among 
the number of its victims in its ravages through your diocese, for 
we are not yet in a situation to spare you. May God therefore pre- 
serve you yet among us for the good of His religion and of His 
growing Church, many years. On our part we cannot be too grateful 
to the Almighty for having been pleased to overlook this diocese in 
his general visitation. We have had comparatively but few cases in 
any part of it. In Boston itself we never had more than five per 
day, and this lasted but two weeks. At present we are entirely free 
from it. 

I am quite rejoiced at the news you have given me of the generous 
offer of the Propaganda to educate two young men, whomsoever I 
may send, for the Diocese of Boston. I am aware of the immense 
advantage it will derive from having subjects who have received their 
education at the very fountain head and who will afterward be in a 
condition to impart the same to others on their return, and together 
with the purest doctrines, a true spirit of piety and religion. But 
at what age do they admit into the Propaganda? What degree of 
knowledge do they require previously in the student? Must they be 
thoroughly acquainted with the Latin? and must they have gone 
through a course of Philosophy? I will esteem it a great favor to 
receive information on these several heads, from you, as I am per- 
fectly ignorant of the regulations of that college. There is also an- 
other point, which, though last, is not least, so far as it concerns me 

* There is a good sketch of Lyman Beecher as well as of his celebrated son 
and daughter in Constance M. Eourke's Trumpets of Jubilee. 



152 REV. JOHN ROTHENSTEINER 

in my present state of poverty. I mean the expense of sending them. 
How much will that expense be? "Will the Propaganda add to their 
liberality by defraying this too ? I assure you it will be a great favor 
conferred if they will include me so far. In the purchase of a site for 
my Seminary, I have incurred a debt of nine thousand dollars, the 
interest of which I have yearly to pay, at the rate of six per cent. I 
have great hopes that the good Societe de la Propagation in France 
will aid me in paying off this debt. They were very good to me in 
their last distribution, and I have every reason to think they will 
continue to be so, this year also. As soon as I shall have rid myself 
of this one burden I shall have it more in my power to effect so 
desirable an object. Please to write to me as soon as possible on 
these several heads, and I also request the favor that you will not 
forget to put in a good word for me in your communications to the 
same society, lest they might forget me in my present necessities. 

I have long desired to see the Book of Ceremonies. Has it ap- 
peared yet? And when shall we have some copies of it? Many 
young Priests look forward with great anxiety for its coming out. 

I have seen vsdth pleasure the accounts which have been given of 
your progress at St. Louis. Your new church will beat everything 
that has yet appeared in the United States. When will it be con- 
secrated? 

Please to accept my best wishes for your health and success in all 
your undertakings. With sentiments of respect and esteeem, I remain, 

Yours, 

t Benedict, Bp. Bn. 

The Bishop's "late highly esteemed and venerable cousin" is 
Bishop Edward Fenwick of Cincinnati, a Dominican, the first Bishop 
of that see, who on a missionary journey to the northern confines of 
his vast diocese was struck down by the cholera at Sault Ste. Marie, 
but rallied sufficiently to continue his journey to Arbor Croche and 
Detroit. The dread disease, however, returned to the attack and the 
heroic Bishop died on the way home, at Wooster, Ohio, on September 
26, 1832. His companion on the fatal journey was the Rev. Augus- 
tine Jeanjean, one of the early missionaries brought over from France 
by Bishop Du Bourg. 

Boston, April 5, 1834. 
Rt. Rev. Dear Sir: 

I have just received your favor of the 5th ultimo with the enclosed 
Gregorian chant and directions. I have, you will perceive, delayed 
not very long in acknowledging the receipt of it ; for, I do not wish 
to lie under the imputation of being lazy, when in fact, I am not so 
in reality. It is true, I may now and then let a letter lie over in 
expectation of getting something interesting to communicate, which 
I may not get after all, and afterwards feel ashamed of the disap- 
pointment. 



LETTERS OF BISHOP FENWICK TO BISHOP ROSATI 153 

The Book of Ceremonies I am driving on with all the speed im- 
aginable since I received the manuscript. It will be out in June, and 
I think you will be well pleased with it; because, in fact, it is well 
done. But, do you know that I am deeply in debt for it, and that 
the expense has been considerable, all of which I have been obliged 
to advance. "When shall I be able to get it back again? I have no 
knowledge how many copies each of the Bishops will take. I must 
write to them and have a definite answer. Would it not be good to 
begin with you, as I have the pen now in hand ? You are undoubtedly 
aware that I have caused 1,000 copies of the entire book to be printed, 
besides 500 copies of the first part which I have bound apart for the 
use of the children, who serve about the altar. These are now ready 
for delivery. How many copies, therefore, of the entire work will 
you take for your diocese? And how many copies of the first part, 
which is bound separately? Another question I may propose, since 
I am about it (and which to me is a thousand times more important), 
when will it be convenient for you to pay for them? Now, let me 
see, if you will not be lazy in answering these questions. 

With regard to the Ritual, I fear I shall be obliged to wait for 
some returns, at least of the sums I have already expended in the 
present work, before I begin it. The publication of the little Eitual, 
however, will be but a little affair. It is possible I may proceed with 
that without much delay. 

The publication of the notes of the Gregorian, I think, will give me 
trouble, as there is no founding of any such notes here. However, 
I shall at all events be able to get them engraved apart. It may cost 
a little more ; but not matter. 

I shall set out in a week or two to consecrate a new church in 
New Haven, Con 't, the stronghold of Calvanism, where their principal 
college is. We have already commenced a new one here in Boston, 
which will be an elegant brick one, and which I hope to finish com- 
pletely by October. We do not build so elegantly as you do, but we 
shall proceed faster. The new one we are building also this year at 
Newport will be a credit to the cause. As soon as I shall have finished 
this one, now commenced in Boston, I shall instantly begin another 
in another part of the city ; for we shall want two to keep pace with 
our numbers. Best respects to Jean-Jean. 
With respect and esteem I remain, 

Yr Obt Sert in Xt, 

t Benedict, Bp. Bn. 

The Church in New Haven, Connecticut, consecrated in honor of 
Christ the Lord, was then in charge of the Rev. James McDermott.^ 

Boston, Sept. 8, 1834. 
Rt. Rev. Dear Sir: 

In spite of all our confusion I must inform you that I have shipped 
on board of a vessel going to New Orleans a box of books, the long 

"Catholic Almanac for 1833. 



154 REV. JOHN ROTHENSTEINER 

expected Books of Ceremony, directed to the care of the Revd. An- 
toine Blanc, who is requested by me by letter to send it on to you 
without delay. Please drop him a line to refresh his memory. You 
will probably get it the sooner by it. The box contains 100 copies of 
the larger and 50 copies of the smaller. The price is $1 for each copy 
of the larger, and 18 3-4 cents for each copy of the smaller. You will 
be astonished, when you come to see the book, how I could sell them 
so cheap. 

Our beautiful convent is destroyed by a mob! The Calvinists 
were jealous of our progress — they could not bear to see Catholics 
imparting a better female education than they could afford. Hence 
they were bent upon destroying us a long time part, and our beauti- 
ful institution, and took advantage of the favourable disposition of 
the time, to accomplish their nefarious purpose. But God will punish 
them at last. 

Adieu. I will write you again as soon as I can. 

Pray for me. 

t Benedict, Bp. Bn. 

In elucidation of these few trembling words of sorrow and indig- 
nation we would give a condensed account of the main facts as taken 
from John Gilmary Shea 's ' ' History of the Catholic Church, ' ' ^ and 
from Richard H. Clarke 's ' ' Lives of the Deceased Bishops. ' ' ^ The 
trouble arose from the conduct of a designing girl named Rebecca 
Reed, who had been received into the Church at Charleston (near 
Boston), and then, affecting great piety, applied to the Ursuline Nuns 
and was admitted for a six months' term as a probationer. Before 
the close of the term she abruptly left the Convent on the 18th day 
of January, 1832, and began to circulate stories against the ladies 
who had opened their house to her. Some unscrupulous enemies of 
the Catholic Church "improved the occasion" by concocting a book 
full of silly, slanderous stories from the outpourings of her perverted 
imagination, and published it under the title, "Six Months in a Con- 
vent." The book was condemned by the more intelligent people of 
Boston as a malicious publication but created a furore among the 
ignorant and vicious.^ Whilst the excitement created by this incident 
and by the furious declamations of Lyman Beecher was gradually 
abating another unfortunate incident made the fire of hatred flame 
up anew. One of the Sisters, holding a high position in the institu- 



'John Gilmary Shea, History of the Catholic Church in, the United States, 
vol. iii, ch. 3, passim. 

' Richard H. Clarke, Lives of the Deceased Bishops of the Catholic Church 
in the United States, vol. I, pp. 13-31. 

' The Lady Superior of the Convent in 1835 published, Answer to Six Montht 
In a Convent. 



LETTERS OF BISHOP FENWICK TO BISHOP ROSATI 155 

tion, being prostrated by the heat and overwork, became delirious and 
ran from the convent to the house of a neighbor whose daughters 
had been her pupils. She was prevailed upon to return to the con- 
vent, and, under medical treatment, soon recovered her normal condi- 
tion. She was deeply afflicted on learning what she had done. But 
the rumor had gone abroad, that the Sister was detained by force. 
' ' Down with the Convent ! Down with the nuns ! ' ' was the infuriated 
cry of the mob. Meetings were held in the school house at Charles- 
town to organize the work of destruction. In the dead of night the 
mob stormed the convent. Barrels of tar and casks of whiskey had 
been brought along in carts, the one to fire the buildings, the other to 
cheer on the incendiaries. The blaze drew the firemen of Charlestown 
to the scene, only to retire and leave the convent to the mercy of the 
mob. The Sisters and the pupils fled by the light of their former 
home and found refuge with kindly neighbors. The mob did not even 
spare the graves of the dead. It seemed altogether incredible that 
such a heinous act could have been perpetrated and yet, there stood 
the blackened ruins and more than a hundred witnesses bore testimony 
to the main facts of the awful tragedy. As the news spread, Catholic 
laborers employed on the railroads came pouring into Boston, bent on 
avenging the insult, but Bishop Fenwick sent his clergy to dissuade 
them from any attempt at retaliation. Justice should have its way, 
force could only do harm and most harm to his own people. The 
authorities made some show of prosecuting the offenders. A number 
of them were arrested, tried and acquitted on the most flimsy pleas. 
Only one was sentenced to imprisonment for life, but was soon after 
pardoned. 

Thus iniquity prevailed in Boston in this year of grace, 1834 ; the 
Boston of today is predominantly Catholic and harbors a Cardinal of 
the Eoman Catholic Church. 

Boston, February 22, 1835. 
Rt. Rev. Dear Sir : 

The bearer (Mr. Dyer) is one of our most respectable Catholics 
and a convert to our Church. He is a truly worthy and exemplary 
man. His object in visiting St. Louis is to see whether that city be 
favorable to his branch of business, the business of an Apothecary, 
and more so than the City of Boston. If he find upon examination 
that to be the case, his intention is to remove his family at once and 
take up his residence in your town where he knows he will enjoy 
many other privileges connected with religion and the education of 
his children which he cannot realize here. I recommend him, Rt. 
Rev. Sir, to your particular kindness and beg that you will introduce 
him to those in St. Louis who are best calculated to give him the 
information he desires. 



156 REV. JOHN ROTHENSTEINER 

The very Rev. Mr. Blanc had already acquainted me with the loss 
of the books I intended for you by the sinking of the steamboat which 
had them on board. This is a serious loss to me ; but I shall make 
another attempt to send you the same number precisely, viz: 100 
copies of the large and 50 copies of the small volumes. The first are 
sold at $1 per copy and the second at 18 3-4 cents, so that the bill I 
shall ultimately have against you will amount to $109.37 1-2 cents. 
This money you can send me, if perfectly convenient to yourself, by 
Mr. Dyer, who will return without much delay. If so, you will be 
the second Bishop who will have paid me. As the matter now stands 
Bp. Kenrick alone has as yet made a remittance. All the others; seem 
to hang off, waiting probably, for an opportunity. Rev. Mr. Blanc 
writes me that to prevent delay he would send you some of the books 
of ceremonies, which I had intended for New Orleans. I shall be glad 
to know how many copies of his you will have received, that I may 
supply the deficiency. 

I shall say nothing of the state of things here as Mr. Dyer can give 
you every information on that head. Wishing you every happiness, I 
remain with great respect, 

Yrs. in Xt, 

t Benedict, Bp. Bn. 

The Rev. Mr. Blanc mentioned above is the excellent prelate who 
was soon to succeed Bishop Leo Neckere as Bishop and finally become 
Archbishop of New Orleans. The "Bishop Kenrick" is Francis 
Patrick of Baltimore. 

Boston, May 5, 1836. 
Rt. Rev. Dear Sir: 

I had been left almost an entire century without any tidings of 
you when your last letter reached me a few days ago. I was. rejoiced 
to see by it how well things are getting on in the great valley not- 
withstanding the great exertions of the Devil and his co-operators to 
cheek its progress. Thank God, New Orleans is now well supplied. 
This will give a new impulse to religion in that quarter; but I am 
sorry to see its first pastor so soon under the necessity of repairing 
to Europe for the purpose of obtaining auxiliaries. His absence, I 
fear, will be greatly felt. However, he undoubtedly knows better 
than any one the importance of such a journey. 

I have directed another box of books to be forwarded to New 
Orleans for you. I hope this will fare better than the last, and that 
I shall not be under the necessity of making a third shipment. The 
printing of this book of ceremonies has proved a bad speculation for 
me, as only yourself, the good Bishop of New Orleans and Bishop 
Kenrick have indemnified me as yet ; all the other Bps. still hold back, 
although each of them has had a box of them sent to them, except 
Bp. Rese. Perhaps the returns will come yet; if not I cannot help 
it, and must only submit to my fate. The want of an index is to be 
ascribed solely to my having been absent from Boston, when the 
printer had finished the manuscript. So that when I came home I 



LETTERS OF BISHOP FENWICK TO BISHOP ROSATI 157 

found it already bound and accordingly could only regret what I 
could not repair. 

Religion begins to lift her head again in this diocese. Things are 
getting along exceedingly well. I see no immediate prospect of re- 
building the convent. Nor would I, so long as present feelings exist, 
attempt it, even had I the means. However, in all other respects, 
Catholicity is progressive, and is rapidly gaining ground, both in 
Boston and out of it. My new church is just completed. It is a 
splendid building. I shall consecrate it the Sunday within the Octave, 
of the Ascension. My Seminary is also finished and under opera- 
tion. Another new church in Boston will be completed by the first 
of next October. So much for Boston itself. Out of Boston I have 
four new churches under way which I hope to see finished by the fall. 
So rapid is the increase of Catholics in all parts of the Diocese that I 
find new congregations rising up where two years ago I little expected 
anything. Witness Augusta, the capital of Maine. When I passed 
through it two years ago, it did not number five Catholics, whereas 
now it contains as many hundreds. I have bought a Unitarian church 
there, nearly new, for one half of the price for which it was built. 
This was extremely apropos. But in the midst of all these fair pros- 
pects I labor under one disadvantage which, I fear, is common to all 
my Brothers, that of not having a sufficiency of able and pious clergy- 
men to carry on the work. Had I only these, infinitely more might 
be accomplished. Patience! 

My good nuns are all still at Quebec. It gives me pain to think 
that three of them are not satisfied there, in consequence of the lan- 
guage of the country which they are unable to learn, and desire very 
much to be removed. In consequence of their dissatisfaction the good 
Ladies of the Convent have become equally anxious for their depart- 
ure. In this state of things I do not know what to do. I have no 
place for them, and if I had, it would not do to bring them here now, 
by any means, nor to station them in any part of the diocese — it 
would be only exposing them to fresh insults. What am I to do? 
And what would you recommend under such circumstances? 

No Co-adjutor yet appointed for New York. I am getting every 
day more and more uneasy by this delay. The good Bishop there is 
very old, though in good health as yet. But I entertain great fears 
it will not last long. As that diocese is my neighbour, I feel much 
interested in its affairs. It is exceedingly important for religion, that 
such a diocese should have some one to succeed the present good 
Bp., who is in every respect well calculated. You at the far west 
are so much taken up with your own affairs that you don't think 
of this. Yet, the diocese of New York holds, as it were, the fate of 
religion in great measure in its hand in this country. Its importance 
is exceedingly great. Adieu. 

Respectfully yours in Xt., 

t Benedict, Bp. Bn. 

The cause of Bishop Fenwick's rejoicing at the fact that New 
Orleans was at last well supplied refers to the appointment of An- 



158 REV. JOHN ROTHENSTEINER 

thony Blanc as its Bishop. He had been administrator of the diocese 
since the death of Bishop De Neekere, September 4, 1833, but for a 
long time refused to accept the burden of the episcopacy. He was 
consecrated on November 22, 1835, by Bishop Rosati, assisted by 
Bishop Purcell and Portier. On July 19, 1850, New Orleans was 
made an archiepiscopal see with Mobile, Natchez, Little Rock and 
Galveston as suffragans. Archbishop Blanc died June 20, 1860. 

As to rebuilding the Convent of the Ursulines, the good Bishop 
was rather dififident. The blackened ruins on Mount St. Benedict 
served as a constant reproach to the bigots of Boston. The nuns were 
in Canada. But in July, 1838, he secured a house for them in Boston, 
and on August 29th two of the Sisters arrived from Canada. Other 
Sisters soon arrived. The Bishop appointed Mother Benedict, Su- 
perior. School was opened but was not well attended. After a strug- 
gle of two years the nuns lost heart and returned to Canada. 

The new church just completed was St. Mary's, in Pond Street. 
It was seriously injured by fire in January, 1839. 

The Bishop's uneasiness about a coadjutor to Bishop Dubois of 
New York was relieved in a most agreeable manner by the appoint- 
ment in 1837 of the great American prelate, John Hughes. 

Convent of the Visitation, 

Geo-town, Dist. col., 

June 10, 1836. 
Rt. Rev. Dear Sir : 

It will probably surprise you a little to find this letter addressed 
to you from Georgetown, instead of Boston; but your surprise will 
cease when I inform you that I am here with the Archbishop upon a 
very important business. This "business, so far as I am concerned in 
it, is to endeavor to obtain from the mother institution a small colony 
of nuns to supply the place of the absent Ursulines. I need not tell 
you how much we are in want of the inmates of such a house, situated 
as we are now in Boston, where the higher classes of Catholics are 
obliged either to send their children out of the State for education, 
or confide them to the care of Protestants to the great danger of their 
souls. The good mother of this house was upon the point of supplying 
me with a few of her members, when your letter arrived informing 
her of the state of things at Kaskaskia and requesting her to allow 
you an additional number of subjects for that institution. Now, I 
would beg to remonstrate a little against this, as her granting the 
supply asked for would prevent her from being able to supply me, 
which, in the present instance, is certainly more important, as it is 
a question of a new foundation which, I trust, will be highly favor- 
able to the progress of religion. Surely nine members ought to suffice 
for you, at least for the present? besides, is it not far more proper 
that the Visitandines should elect one of themselves at their superior, 



LETTERS OF BISHOP FENWICK TO BISHOP ROSATI 159 

than to have recourse to the motherhouse at a time of all others when 
efficient members are most required either at home in keeping up 
the reputation of it, or abroad in the formation of a new colony? I 
do hope, therefore, that you will not be too pressing in this matter. 
I understand that a new election has taken place among the good 
religious of Kaskaskia, and that they have chosen Sister Cecilia of 
this place to be their superior. It certainly would have been more 
proper, in my mind, had they confined their choice to one of them- 
selves. As it is, I do not think, she (Sister Cecilia) can at all be 
spared from this house without material injury to it. You must not 
imagine, however, that in other circumstances and in other times I 
should be opposed to one community aiding another's when the good 
of religion, too, requires it; but at present such a measure would 
materially affect the success of my little enterprise, as I do not con- 
ceive it possible that this community could, at present, spare a supe- 
rior and other efficient members to the establishment of Kaskaskia 
in addition to those already granted from this house, and at the same 
time aid me, which I think, more important. I do hope, therefore, 
you will get your good religious to reconsider the matter and not 
urge any longer what they have required. 

With sentiments of great respect and consideration, I remain, 

Yr. Br. in Xt., 

t Benedict, Bp. Bn. 

P. S. I regret to hear that the good Bishop of New Orleans has 
embarked from New Orleans instead of New York as he first proposed, 
asi it will deprive me of the possibility of seeing him on his way. 

t B., Bp. Bn. 

Boston, August 9, 1836. 
Rt. Eev. and Dr. Sir : 

The bearer, Mrs. Mary Ann Hoper, is about to leave this, with 
her sister and brother, for St. Louis. I am not personally acquainted 
with her; but she has been within a few days particularly recom- 
mended to me as a worthy and respectable lady, who during her abode 
in Boston has always manifested a deep interest for the welfare of 
the orphans under the care of the Sisters of Charity. She has few 
or no acquaintances in the country to which she is about to repair. 
Accordingly, I cannot forbear making you acquainted with her, sen- 
sible that you will be pleased with the introduction of a person of 
so benevolent a disposition. 

With sentiments of great respect and consideration, I remain, 

Yrs. in Xt., 

t Benedict, Bp. Bn. 

Boston, April 3, 1837. 
Rt. Revd. Dr. Sir: 

It appears that Mr. Dyer, to whom I formerly gave a letter of 
introduction to you, has finally concluded to locate in St. Louis, 
whither he purposes to remove his family as soon as he can make the 
necessary arrangements. All whom he leaves behind him regret his 
departure, and no one more than myself ; for, he has been very service- 



160 REV. JOHN ROTHENSTEINER 

able to us during the building of our new church. I cannot let him 
depart without recommending him anew to you as a very worthy and 
upright man and one who will be an acquisition to the Parish of St. 
Louis, 

Eespectfully, 

t Benedict, Bp. Bn. 

Boston, November 6, 1837. 
Rt. Rev. Dear Sir: 

So, it seems the persecuting spirit that prevails here is driving 
all our best Catholics to your Missouri ! "Well be it so. It is a bad 
wind that does not benefit some one. 

The bearer is Mr. Thomas Mooney, the son of our worthy Sexton, 
whom you may have seen in Boston. He is a prudent, discreet and 
industrious young man and a good Catholic, a cabinetmaker by trade 
and a good workman. It will be a pity, that with these qualifications, 
he will not be able to get along in your city. But I hope that will 
not be the fact. I am aware you will do everything in your power 
to promote his temporal as well as spiritual welfare. Every confi- 
dence can be reposed in him, and therefore I recommend him to your 
kind protection. He is a married man, but leaves his wife in the care 
of his Father till he has realized the means of bringing her on. 

Respectfully, 

t Benedict, Bp. Bn. 

Boston, July 31, 1839. 
Rt. Rev. Dear Sir : 

Your kind favor came to hand a few days ago. What you an- 
nounced to me as likely to happen has indeed taken place. The 
worthy — the excellent Bishop of Vincennes is no more ! I had 
received a letter from him but a few weeks previous to this melan- 
choly event; and little did I think at the time that we should so 
soon lose him. But he was ripe for heaven and God wished not to 
delay his reward. It has been announced some time in our public 
prints, that his Coadjutor, with yours, has been sanctioned by Rome ; 
with what truth I am yet unable to say. But it is very probable 
the account is correct enough. No doubt by this time you have re- 
ceived the official news. The appointment, at least, for Vincennes, 
could not have happened more opportunely. I sincerely hope he is 
one who is every way calculated to carry on the great and good work 
so auspiciously begun. 

It is true the Rev. Constantine Lee has been several years em- 
ployed in my diocese. He is a man of considerable talents as a 
preacher and would do well in any mission, if he were only to have 
a little more prudence in what regards himself. Candor compels me 
to say that he is unfortunately too apt to indulge in drink. But for 
this failing he would do well. A good retreat, to begin with, and a 
solemn promise on his part never to drink anything stronger than 
water might reclaim him — ^but nothing short of this can. You are 
aware, I presume, that he was educated at Rome, and consequently 



I^TTERS OF BISHOP FENWICK TO BISHOP ROSATI 161 

has enjoyed the superior advantage of having been, at least, well 
brought up. 

The Gregorian music book, which you request me to forward to 
Mr. Dinnies, is no more. I have in all, but four copies remaining, 
out of 1,000 which I had sent to the bookbinder. All have been con- 
sumed in a fire, which destroyed not only my printed copies but also 
my plates. Thus have I incurred a loss of about $600. Am I not 
very fortunate in my undertakings? 

But my Catholic Settlement succeeds beyond my expectations. 
Not only have Catholics settled on my own land, but have begun 
already to extend themselves on the State's lands adjacent. It is 
just as I wished and as I anticipated. We shall soon have a thriving 
colony of several thousand without any mixture of Protestants. I 
am now erecting a Seminary and College, which I hope will one day 
afford an ample supply of native clergymen for the wants of the 
diocese, in the centre of the township ; and have allotted for its sup- 
port 500 acres of the first rate land, together with the proceeds of a 
sawmill and gristmill. 

All is now peace with us. The Yankees are both tired and ashamed 
of what they have done, and a little later I do not despair of complete 
indemnification. 

We have now three beautiful churches in Boston all in a line — 
North, middle, which is the Cathedral, and South — not counting 
either the church in Charlestown or that in South Boston, and all 
these churches are crowded to suffocation. I still want one more to 
contain the Catholics. We have lately had some distinguished con- 
verts from the higher classes of society and hope for more. 

Adieu and believe me ever to remain, 

Yours In Cht., 

t Benedict, Bp. Bn. 

Bishop Simon William Brute of Vincennes closed his saintly life 
at Vincennes on June 26, 1839, at the age of sixty years. "Rare piety 
of life," says Father Garraghan, "and a very exceptional range of 
learning, secular as well as sacred, were among the traits that lent 
distinction to the personality of Bishop Brute. ' ' ® The archives of 
the Archdiocese and Chancery of St. Louis preserve a considerable 
body of his correspondence with Bishop Rosati. 

Early in 1839 Bishop Rosati had petitioned Rome for a coadjutor 
with the first choice of Father John Timon, his brother Lazarist, and 
had obtained his wish. But Father Timon absolutely refused to 
accept. Later on Peter Richard Kenrick, Vicar General of Phila- 
delphia, received the appointment. The coadjutor for Vincennes, 
Celestian Rene Lawrence De La Hailandiere, was in Europe at the 
time of Bishop Brute 's death. He was consecrated at Paris by Bishop 
Forbier Janson, August 18, 1839. Of the unfortunate Constantine 



'Eev. Gilbert J. Garraghan, S. J., in Illinois Catholic Historical Beview. 



162 REV. JOHN ROTHENSTEINER 

Lee 's brief stay in the diocese of St. Louis an account is given in the 
October, 1920, number of the Illinois Catholic Historical. Review, 
Vol. Ill, pp. 139-142. 

"One of Bishop Fen wick's plans was to secure a large tract of 
land and open it to Catholics in hopes of drawing many from the 
temptations of the cities and enabling them to secure comparative 
independence as farmers. Maine seemed to him to offer the greatest 
advantages, and he was on the alert to secure a township for this 
purpose. He advertised in 1833 for persons willing to take up land, 
at not more than a dollar and a half an acre. He finally secured 
township No. 2, Fifth Range, sixty-nine miles from Bangor, and 
made the attempt at Catholic colonization in July, 1834.^° 

Boston, September 13, 1839. 
Rt. Rev. Dear Sir: 

This will be handed to your Lordship by S. D. Mackintosh, Esq., 
former editor of the Sandwish Island Gazette. His object in going 
to St. Louis is to establish a paper ; and if he display the ability and 
conduct it as well as he did the Gazette at Honolulu he will deserve 
the patronage and support of every Catholic in the United States. 

Your Lordship may have heard of the Rev. M. Bachelot and other 
Catholic missionaries, who went out and settled in Oahu, one of the 
Sandwich Islands, — and how they were persecuted and finally driven 
away by the Calvinistic missionaries there established. The bearer 
of this letter, though a Protestant, was the indivdual who undertook 
their defence in his paper and ably vindicated their cause at the risk 
of drawing upon himself the vengeance of these fanaticks, and altho' 
he did not in the long run succeed in keeping them in the Island, 
owing to the very great influence which the Calvinists possessed over 
the minds of the Chiefs, yet, he had inflicted a blow upon them from 
which it will be difficult for them to recover. For these, his exertions 
in behalf of oppressed innocence, able and disinterested as they have 
been, he deserves the gratitude of Catholics wherever they may be 
found. I therefore flatter myself that he will be welcomed to St. 
Louis by them in general, and by your Lordship in particular. 

Earnestly recommending him to your Lordship's kind protection, 
I remain, with sentiments of respect and esteem. 

Your Lordship's Br. in Xt., 

t Benedict, Bp. Bn. 

It is a far cry from Bangor, Maine, to Oahu, one of the Sandwich 
(Hawaiian) Islands ; yet the story of both New England and those far 
off islands in the Pacific was the same old story of Protestant oppres- 
sion and Catholic patience and final victory. We quote from the 
Catholic Encyclopedia, "The first Catholic priests arrived at Hono- 
lulu on July 9, 1827. They were, the Rev. Alexis Bachelot, Prefect 

"Cf. Shea, 1. c. 



LETTERS OF BISHOP FENWICK TO BISHOP ROSATI 163 

Apostolic, the Rev. Abraham Armand and the Rev. Patrick Short. 
All these were members of the Society of Picpus. They had been 
sent by Pope Leo XII. Protestant missionaries had arrived from 
New England as early as 1820 and had gained the king and chiefs 
over to their cause. As soon as the priests began to make converts 
a fierce persecution was raised against the natives who became Cath- 
olics. They were ill-treated, imprisoned, tortured, and forced to go 
to the Protestant Churches, and the priests were banished. Father 
Bachelot and Short were taken to a solitary spot in lower California. 
In 1836 the Rev. Robert Walsh, an Irish priest of the same congre- 
gation, arrived and remained in the islands in spite of the ill-will 
of the Protestant party. In 1837 Father Bachelot and Short re- 
turned from California, but were obliged to leave again. Father 
Bachelot died at sea on December 15, 1837. In 1839 the French Gov- 
ernment sent a frigate to put an end to the persecution.^^ 

Boston, December 10, 1839. 
Rt. Revd. Dr. Sir: 

Since my last communication I have concluded to undertake the 
publication of another book of Sacred Music; and what is more, I 
have actually commenced it. The first proof sheets will be presented 
to me tomorrow. The work will be stereotyped ; and I intend it shall 
be one which will be found extensively useful. Never was there a 
book more wanted, in this country, from Maine to New Orleans ; and 
from the Atlantic to the Rocky Mountains. The high price paid for 
imported music will forever operate as an exclusion, or render the 
circulation of it confined and limited. The choirs of Cathedral 
churches, such as Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore and St. 
Louis may be able to import and find means to pay high prices for 
sacred busic ; but our country churches which are spreading in every 
direction over the land, how are they to procure music? How have 
they procured it hitherto ? A worn out book or a fragment here and 
a fragment there, is all that village and country choirs have ever 
been able to possess. Nevertheless how important it is that our 
churches should have good music? how important that our youth 
should be trained to sing the Praises of God! And how can they 
be ever trained without books? and how can they procure books unless 
they be sold cheap? I have, therefore, at my own risk, undertaken 
to supply this deficiency, at least, in my own diocese ; and am about 
to publish a beautiful volume of Sacred Music, of the size of 7 inches 
by 10, and which shall contain as many pages as will be found neces- 
sary to embody the whole service of the Church, both in the fore- 
noon and afternoon. And do you imagine that such a book will be 
found useful in every diocese? I intend to distribute the pieces in 
it thus, dividing the work into two parts : 

"Cf. Catholic Encyclopedia, article "Sandwich Islands." 



164 REV. JOHN EOTHENSTEINEB 

The first part shall contain four litanies, the Asperges and the 
Vidi Aquam in Gregorian, and another Asperges in Music; three 
Masses, viz : two in music and one in Gregorian ; also, the service for 
the dead. The Psalms for the Sunday and all the festivals of the 
year, with two modes of singing them, the one ordinary and the other 
solemn ; the hymns for all the Sundays and festivals, also in Gregorian, 
the same also in English Music, the Borate in Gregorian; the Te 
deum, Parce Domine, Lauda Sion, all in Gregorian; the anthems of 
the B. V. Salve Regina, Ave Regina, Almo Redemp. and Regina 
Coeli, also in Gregorian, as well as in Music. The Tantum Ergo in 
various ways, the Lamentations — Gloria Laus et Honor, Popule mens 
quid feci tibi, etc., Agios, o Theos, etc., all in Gregorian. I say noth- 
ing of Stabat Mater — Vexilla Regis, Sacris Solemniis, etc., etc., all 
of which will be in Gregorian. When I say Gregorian I mean 
Gregorian Music transposed from the 4 line to the 5 line music to 
make it intelligible to the organists of this country. All this music 
will be arranged for the organ accompaniment with soprano and 
tenor. 

The second part will contain an infinite variety of Hymns, Canti- 
cles, Motets, and all beautifully arranged in several parts, set to 
various tunes by the first masters. The whole work will not be too 
thick to be bound together ; but the two parts can be sold separately, 
if desired. The first part will, in fact, contain all that is essential 
in choirs; but for the sake of variety of aims, and a more beautiful 
arrangement the two should go together. 

Now, what do you think of this? Will you help me in the un- 
dertaking by subscribing largely? Surely your churches will want 
a good many copies. But, the price, you will ask. It is probable 
that the whole work will not, in the two parts, exceed 200 pages; 
that is allowing 100 pages for each part. Would one dollar per 100 
pages be too much? You may depend upon the paper being good, 
the tjpe beautiful and clear, and upon a faithful execution of the 
work. Nor will superior or better arranged music be anywhere 
found. It will be superintended by a first rate musician. 

How is your health? Write me soon and let me know what I am 
to expect. With sincere regard, Yours in Xt., 

t Benedict, Bp. Bn. 

P. S. The first part of the work will be ready for delivery by 
the middle of February, and the second part in two months after. 

Another. You are aware that the first book I published some years 
ago was destroyed by fire with all the copies. 

Boston, January 22, 1840. 
Rt. Rev. Dr. Sir: 

Your kind letter has just come to hand. I am sorry my book 
will, in no manner, suit the latitude of St. Louis, although I have 
endeavored to gregorianize it, as much as possible, according to those 
books, at least, which were in my possession. To alter it now, is 
impossible, as it is more than half done, and the entire has been 
contracted for. 



LETTERS OF BISHOP FEN WICK TO BISHOP ROSATI 165 

I did not know, before the receipt of your letter, how the choirs 
of St. Louis were constituted. Nor did I know that you had intro- 
duced the Roman chant in all its purity. If you have succeeded in 
this, you are undoubtedly the only Bishop in the United States that 
could succeed in it. Your population were in great measure French 
and prepared for it by having been all their life accustomed to the 
Gregorian music. Your clergy, too, have probably for the greater 
part, a knowledge of it, and were able to form choirs in the different 
churches. But to attempt to introduce it all over the United States, 
in which the greater part of the congregations consist of Americans 
or Irish, who know as much about music of any kind, as they do 
about Greek, and the greater part of the clergy, too, have neither 
voices nor ears for music, would be to attempt an impossibility. 
"Without going into the country parts of each diocese, let me instance 
the three principal cities and Cathedral churches of these United 
States, viz: Baltimore, Philadelphia and New York. In none of 
these have the Bishops at any period been able to introduce the 
Gregorian chant, however much they desired it. And the reason is, 
they not the clergy requisite to carry the measure through. How 
were the people disposed to favour such a change on a sudden? Abp. 
Marechal had all his life time been accustomed to the Gregorian 
chant — he had, besides, the entire French Seminary to back him in 
the enterprise, had he undertaken the task of introducing it into 
his Cathedral. But he saw the impossibility with such a population 
as Baltimore consisted of, of succeeding, and abandoned it. Now, 
if such be the state of things in these principal churches, what cannot 
be said of the country and the village churches? What chance would 
there be of introducing it there? But let me confine myself to the 
state of things in my own diocese, and you will be the better judge. 
I have thirty churches and twenty-eight priests. Of these thirty 
churches only one half have voices, or can tell one tone from another. 
The consequence, hitherto, has been, that low Masses only could be 
said in the far greater part of the churches on Sunday, without a 
single hymn or even canticle being sung to enliven the divine service, 
while the Protestants, in their churches, all around had their choirs 
and their sacred hymns sung in pretty good style. 

Now, how could I remain an indifferent spectator of this state 
of things without making an effort to apply, at least, some remedy? 
To introduce the Gregorian music entirely and on a sudden among 
them I knew to be impossible. There was nobody to teach it — not 
even the priests knew it. I knew, moreover, that I could not procure 
books, and if I should procure them, they would be unintelligible to 
to the American musician, who only know the 5 line music. What 
then was to be done ? I saw, with the population I have to deal with, 
that nothing could be done with any probability of success, but what 
I am now doing, I shall soon have a book which will be perfectly 
intelligible to all musicians and from which the poor and uninformed 
can learn. The Masses in it are plain and beautiful and easily 
learned. The Vespers are equally so. The book will contain the 
whole service for the year with all the hymns for the Sundays and 



166 REV. JOHN ROTHENSTEINER 

principal Feasts, with a great variety of other hymns, Mottets, can- 
ticles and anthems, which can be sung by the children at Catechism 
classes, as well as at Divine Service. In fine, the music in it wiU 
be found partly Gregorian and partly of the other kind, but all 
selected and arranged by the best masters. It is likewise solemn 
and well adapted to Church music. I am sorry you cannot encourage 
it for any part of your diocese. I am persuaded it will do good, and 
an immense good somewhere, both in and out of my diocese. At aU 
events, it will be better to have it than to be without any Church 
music at all, which is the case in the three hundred out of the 454 
churches in the United States. 
With best wishes I remain, 

Your Br. in Xt., 

t Benedict, Bp. Bn. 

This exposition of Bishop Fenwiek's ideas of Church music is 
endorsed in Bishop Rosati's handwriting, 1840, January 22nd. 
Bishop Fen wick, Boston, "resp. non indiget. " 

The great Bishop of St. Louis was then busily engaged in the 
preparation for the journey to Baltimore and his visit to Rome. 
After consecrating his coadjutor, Peter Richard Kenrick, in Balti- 
more, he started once more for Rome. He was never again to see his 
episcopal city as he died in Rome on September 25, 1843. Bishop 
Fenwick was to outlive him by three years, expiring the 11th of 
August, 1846. His last words were, "In Te, Domine, speravi; non 
conf undas in aeternum. ' ' 



Rev. John Rothensteineb. 
St. Louis, Mo. 



EDITORIAL COMMENT 



The First Ten Years. — The Illinois Catholic Historical Eeview is ap- 
proaching its tenth birthday. It was established at the almost most critical 
period of the World War. In spite of the war, the State of Illinois waa 
celebrating the hundredth anniversary of the admission of the State into the 
Union, and it was felt that it was imperative to be represented in the litera- 
ture of the centennial period. It may sound unkind to state that the Catholic 
part in the history of the State and region did not seem to be valued at its 
fair worth, and after many efforts to modify existing conditions it was decided 
by those interested in the matter that if we desired proper representation 
we must ourselves provide means of securing it. 

Rev. Frederick Siedenburg, S. J., was a member of the centennial celebra- 
tion commission, appointed by the Governor and was accordingly well informed 
of the situation. Mainly through his efforts the Catholic historical movement 
was launched, and after due consideration and authorization the Illinois Cath- 
olic Historical Society was legally organized early in 1918, the initial meeting 
being held on February 28th of that year. 

The very first activity provided for by action of the society was the publi- 
cation of a quarterly magazine to be known as the Illinois Catholic Historical 
Review. It was proposed to publish the first number in May, but the task was 
found too great and the date of the first quarterly number issued was July 1, 
1918. 

Cardinal Mundelein, Bishop Hoban and many distinguished churchmen en- 
dorsed enthusiastically the movement and lent moral and financial support. None, 
however, underestimated the difficulty connected with the establishment of a 
necessarily expensive magazine, and all were prepared, mentally at least, for a 
time of trial. It was well known that ventures of this kind had met with serious 
diflaculties and that few, if any, ever survived a period of ten years. Splendid 
historical publications had been published, but so far as we have been able to 
learn not one had been able to weather the storm for a period as long as has 
the Illinois Catholic Historical Review. 

It is most gratifying that, nearing our tenth anniversary as we are, the 
magazine is in a very flourishing condition. The clergy, the religious and the 
lay-people who have become acquainted with the magazine are loud in its praise. 
Not a single number, during all of the more than nine years it has been pub- 
lished, but has been praised orally and by many written communications from 
all parts of the State and country. 

It is gratifying to be able to state that the magazine goes to practically 
every public library in the United States. It is called an ornament in the 
libraries of the Catholic universities, colleges and schools. It is read in council 
by the religious orders, and in many institutions of learning is practically made 
a textbook. Indeed, without boasting, we are free to say that many expressions 
have reached us to the effect that it is the best historical magazine ever pub- 
lished in the United States. 

All this, of course, makes us happy, but there is in our song of appreciation 
one sad note. We haven't enough readers. This is not a play or a plea for 
financial support. We really could now publish and distribute the magazine free 

167 



168 EDITORIAL COMMENT 

in certain quantities due to our splendid advertising patronage. The best and 
biggest business men in the country use advertising space in our magazine, but 
it would be a bad policy from many standpoints, the mention of which is not 
necessary, to attempt free publication. We have, however, reduced the subscrip- 
tion price materially and subscribers and friends of the movement have been 
advised of this reduction in recognition of the near approach of our tenth 
anniversary. 

Why can't we secure more readers? 

We know how completely occupied nearly every one is who could be asked 
to do something to enlarge the subscription list of the Review. Practically 
every one in that class has labors and troubles enough of his own, but it is the 
busy people that do things. 

Once more we ask, in the first place, the pastors to help us secure more 
readers. If each pastor would speak to some one in his congregation and ask 
that two, or three, or five subscriptions be sent in from the parish, it would add 
tellingly to the number of readers. So with the present subscribers. If each 
would make a slight effort, two, or three, or a half dozen new subscribers might 
easily be obtained. 

We ask that kind of help. We want to increase the number of our readers 
to at) least ten thousand for our tenth anniversary. Help us. 



GLEANINGS FROM CURRENT 
PERIODICALS 

The leading article in the Michigan History Magazine for July, 
1927, Vol. XI, No. 3, is "An Historic Michigan Road," by Carl E. 
Pray. This road is the Chicago Road, the paved highway from 
Detroit to Chicago, and we are told that its inception was due to 
Father Gabriel Richard of Detroit, to whom "is due the introduc- 
tion of a bill in Congress authorizing a survey of a road from De- 
troit to Chicago and the appropriation of money to begin the work. 
Father Richard was Territorial delegate from Michigan Territory, a 
man of great activity and power of leadership and greatly devoted 
to the interests of the Territory. His bill came to a hearing before 
the House of Representatives, January 28, 2825. The Debates of 
Congress report only a summary of his speech on that occasion but 
show that he knew thoroughly well what he was taking about. He 
urges the importance of the road both from a military point of view 
and as to its necessity in the matter of settlement. He says that the 
Grand Canal (meaning the Erie Canal) will be finished the next 
July and that then 'We consider Detroit in contact with New York.' 
He says that there is already a ship with a movable keel on the lakes 
ready to go all the way to New York. He reminds Congress that 
during the War of 1812 the government had suffered a loss of ten 
or twelve million dollars because there had been no road across the 
Black Swamp (Northeastern Ohio, across which the government had 
tried to transport supplies to the armies only to have them sunk in 
the mud) and that the same sort of thing might happen again if it 
were necessary to get supplies to Chicago, Green Bay in Wisconsin 
and Prairie Du Chien. He argues that the road will cost the govern- 
ment less than nothing because of the greatly increased value of the 
land caused by the fact of there being a road through it. He says 
families are already coming to Detroit who wish to get into the 
interior but cannot because there is no road. He states that there 
are now ten surveyors in the region, the land will soon be thrown 
open for settlement but will not sell without a road. He asked for 
the modest sum of fifteen hundred dollars but Congress gave him 
three thousand instead, to make the survey." 

The Missouri Historical Review for July, 1927, Vol. XXI, No. 4, 
contains an interesting article by Father John E. Rothensteiner, who 
is well known to all our readers. Father Rothensteiner 's article, en- 

169 



170 GLEANINGS FROM CURRENT PERIODICALS 

titled, "The Missouri Priest One Hundred Year Ago," tells briefly 
the story of Bishop William Louis Du Bourg, the first bishop of St. 
Louis. Bishop Du Bourg, in a letter written January 18, 1818, gave 
this picture of early St. Louis: "Here I am in St. Louis, and it is 
no dream. The dream would be most delightful, but the reality is 
even more so. I visited several parishes, en route. Everywhere the 
people came in crowds to meet us, showing me the most sincere affec- 
tion and respect. My house is not magnificent, but it will be com- 
fortable when they have made some necessary repairs. I will have 
a parlor, a sleeping room, a very nice study, besides a dining room, 
and four rooms for the ecclesiastics, and an immense garden. My 
cathedral, which looks like a poor stable, is falling in ruins, so that 
a new church is an absolute necessity. It will be one hundred and 
fifty feet long by seventy wide, but its construction will take time, 
especially in a country where everj'thing is just beginning. The 
country, the most beautiful in the world, is healthy and fertile, and 
emigrants pour in. But everything is very dear." 

The National Catholic Welfare Conference Bulletin for August, 
1927, contains a report by Rev. George M. Nell, of the work of the 
"Parish Activities Service," of Effingham, 111., which was organized 
seven years ago. 

This movement in its few short years of existence has accom- 
plished great things in the development of social and recreational 
parish activities and the parish life of many churches has been revo- 
lutionized by its aid. 

Father Nell lists the following features which are already a part 
of the Parish Activities Service : 

1. It has gathered ideas and plans successfully used by parishes, 
and has issued this material in two series of Parish Activities Infor- 
mation Booklets, covering thirty-eight distinct parish activities. 

2. Has issued a Parish Activities Study Club Program, supplied 
with the proper study material. 

3. Has organized a free Co-op Loan Service for members cover- 
ing: 

(a) Parish Amateur Dramatics. 

(b) Slides illustrating the catechism and bible history, 

(c) Cartoons illustrating parish publicity material such as 
parish bulletins, dodgers, newspaper advertising, let- 
ters, post cards, etc. 

4. Has developed a Co-op. Buying Service for members, cover- 
ing movie, slide and opaque projectors, plays from the leading pub- 



GLEANINGS FROM CURRENT PERIODICALS 171 

lishers, printer's cuts, glass and film strip slides, rebuilt office equip- 
ment, etc. 

5. Has arranged a Co-op. Film Rental Service. 

6. Maintains a Personal Letter Information Service answering 
questions on parish activities. 

7. Offers a Co-op. Printing Service, supplying printed material 
whichi can be used in identical form by many parishes, giving a quan- 
tity price on even a few copies. 

8. Publishes a looseleaf bulletin for members, giving suggestions 
for special parish activities such as bazars, ground-breaking celebra- 
tions, corner stone laying, dedication ceremonies, jubilee celebrations, 
farewells to pastor or assistant, welcomes to pastor or assistant, so- 
cials, picnics, sings, minstrels, plays and operettas, debates and mock 
trials and any other programs you may have. 

The fee for this service is $10 per year, entitling the parish to 
use all the services offered. Eeeently a member saved over $100 on 
one Co-op. purchase. At present a number of members are saving 
from $75 to $150 on Co-op. Film Bookings alone, while the users of 
the 1,129 religious slides, of the cartoons, and of the Dramatic Service 
are finding these enot only a big convenience, but also a worthwhile 
financial saving. 

The Ahhey Chronicle of St. Benedict, Louisiana, in the following 
sketch, breathes the romance in the history of one of our southern 
dioceses : 

"More than one hundred and seventy years have elapsed since 
that tragic day on which the Acadians were rudely torn from their 
rugged but happy homes in Nova Scotia. On the 10th of September, 
1755, they were thrown on government vessels and left in the hands 
of fate. But fate is God's Providence. From the cold lakes of the 
north they drifted into the genial warm streams of southern Louis- 
iana. Entering the picturesque Teche and Vermillion bayous they 
founded their homes on the wooded banks of those beautiful streams. 

The story of their wanderings is a sad story but it has its con- 
soling side. It is the story of religious faith, of a faith more rugged 
than were the rugged surroundings of their northern homes. God 
blessed the Acadians. There was peace and plenty in all the country 
of Evangeline. 

To the present day they have kept the faith of their fathers, and 
in 1918 the descendants of that heroic people rejoiced in seeing the 
Acadian settlements on the shores of the Vermillion, Teche, and At- 
chafalaya united into one Acadian diocese, the diocese of Lafayette. 
The faith, love and peace which characterized the Acadians of old 
still prevail in the present generation. More than this, God has been 
pleased to reward the fidelity of the Acadians by giving them a 



172 GLEANINGS FROM CURRENT PERIODICALS 

bishop who was chosen from their midst and who himself is a de- 
scendant of the saintly people who preferred to give life and all 
rather than renounce their faith. 

The Right Reverend Jules Benjamin Jeanmard is the first Aca- 
dian Bishop of the first Acadian diocese in the history of the Church. 
Thanks to his zeal, some sixty-seven priests and thirty religious are 
laboring in the Acadian portion of the vineyard of Christ, while nine 
seminarians are studying philosophy and theology in this country 
and Europe, and the writer of these lines is one of the eighteen dio- 
cesan boys at St. Joseph's Seminary, St. Benedict, La. 

So the faith of Evangeline and her people will still wax strong 
in the land of Acadia. Sooner will the Teche lose its waters than 
that the diocese of Acadia will lose the faith of its fathers. 

AvEGNO Soulier, III Latin." 

The history of Ireland and of the Irish in America is an important 
feature of TJie Spokesman, a new publication which calls itself "The 
only independent Irish newspaper in America. ' ' The issue of August 
4th, for instance, has articles on the reception at Dublin of the 
American Minister to Ireland; on the American Irish Historical So- 
ciety; on Nathaniel Fanning, Naval Hero of the American Revolu- 
tion, and a number of interesting matters of an historical nature. 

Columbia, for August, 1927, publishes a sketch by Joseph Gum, 
of one of our early Catholic patriots. His article, entitled, "A 
Priest in Congress," tells the story of the courageous Father Gabriel 
Richard, who was a member of Congress, associate of Webster and 
Clay, a pioneer of education in the middle west, leading spirit in the 
development of the University of Michigan, and a pastor fervent in 
the spiritual care of his flock. The author tells us that the building 
of his church of St. Anne put him in debt and he was thrown into 
prison by his creditors. "A brilliant idea now came to his friends, 
viz., to offer him as a candidate at the forthcoming Congressional 
election, since, if successful, his release would be mandatory under 
the terms of the United States Constitution. The Abbe agreed, and 
when the result of the contest was announced his name headed the 
poll. There were six candidates, at least two of whom, Biddle and 
Wing, were men of prominence. 

We are told that the Abbe's appearance in the House created a 
sensation. He soon gained the confidence and admiration of his fellow 
legislators. Though a man of culture and a good linguist, his ora- 
torical command of the American language was not the best, but 
the great-souled Henry Clay was then Speaker of the House of Rep- 
resentatives, and he aided the Abbe by translating into classic Eng- 
lish the bad English of his colleague. " F. J. R. 



BOOK REVIEWS 

The Bridge to France — ^By Edward N. Hurley. J. B. Lippincott 
Co., Philadelphia-London. 

The author (a prominent Catholic of Illinois) has shown good 
judgment in waiting with his summary of the creation and operation 
of the United States Shipping Board and Emergency Fleet Corpora- 
tion until some of the "tumult and clamor" died so that a more 
dispassionate and calmer discussion might result. Mr. Hurley before, 
and during the war was in an ideal position to tell the story of the 
origin of the means for the transportation of men and material to 
the front, — The Bridge to France. He was (as he points out in the 
first chapter) closely connected with the advancement of Woodrow 
Wilson from the chair of President of Princeton University, through 
the governorship of New Jersey to the President of the United States. 
"Whatever one may think of Woodrow Wilson, his ideals, aims and 
purposes one is tempted to join in the honest admiration of Mr. 
Hurley for his wartime chief. He brings out many interesting phases 
of the character of Mr. Wilson, and relates a number of entertaining 
anecdotes. 

The discussion of the early disturbances in the Board due to its 
unfortunate organization is full and fair. In these chapters, as in 
the whole book, Mr. Hurley speaks with an honest forwardness, ex- 
pressing his feelings and his opinions of men and affairs. 

It is wholesome as well as somewhat startling to reflect that in 
doing their share to help win the war, as great a part was accom- 
plished by the dockyard workers and the officers of the United States 
Shipping Board and of the Emergency Fleet Corporation as by the 
soldiers at the front and the general staff. For without the home 
organization there would have been no soldier at the front or if he 
were there, he would be from lack of supplies, merely an additional 
burden on an already overtasked ally. The mistakes and errors made 
by a body of men experimental in its origin, and necessarily experi- 
mental in operation while working in dire haste, are frequently 
blotted out and undoubtedly they are as costly in life and treasure 
as the errors made by the military arm in the training of the troops 
and the securing of martial supplies. 

The discussions of the relations of the author with Edison, Ford, 
Firestone and others are enlivening and in a few words Mr. Hurley 
produces a well limned character study of the men portrayed. It is 
interesting to note Mr. Hurley's reaction toward Marshal Foch at 

173 



174 BOOK REVIEWS 

the meeting in Treves, when the Allied and German delegates met to 
work out a method of taking over the German ships and of furnish- 
ing relief to the German people, through shipments of food, etc. 

There are a number of fac-simile letters and telegrams incorpo- 
rated in the work which may make it valuable as a source-book. 

The lesson one may gather from this volume is that if war is to 
continue as it probably will, to be the final arbitrament of the nations 
it will avail but little to have a well drilled citizen army unless we 
have given some care to the question of the transportation of the 
army and supplies and the steady flow of those supplies to the front. 
To accomplish this will mean a closer peacetime relationship between 
the "War Department and the business executives of the day, and it 
might bo well if a civilian council of leaders in war industries were 
selected as a permanent committee to advise with the War Depart- 
ment upon the question of transportation of supplies in time of war. 
In doing so we would be prepared, not only from a military stand- 
point but also from a commercial, for the evil which may at any time 
come upon us. 

The United States— A History for the Upper Grades of Catholic 
Schools, by William J. Kennedy and Sister Mary Joseph. Benziger 
Brothers, New York, Cincinnati, Chicago. 

The editors in their foreword lead one to believe that it was 
their intention to write a story history. In this they have suc- 
ceeded admirably. The style is so attractive that it might offer 
some competition to a real story book in the favor of the younger 
generation. The book is profusely illustrated and that this is valu- 
able both to the student and the teacher goes without saying. It 
enables the teacher to clothe the dead bones of the characters and 
to have them again enact their parts realistically. 

As an introduction there is a preliminary survey of world his- 
tory which will enable the teacher to point out the interrelation 
of history generally. The relation between the colonies and Great 
Britain preceding the Revolution, the treatment of which in some 
histories, now seems to be causing a great deal of comment, is ade- 
quately dealt with from an American standpoint. 

It seems that a little more space could have been given to the 
rise and decline of the Know Nothing party and a keener analysis 
of the eruption and disappearance of the bigotry waves might 
easily have been made. Generally, however, this history fits very 
well into the niche for which it was intended. 

John V. McCormick. 

Chicago, Illinois. 



CHRONICLE 

ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST PARISH, JOHNSBURG, ILL. 

A recent Jubilee held at Johnsburg, McHenry County, Illinois, 
in celebration of the 85th anniversary of the parish and the silver 
jubilee of the building of the church gives evidence of the importance 
of the smaller parishes of our State. 

Johnsburg, one of the oldest Catholic communities in Illinois, was 
founded by German settlers. There is a tradition that as early as 
1838, Bishop Brute of Vincennes, Indiana, was in the neighborhood 
and baptized four children. The Germans, however, did not come 
until about three years later. 

The first Johnsburg church was built of logs, twenty by twenty- 
eight feet, in 1843 or 1844 — the recollection of the old members not 
agreeing exactly as to the time. The first frame church was built 
in 1850 to the testimony of old settlers and the diary of Bishop Van 
de Velde: "May 1, 1850 — Visited new church (not finished, frame) 
of St. John the Baptist, in Miller settlement, three or four miles from 
McHenry town, (75x33 feet), well designed; made arrangements to 
have a frame church 50 x 35 feet, built at McHenry. A lot free, for 
the purpose was given by Mr. Brown, a Protestant." 

"November 9, 1851 — Blessed church of St. John the Baptist of 
the German congregation, near the village of McHenry; after last 
Mass exhortation in English; confirmed 63 persons." 

On June 3, 1852, the Bishop confirmed thirty-three persons in this 
church. The building of a second church was undertaken in 1868, 
during the pastorate of the Reverend Clement Venn and the church 
was finished by the late Reverend Henry Mehring, who was pastor 
for twenty-four years. In February, 1900, the same church was 
destroyed by fire and during Father Mehring 's time the present 
beautiful church of Johnsburg was erected. The building was begun 
in 1900, and was completed the following year. It is only necessary 
for one to take a glimpse at the interior of St. John's to realize that 
a real artist has spent several months and has expended a vast amount 
of artistic skill on the walls, pillars, statues and paintings in the 
building. 

Up to 1852 the Johnsburg congregation was ministered to by 
visiting priests. The first priest visited the settlement in the Fall of 
1841, by accident. He was the Reverend Father Fisher, sent from 
Vincennes to minister to the needs of Catholics in Northern Illinois 
and Wisconsin. Returning from the latter State, he had lost his 

175 



176 CHRONICLE 

way and was brought by Indians to Miller's settlement, where he 
offered Mass the next morning in one of the settler's homes. 

The first baptism was recorded in September, 1841, The first 
marriage was solemnized May 8, 1843. The first school house was 
built in 1850. For years this school was conducted by lay teachers, 
but later was placed under the care of the School Sisters of St. 
Francis of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Almost all the people of the 
parish have received their education within its venerable walls. The 
number of children enrolled today is one hundred and thirty-six. 

At the present time there are one hundred and forty families 
who belong to the parish from which six vocations to the priesthood 
and eighteen to the sisterhood have been obtained. 

In the community there are four societies and four sodalities, 
namely, St. John's Catholic Order of Foresters, St. Agatha's Women's 
Catholic Order of Foresters, Holy Name Society, Young Men's So- 
dality, Young Ladies' Sodality, Christian Mothers' Sodality, Holy 
Childhood Sodality, and Sacred Heart, Poor Souls and Rosary Con- 
fraternity. 

Reverend William Weber is now pastor of the parish and is to 
be commended upon the progress which this small community has 
shown under his excellent guidance since 1915. Besides the work 
which has been accomplished by re-finishing St. John's Church, 
Father Weber has also labored most zealously since his arrival in 
erecting a grotto in memory of the Reverend Henry Mehring, who 
was pastor at Johnsburg for nearly twenty-five years and dearly 
beloved by his people. This beautiful grotto, an exact reproduction 
of the original and historical grotto at Lourdes, in France, today 
may be seen in the cemetery of Johnsburg, a worthy and fitting 
memorial. 

Of particular interest to students of history is the fact that an 
important feature of the jubilee celebration was an original pageant 
depicting the history of the parish during its eighty-five years. The 
pageant and the memorial historical booklet serve to record and 
vivify for the present parishioners of St. John the Baptist, the 
history of their community. 

Jeannette M. Smith 
Chicago, III. 



Illinois 

Catholic Historical 

Review 



Volume X 



JANUARY, 1928 



Number 3 



Journal of the Illinois Catholic Historical Society 
28 North Franklin Street, Chicago 

managing editor 

P. J. ROONEY 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 

Joseph J. Thompson Chicago William Stetson Merrill Chicago 

Rev. Frederick Beuckman Belleville Rev. Paul J. Foik, C. S. C. . . .Austin, Texas 

Rev. J. B. Culemans Moline Rev. Gilbert J. Garraghan, S. J. . .St. Louis 




(Sllltnots (!Iat{]oItc historical Society 

28 NOBTH FRANKLIN STREET, CHICAGO 



HONORARY PRESIDENTS 

His Eminence George Cardinal Mundelein, Chicago 

Et. Rev. Peter J. Muldoon, D. D., Rockford Rt. Rev. Henry Althoff, D. D., Belleville 

Et. Rev. Edmund M. Dunne, D. D., Peoria Rt. Rev. James A. Grifln, D. D., Springfield 

OFFICERS 

PUESIDEKT 

Eev. Frederic Siedenburg, S. J., Chicago 

First Vice-Phbsidbnt 

Rt. Rev. F. A. Purcell, Chicago 

Second Vice-President 
James M. Graham, Springfield 
Treasurer 
John P. V. Murphy, Chicago 

TRUSTEES 

Very Rev. James Shannon, Peoria 

Eev. William H. Agnew, S. J., Chicago 

Mrs. Daniel V. Gallery, Chicago 

D. F. Bremner, Chicago 

Margaret Madden, Chicago 



Financial Sicbktast 
Francis J. Rooney, Chicago 



BXCOBDING SSCBBTABT 

Agnes Van Driel, Chicago 



Abchivist 
Rev. Joseph P. Morrison, Chicago 



Michael P. Girten, Chicago 

James A. Bray, Joliet 

Frank J. Seng, Wilmette 

Mrs. E. I. Cudahy, Chicago 

John Coleman, Lake Forest 



Published by 

The Illinois Catholic Historical Society 

Chicago, III. 



CONTENTS 



Travel Literature as Source Material for American Catholic History 

Eev. Joseph Paul Byan, A. F. M. 179 

John England Bev. P. W. Browne, Ph. D. 239 

George Rogers Clark in Ohio 

Bev. Laurence J. Kenny, S. J. 248 

The American Federation of Catholic Societies (Continued) 

Anthony Matre, E. S. G. 261 

Necrology : 

Et. Eev. Peter J. Muldoon, D. D.; Rev. Hugh P. Smith, LL. D.; 
Thomas Nash; John P. Young ...... 276 

Chronicle ---...-..-. 276 

Gleanings from Current Periodicals ...... 280 

Book Reviews: 

Elizabeth Seton by Madam de Barberey (Rev. Joseph B. Code, M. A.) 

Bev. J. B. Culemans 282 

Letters of a Bishop to His Flock (His Eminence George Cardinal 

Mundelein) F. J. B. 283 

The Pageant of America (Ralph Henry Gabriel and others) 

Dorothy C. Kleespies 286 



LOYOLA university PRESS 
CHICAQO, ILLINOIS 



178 



Illinois 

Catholic Historical Review 



Volume X JANUARY, 1928 Number 3 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE 

MATERIAL FOR AMERICAN 

CATHOLIC HISTORY 

Introduction 

It has long been an established fact among historical students that 
a much needed volume for further research into the social, political, 
economic and religious factors in early American history is a critical 
Bibliography of Travel in the United States. For some years the 
American Historical Association has had a committee at work on such 
a volume, but unfortunately little progress has been made owing to 
lack of funds. A partial list of such sources may be found in the 
Guide to the Study and Reading of American History, by Professors 
Channing, Hart and Turner. More recently, attention has been called 
to this travel literature by Allen Nevins in his American Social His- 
tory as Recorded hy British Travelers. Dr. Nevins purposely limited 
his researches to a certain number of travel books, which would best 
suit his purpose in illustrating this class of literature as a source for 
the social history of the United States from the Revolution to the 
present time. The choice had necessarily to be a limited one, since 
the amount of travel literature has passed beyond the control of any 
one scholar. No one has yet estimated the influence of travel books in 
forming European attitude towards all the regulating factors in 
American social life. By some we have been caricatured beyond all 
likeness and by others who have visited our land, we have been so 
profoundly flattered that the judgments of the writers mean little in 
a summary of our national character. 

The consequence is that travel books of more recent times have 
lost their interest for a great many of us, and instinctively we feel 

179 



180 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

that when Europeans are the writers, we must necessarily suffer 
unjust criticism. None have been so much the cause of this attitude 
as Mrs. Trollope, Thomas Ashe, Thomas Hamilton, Charles Dickens 
and others. Many of us are prone to take the view Johnson expressed 
in his Idler : 

It may, I think, be justly observed that few books disappoint their 
readers more than narratives of travelers. . . . The greater part of 
the travelers tell nothing, because their method of traveling supplies 
them with nothing to be told. He that enters a town at night and 
surveys it in the morning and then hastens away to another place and 
guesses at the manners of the inhabitants by the entertainment that 
his inn afforded him, may please himself at times with a hasty change 
of scenes . . . but let him be content to please himself without dis- 
turbing others. Why should he record excursions, by which nothing 
could be learned, or wish to make a show of knowledge, which, with- 
out some power of intuition unknown to other mortals, he could 
never attain. 

This may be a just estimate of the method used by some travelers 
in gathering their facts, but even an adverse critical attitude should 
not cause such books to be ignored since they contain, however slight 
and ephemeral, glimpses into certain conditions not found elsewhere. 
Many volumes in what may be called the Library of Travel Litera- 
ture dealing with the United States contain a mine of information 
and facts for the American historians; and recent scholarship has 
turned its eyes in this direction and has brought to light a host of 
data that have aroused an ever-growing interest in this field of 
literature. 

It is with this latest trend in mind that we ask ourselves the 
question: What does all the travel literature of the past contain for 
the history of Catholicism in this country? This essay is an attempt 
to answer the question. 

At the outset it was evident that a definitive choice of authors had 
to be made. Consequently, with the aid of some of the best writers 
in the field of American history, MacMaster, Hockett, Sehlesinger, 
John Gilmary Shea, John Fiske, George Bancroft, Channing, James 
Truslow Adams and others, the following selection of travel books 
was made as possible sources: 

Abdy, E. S., Journcl of a Residence and Tour in the United States. 
1833-1834. (London, 1835.) 

Anburey, Thomas, Travels through the Interior Parts of America. 
1776-1781. (2 vols. London, 1789.) 

Anon, A French Traveler in the Colonies, 1765. (American Histori- 
cal Review, July and August, 1921.) 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 181 

Ashe, Thomas, Travels in America in 1806. (London, 1808.) 

Bacourt, a. F. De, Souvenirs d'un Diplomate. (Paris, 1882; trans- 
lation. New York, 1885.) 

Bartram, Wm., Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, 
East and West Florida. 1773-1778. (Philadelphia, 1791.) 

Bayard, F. M., Voyage dans Vinterieur des Etats TJnis. 1791. (Paris, 
1797.) 

Beaufoy, To^ir through Parts of the United States and Canada. 
(London, 1828.) 

Beaujour, L. p., Aperqu des Etats TJnis, 1800-1810. (Paris, 1814.) 

Becours, M. v.. Relation d'une Traversee Faite en 1812, d'Angle- 
terre en Amerique. (London, 1818.) 

Beltrami, G. C, A Pilgrimage in Europe and America. (2 vols. 
London, 1828.) 

Bernard, John, Retrospections of America, 1797-1811. (New York, 
1887.) 

Bernhard, Karl: Duke of Sax Weimar, Travels through North 
America during 1825-1826. (2 vols. Weimar, 1828; translation, 
Philadelphia, 1828.) 

BiRKBECK, Morris, Letters from Illinois. 1817. (London, 1818.) 

BiRKBECK, Morris, Notes on a journey in America. (Phila., 1817.) 

Blane, Wm. H., An Excursion in the United States and Canada 
during the years 1822-1823. (London, 1824.) 

Bloom, Kichard, Description of the Island of Jamaica, with the other 
Isles and Territories in America. (London, 1824.) 

BoARDMAN, James, America and the Americans. (London, 1833.) 

Bossu, Captain, Travels in that Part of North America formerly 
called Louisiana. 1751-1760. (London, 1771.) 

Bradbury, John, Travels in the Interior of America, in 1809-1811. 
(Liverpool, 1817.) 

Brissot de Warville, J. P., Examen Critique des Voyages dans 
r Amerique Septentrionale. (London, 1786.) 

Brissot de Warville, J. P., New Travels in the United States, per- 
formed in 1788. (2 vols. London, 1794.) 

Bromme-Traugott, Reisen durch die Vereinigten Staaten und Oher- 
Canada. (3 vols. Baltimore, 1834-35.) 

Brown, Samuel E., Western Gazetteer or Emigrant's Directory. 
(Auburn, 1817.) 

Buckingham, Jas. S., America, Historic, Static, and Descriptive. (3 
vols. New York, 1841.) 

Buckingham, Jas. S., Eastern and Western States of America. (3 
vols. London, 1842.) 

Buckingham, Jas. S., Slave States of America. (2 vols. London, 
1842.) 

Bullock, Wm., Sketch of a Journey from New York to Ohio. (Lon- 
don, 1827.) 

Burnaby, Andrew, Travels through Middle Settlements in North 
America. 1759-1760. (London, 1775.) 

Butler, Frances, Journal, 1832-1833. (2 vols. London and Phila- 
delphia, 1835.) 



182 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

Campbell, P., Travels in tlie Interior Parts of North America. 

(Edinburgh, 1793.) 
Carver, J., Travels Through Interior Parts of North America. (Dub- 
lin, 1779.) 
Castiglioni, Luigi, Viaggio negli Stati Uniti delV America Septen- 

trionale, 1785-87. (Milano, 1790.) 
Charlevoix, F. X., Histoire de la Nauvelle France. (Paris, 1744.) 
Chastellux, Marquis de. Travels in North America in 1780-1781- 

1782. (2 vols. London, 1787; New York, 1827.) 
Chateaubriand, Francois de, Voyages en Amerique, en France et en 

Italic. (2 vols. Paris, 1828-1829.) 
Chevalier, M., Society, Manners and Politics in the United States, 

1834-35. (Boston, 1839.) 
Collins, S. H., Emigrants Guide to and Description of the United 

States. (Hull, 1830.) 
Combe, George, Notes on the United States, during a Phrenological 

Visit in 1838-1840. (Philadelphia, 1841.) 
Cooper, James Fenimore, Notions of America, Picked up hy a Trav- 
eling Bachelor. (2 vols. Philadelphia, 1828.) 
Cooper, Thomas, Some Information Respecting Americans. 1793- 

1794. (London, 1794.) 
CoRBETT, William, A Yearns Residence in the United States of 

America, in 1817-1818. (New York, 1819.) 
Crevecoeur, St. John de, Letters from an American Farmer. (Lon- 
don, 1782.) 
Bankers, Jasper, and Sluyter, P., Journal of a Voyage to New 

York in 1679-1680. (Brooklyn, 1867.) 
Darby, William, A Tour from the City of New York to Detroit, 

(New York, 1819.) 
Darusmont, F., Society and Manners in America. 1818-1820. (New 

York, 1821.) 
Davis, John, Travels of Four and a Half Years in the United States. 

1798-1802. (London, 1803.) 
Davis, Stephen, Notes of a Tour in America. (Edinburgh, 1833.) 
De Roos, John F., Personal Narrative of Travels in the United 

States and Canada. (London, 1827.) 
Dickens, Charles, American Notes. (London, 1842.) 
Drayton, John, Letters during a Tour through the Northern and 

Eastern States. (Charleston, S. C, 1794.) 
Felton, Mrs., Life in America. (Hull, 1838.) 
FiDLER, Isaac, Observations on Professions, Literature, Manners and 

Emigration, in the United States and Canada. (New York, 1833.) 
Finch, John, Travels in the United States of America and Canada. 

(London, 1833.) 
Flint, J., Letters from America. (Edinburgh, 1822.) 
FoRDHAM, Elias P., Personal Narrative. Edited by F. A. Ogg. 

(Cleveland, 1906.) 
FoRMAN, Samuel S., Nai-rative of a Journey down the Ohio and 

Mississippi. 1789-1790. (Cincinnati, 1888.) 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 183 

Fowler, John, Journal of a Tour in the State of New York, 1830. 

(London, 1830.) 
Gall, L., Meine Auswanderung nach den Vereinigten Staaten in Nord- 

Amerika. 1819-20. (Trier, 1822.) 
Gordon, J. B., A Historical and Geographical Memoir of the North 

American Continent. (Dublin, 1820.) 
Grund, Francis J., The Americans in their Moral, Social and Politi- 
cal Relations. (2 vols., London, 1837.) 
GuRNEY, Joseph J., A Journey in North America. (Norwich, Eng., 

1821.) 
Haliburton, Thomas C, The American at Home. (London, 1854.) 
Hall, Basil, Travels in North America in the years 1827-29. (Edin- 
burgh, 1829.) 
Hall, F., Travels in Canada and the United States. (Boston, 1818.) 
Hamilton, Thomas, 31 en and Manners in America. (Phila., 1833.) 
Hawley, Zerah, a Journal of a Tour. (New Haven, 1822.) 
Hodgson, Adam, Letters from North America and Canada. 1818- 

1819. (London, 1824.) 
Hodgson, Adam, Remarks during a. Journey through North America. 

1819-21. (New York, 1823.) 
Holmes, Isaac, Account of the United States of America, Derived 

from Actual Observation. 1819-23. (London, 1823.) 
HowETT, Emanuel, Selection from Letters written during a Tour 

through the United States. 1819, (Nottingham, 1820.) 
Hull, John S., Remarks on the United States of America. (Dub- 
lin, 1801.) 
Janson, Charles W., The Stranger in America. (London, 1807.) 
Kalm, Peter, Travels in North America. (Vol. 1, Warrington, 1770; 

vols. 2 and 3, London, 1771.) 
Kendall, Edward A., Travels through the Northern Parts of the 

United States. 1807-08. (3 vols., New York, 1809.) 
Knight, John, Journal of the Voyage to seek the Northwest Passage. 

1606. (London, 1877.) 
Lambert, John, Travels through Canada and the United States of 

North America. (2 vols., London, 1814.) 
La Rochefoucault-Liancourt, Travels through the United States of 

Nwth America. 1795-97. (2 vols., London, 1799.) 
Latrobe, C. J., The Rambler in North America. 1832-33. (London 

and New York, 1835.) 
Levasseur, a., Lafayette en Amerique, en 1824 et 1825. (Paris and 

Philadelphia, 1829.) 
Leiber, Francis, The Stranger in America. (Paris and London, 

1835.) 
Logan, Jas., Notes of a Journey through Canada, the United States 

of America and the West Indies. (Edinburg, 1838.) 
Lyell, Sir Charles, Travels in North America. (London, 1845.) 
Mackay, Charles, Life and Liberty in America. (2 vols., New 

York, 1837.) 
Marry AT, Capt. Frederick, A Diary in America. 3 vols., London, 

1839.) 



184 KEV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

Martineau, Harriet, Retrospect of Western Travel. (2 vols., New 

York, 1838.) 
Martineau, Harriet, Society in Ainerica. (2 vols., New York, 1837.) 
Maximilian, Prince, Travels in the Interior of North America. 

(London, 1834.) 
May, Colonel John, Journal and Letters relative to Two Journeys 

to the Ohio Country. 1788-89. (Cincinnati, 1873.) 
Melish, John, Travels in the United States. 1806-11. (2 vols., Phila- 
delphia, 1812.) 
Michaux, Francois Andrew, Travel to Westward of the Alleghany. 

(Paris, 1805.) 
Milbert, Jacques, Itineraire Pittoresque du Fleuve d' Hudson. 

(Paris, 1828.) 
Mittelberger-Gottlieb, Reise Nach Pensylvania. (Germany, 1756; 

Philadelphia, 1898.) 
Montezun, Baron de. Voyage, 1816-1817, de New Yorck a la New 

Orleans. (Paris, 1817.) 
MoREAU DE St. Mery, Voyage aiix Etats de I'Amerique. 1793-98. 

(Yale Press, 1913.) 
MuRAT, Achille, America and the Americans. (Paris, 1830.) 
Murray, Charles A., Travels in North America. (2 vols., London 

and New York, 1839.) 
Neilson, Peter, Recollections of a Six Years' Residence in the United 

States of America. (Glasgow, 1830.) 
Nolte, Vincent, Fifty Years in Both Hemispheres. (New York, 

1854.) 
'Ferrall, S. a., a Ramble of 6,000 Miles through the United States 

of America. (London, 1830.) 
Palmer, John, Journal of Travels in the United States of North 

America and Lower Canada. (London, 1818.) 
Parkinson, Richard, A Tour in America. (London, 1805.) 
Pavie, Theodore, Souvenirs Atlantiques. Voyage aux Etats-Unis et 

au Canada. (2 vols. Paris, 1833.) 
Pope, John, A Tour through the Southern and Western Territories 

of the United States. (Richmond, 1792.) 
Power, Tyrone, Impressions of America. (2 vols., Phila., 1836.) 
Priest, Wm., Travels in the United States. 1793-97. (London, 1802.) 
Printz, Gov., Report of Gov. Printz, Narratives of Pennsylvania, 

West New Jersey and Delaware. 1630-1707. (New York, 1912.) 
Rafinesque, C. S., a Life of Travels and Researches in North Amer- 
ica. (Philadelphia, 1836.) 
Robin, M. L'Abbe, New Travels through North America. (Paris and 

Philadelphia, 1783.) 
RocHEMONT, P., DE, Tableau de la Situation Actuelle des Etats-Unis. 

(2 vols., Paris, 1795.) 
Salzbacher, Joseph, Meine Reise nach Nwd America im Jahre 1842. 

(Vienna, 1845.) 
Shirreff, Patrick, Tour through North America. Edinburgh, 1835.) 
Smith, Benjamin, Twenty Four Letters from Laborers in America. 

(London, 1829.) 



i 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 185 

Smyth, J. P. D., A Tour in the United States of America. (2 vols., 

London, 1784.) 
Stuart, James, Three Years in North Aynerica. (2 vols., Edinburgh, 

1833.) 
Sturge, Joseph, A Visit to the United States. (Boston, 1842.) 
Sutcliff, Robert, Travels in Some Parts of the United States. 

(York, 1815.) 
Sutherland, David, Diary Kept on a Voyage from Scotland to New 

York in 1803. (Woodsville, N. H., 1910.) 
Tetu, Henry, Journal des Visites Pastorales par Mgr. Octave Plessis, 

Eveque de Quebec. (Quebec, 1903.) 
TocQUEViLLE, Alexis DE, Democracy in America. (Translation, New 

York, 1900.) 
Trollope, Frances, Domestic Manners of Americans. (London, 

1832.) 
Tudor, Henry, Narrative of a Tour in the United States of North 

America. (2 vols., London, 1834.) 
Twining, Thomas, Travels in America One Hundred Years Ago. 

1795-96. (New York, 1894.) 
ViNGE, Godfrey T., Six Months in America. (2 vols., London, 1832.) 
Volney, C. F., Tableau du Climat et du Sol des Etats-Unis. (Paris, 

1803.) 
Wakefield, Priscilla B., Excursions in the United States of North 

America. (London, 1806.) 
Wansey, Henry, Journal of an Excursion to the United States in 

the Summer of 1794. (Salisbury, 1796.) 
Warden, D. B., Statistical, Political and Historical Account of the 

United States. (3vols., Edinburgh, 1819.) 
Weld, Isaac, Travels through the States of North America. 1795-97. 

(London, 1799.) 
WiNTERBOTHAM, W., Historical, Geographical, Commercial and Phil- 
osophical View of the United States of America. (4 vols.. New 

York, 1796.) 
Zavala, Lorenzo de, Viage a los Estados Unidos del Norte de Amer- 
ica. (Paris, 1834.) 

These one hundred and thirty authors were examined from the 
standpoint of their value as loci historici for our subject, with the 
result that a further delimitation was made revealing forty-seven 
travel books written between 1644 and 1842, recording facts about 
the presence of the Catholic faith in this country. The principle 
of selection adopted in this work excluded some twenty volumes which 
contained but passing references to the Church. 

The period under investigation is that between 1607 and 1842. 
This period has been divided into three parts : 

I. From the founding of Jamestown in 1607 to the appoint- 
ment of Father John Carroll as Prefect-Apostolic of the 
Church in the United States in 1784. 



186 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

II. From Carroll's appointment (1784) until his death (1815). 
III. From Carroll's death (1815) until the journey of Canon 
Joseph Salzhacher of Vienna (1842). 

The method followed is a simple one. First, the authors are treated 
in chronological order; secondly, a bibliographical note giving the 
main facts of the author's life and writings; thirdly, the excerpts 
from his pages dealing with aspects of Catholic life are given in 
extenso, and these are examined in the light of their value for the 
social, political and religious history of Catholicism in this country. 
Finally, a synthesis of all that has been found has been drawn up 
for the purpose of passing judgment upon this Travel Literature as 
a whole from the same standpoint. 

The following is the list of authors chosen, vidth the titles of the 
works examined for our purpose : 

1644 — Printz: Narratives of Early Pennsylvania, West New 
Jersey and Delaware. (New York, 1912.) 

1679-1680 — Jasper Bankers and P. Sluj'ter: Journal of a Voyage to 
New York in 1679-1680. ' (Brookljoi, 1867.) 

1721 — Francois X. Charlevoix: Histoire de la Nouvelle France. 

(3 vols., Paris, 1744.) 

1748-1749 — Peter Kalm: Travels iyi North America. (3 vols., London, 
and Warrington, 1770, 1771.) 

1751-1760 — Captain Bossu: Travels in that Part of North America 
formerly called Louisiana. (2 vols., London, 1771.) 

1758-1760— Andrew Burnaby: Travels through the Middle Settle- 
ments in North America. (London, 1875.) 

1765 — Anon: A French Traveler in the Colonies. {American 
Historical Review, vols. 26 and 27, 1921.) 

1766-1768 — J. Carver: Travels thi-ough the Interior Parts of North 
America. (Dublin, 1779.) 

1776-1781 — Thomas Aubrey: Travels through the Interior Parts of 
America. (2 vols., London, 1789.) 

1782 — M. L'Abbe Robin: New Travels through North America. 
(Philadelphia, 1783.) 

1784 — J. F. D. Smyth : A Tour in the United States of America. 
(2 vols., London, 1784.) 

1791-1793 — Francois Chateaubriand: Voyages en Amerique, en 
France, et en Italic. (2 vols., Paris, 1828-29.) 

1793-1798 — Moreau de St. Mery : Voyage aux Etats Unis de L' Ameri- 
que. (Yale Press, 1913.) 

1795 — W. Winterbotham : An Historical, Geographical and Phil- 

osophical View of the American United States. (4 
vols.. New York, 1796.) 

1795-1797 — Isaac Weld: Travels through the States of North America. 
(London, 1799.) 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 187 

1795-1797 — La Rochefoucault-Liancourt : Travels through the United 

States of North America, in the Years 1795, 1796 and 

1797. (2 vols., London, 1799.) 
1797-1811 — John Bernard: Retrospections of America, 1797-1811. 

(New York, 1887.) 
1806 — Thomas Ashe: Travels in America in 1806. (London, 

1808.) 
1807-1808— Edward A. Kendall : Travels through the Northern Parts 

of the United States. (London, 1809.) 
1815 — Henry Tetu : Journal des Visites Pastorales par Mgr. Jos. 

Octave Plessis, Eveque de Quebec. (Quebec, 1903.) 

1817 — John Palmer; Journal of Travels through the United 

States of North America and Lower Canada. (London, 
1818.) 

1818 — D. B. Warden: Statistical, Political and Historical Ac- 

count of the United States. (3 vols., London, 1819.) 
1821 — Jacques Milbert ; Itineraire Pittoresque du Fleuve d' Hud- 
son. (Paris, 1828.) 
1882-1823 — William H. Plane; An Excursion in the United States 

and Canada. (London, 1824.) 
1823 — G. C. Beltrami: A Pilgrimage in Europe and America. 

(2 vols., London, 1828.) 
1824-1828 — James Fenimore Cooper: Notions of Americans, Picked 

up by a Travelling Bachelor. (2 vols., Philadelphia, 

1828.) 
1825-1826— Carl Bernhard, Duke of Sax Weimar: Travels through 

North America. (Philadelphia, 1828.) 
1828-1831 — James Stuart : Three Years in North America. (2 vols., 

Edinburgh, 1833.) 
1829 — Lorenzo de Zavola ; Viage a los Estados Unidos del Norte 

de America. (Paris, 1834.) 
1831-1832 — Godfrey T. Vinge; Six Months in America. (2 vols., 

London, 1832.) 
1831-1832 — Alexis de Tocqueville: Democracy in America. (New 

York, 1900.) 
1832 — Mrs. Frances Trollope; Domestic Manners of Americans. 

(London, 1832.) 
1832-1833 — Stephen Davis: Notes of a Tour in America. (Edin- 
burgh, 1833.) 
1833-1834 — E. S. Abdy; Journal of a Residence and Tour in the 

United States. (3 vols., London, 1835.) 
1834-1836 — Charles A. Murray; Travels in North America. (2 vols., 

London, 1839.) 
1834-1836 — Harriet Martineau; Retrospect of Western Travel. (3 

vols., London, 1838.) 
1834-1836 — Harriet Martineau: Society in America. (3 vols., Lon- 
don, 1837.) 
1837 — Francis J. Grund: The Americans in their Moral, Social 

and Political Relations. (2 vols., London, 1837.) 
1837-1845 — A. F. de Barcourt: Souvenirs d'un Diplomate: Lettres 

Intimes sur VAmerique. (Paris, 1882.) 



188 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

1838 — James S. Buckingham ; America, Historical, Statistic and 

Descriptive. (3 vols., New York, 1841.) 
1839-1842 — James S. Buckingham: Eastern and Western States of 
America. (3 vols., London, 1842.) 

1839 — Frederick Marryat: A Diary in America. (3 vols., Lon- 

don, 1837.) 
1841-1842 — Charles Lyell: Travels in North America. (2 vols., Lon- 
don, 1845.) 

1841 — Joseph Sturge: A Visit to the United States. (Boston, 

1842.) 

1842 — James S. Buckingham: Slave States of America. (2 vols., 

London, 1842.) 
1842 — Charles Dickens; American Notes. (London, 1842.) 



PART I 

From Jamestown to Carroll 
(1607-1784) 

In this section we deal with ten authors. Between the actual 
landing at Jamestown and the year 1643, there is nothing of record 
in the sources at our disposal. It is knovra that Edwin Maria Wing- 
field, the first President of the Jamestown colony, was deported 
because of his faith. Wingfield's vindication of his action at James- 
town contains nothing of Catholic importance. In all the excerpts 
cited in this first part of our essay little more than passing references 
are given for Catholic history. 

JOHAN PRINTZ 

Narratives of Early Pennsylvania, West New Jersey, and 

Delaware 
(1644) 

Johan Printz was born in Bottnard, in the southern part of 
Sweden, in 1592. After an adventurous career in the armies of 
France, Austria and Sweden, he received knighthood in 1642, at the 
age of fifty. He sailed that year with his family to America, to 
assume the governorship of New Sweden. He arrived in the colony 
in 1643, and for the next ten years he ruled the Delaware settlement, 
maintaining the sovereignty of the Swedish crown against the Dutch 
and English. In 1653, dissatisfied with the outlook of the colony, 
Printz returned home. In his report of June, 1644, the Governor 
includes an interesting account of the rebellion of the Englist fol- 
lowers of Sir Edmund Plowden: 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 189 

In like manner I have also spoken in my former writings about 
the English knight, how he last year wished to go from Heckemac 
ia Virginia to Kikathans with a bark and his people, about sixty 
persons, and when they came into the Virginia bay the Skipper, who 
had conspired beforehand with the knight's people to destroy him, 
took his course not towards Kikathansas but to Cape Henry. When 
they had passed this place and came close to an Island in the big 
ocean called Smeed's Island, they consulted one another how they 
should kill him and they found it advisable not to kill him with their 
own hands but to put him on the said Island without clothes or guns, 
where there were no people nor any other animals but where only 
wolves and bears lived, which they also did, but two young pages of 
the nobility, whom the knight had brought up and who did not know 
of this conspiracy, when they saw the misfortune of their master, 
threw themselves into the sea and swam ashore and remained with 
their master. On the fourth day after that an English sloop sailed 
near Smeed's Island, so that these young pages could call to it. The 
sloop took the knight, who was half dead and as black as earth, on 
board and brought him to Haakemak where he recovered again . . . 
the principal men among these traitors the knight has caused to be 
shot, but he himself is still in Virginia and is expecting ships and 
people out of Ireland and England. (Page 101.) 

Sir Edmund Plowden, a Catholic of Wansted, Hampshire, 
England, is the English knight whose misadventures are here related. 
He received a patent in 1634, from the viceroy of Ireland, under 
Charles I, for a large tract of land on both sides of the Delaware, 
called New Albion. Styling himself the Earl Palatine of New 
Albion, he had come to America to try and secure his claim. Be- 
friended by Berkeley, who was then Governor, he made Virginia his 
base of operations, staying with his people at Aceomac (Heckemac). 
From here at intervals he engaged in hazardous cruising, vainly seek- 
ing to induce the dislodgment of Printz and the Swedes. His means 
failing, his followers desired to return to England and rebelled. The 
expected "ships and people out of Ireland and England" did not 
arrive. Discouraged by his failure, Plowden embarked for England 
to return no more. New Albion was but a name. 



JASPER D ANKERS AND PETER SLUYTER 

Journal of a Voyage to New York in 1679-1680 

Jasper Dankers and Peter Sluyter were two Labadist ministers 
who came to America from Holland to find some suitable place in 
the colonies for the establishment of their religion. In Maryland 
they acquired some land, but there seems little probability that it 



190 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

wag ever used for the purpose it had been purchased. They traveled 
along the Atlantic coast to Boston, where they embarked for Europe. 
They remarked in their journal a number of interesting accounts of 
the state of the different religious denominations which they met in 
the colonies. The first reference to Catholics is entered in New 
Jersey : 

There was a tavern kept by French Papists, who at once took us 
to be priests and so conducted themselves toward us in every respect 
accordingly, although we told them and protested otherwise. As 
there was nothing to be said further, we remained so in their imagi- 
nations to the last, as shown both in their words and their actions, 
the more certainly because we were French and they were French 
people. (Page 147.) 

Catholics enter into the history of New Jersey at an early date, 
when James, Duke of York, ceded that land to a number of his 
countrymen, among whom was James, the Catholic Earl of Perth. 
There was no attempt to form any Catholic settlement in this terri- 
tory, but a number of individual Catholics had come here to make 
their living. There are indications that priests found their way to 
New York, these being either seculars from England or Franciscans 
from Maryland. One of these is Father Smith, who is said to have 
been Dongan's chaplain and was in New York as early as 1665. It 
is propable that some of these priests in passing from Maryland to 
New York had stopped at this tavern. This would explain why 
these French folks were so eon\anced that their guests were priests 
and afraid to avow their character. Of Maryland they write : 

With this he (Lord Baltimore) came to America and took posses- 
sion of his Maryland, where his son, as Governor, resides. (Page 
215.) 

The Governor at this time was Charles Calvert, who presided 
over Maryland from 1661 to 1675. It is interesting to note what 
these two Labadist ministers wrote concerning the state of religion 
in Virginia at a time when Catholics were excluded from that colony 
and only a few of them lived there. This is the more valuable, 
coming as it does from the pen of a non-Catholic minister: 

The lives of the planters in Maryland and Virginia are godless 
and profane. They listen neither to God nor His commandments, 
and have neither church nor cloister. Sometimes there is someone 
who is called a minister who does not, as elsewhere, serve in one 
place, for in all Maryland there is not a city or a village, but travels 
from one place to another, for profit and for that purpose visits the 
plantations through the country, and there addresses the people, but 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 191 

I know of no public assemblages being held in these places. You 
hear often that these ministers are worse than anybody else, yea that 
they are an abomination. (Page 218.) 

This remark does not seem to have included the ministers of the 
Catholic religion, for they are spoken of separately a few pages be- 
yond. Some of the ideas that were prevalent in the minds of non- 
Catholics regarding the Church, find expression in this narration : 

It remains to be mentioned that those who profess the Roman 
Catholic religion, have great, indeed, all freedom in Maryland, be- 
cause the Governor makes profession of that faith, and consequently 
there are priests and other ecclesiastics, who travel and disperse them- 
selves everywhere and neglect nothing which serves for their profit 
and purpose. The priests of Canada take care of this region and 
hold correspondence with those here, as is supposed, as well as with 
those who reside among the Indians. It is said that there is not an 
Indian fort between Canada and Maryland, where there is not a 
Jesuit, who teaches and advises the Indians, who begin to listen to 
them too much, so much so that some people in Virginia and Mary- 
land' as well as in New Netherland, have been apprehensive lest there 
be an outbreak, having heard what happened in Europe as well as 
among their neighbors at Boston; but they hope that the result of 
the troubles there will determine many things elsewhere. (Page 221.) 

That the priests of Canada were thought to have control of the 
missions in Maryland may have been the result of the visit of Father 
Pierron, a Jesuit, of whom we will speak later. The mind of the 
people is expressed as believing that there was a chain of Jesuits at 
the different forts and uniting Canada with the southern colonies. 
This does not surprise us, for there is no doubt that the Jesuits sought 
every means to reach the Indian and that they pushed toward the 
south, from settlement to settlement. We here catch a view, too, 
of the fear that was in the hearts of those who were connected with 
the Jesuits in any way. It is just another vision of the fear that 
was so prevalent in Europe and led in the next half century to the 
suppression of that Order. Further north, in Boston, the same story 
is told : 

There had also some time ago a Jesuit arrived here from Canada 
disguised, in relation to which there was much murmuring and they 
wished to punish the Jesuit, not because he was a Jesuit, but because 
he came in disguise which is generally bad and especially for such 
as are pests of the world and are justly feared, which just hate we 
very unjustly, but as the ordinary lot of God's children, had to share. 
(Page 388.) 

Reference is here made to Father John Pierron, a French Jesuit, 
who had been for a number of years on the Mohawk mission and 



192 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

later at Acadia. It was while at Acadia that he made a tour of the 
English colonies, as far south as Virginia, in 1674. He had inter- 
views with a number of ministers in Boston, and was at length taken 
before the General Court of Massachusetts. He was freed and con- 
tinued on his journey. This event must have been still a topic of 
conversation when our two travelers arrived at Boston. The greet- 
ing that was given to Father Pierron in 1674, can be contrasted with 
that which awaited the Abbe Robin during the Revolution, and the 
change of attitude is marked by a trust in things Catholic. It was, 
however, a hundred years later that this change came. 

FRANgOIS XAVIER CHARLEVOIX 

HlSTOIRE DE LA NOUVELLE FRANCE 

(1721) 

Being himself a historian, Charlevoix has left a very valuable 
collection of source material for the history of early Louisiana in 
his Histoire de la Nouvelle France. Born in France in 1682, Charle- 
voix entered the Society of Jesus at the age of sixteen. He was sent 
to Canada in 1700 and for four years taught grammar in Quebec. 
He then returned to France to finish his studies, having gathered a 
great amount of materials for his history. In 1720 he was commis- 
sioned by the French Court, and began his travels through the 
French colonies to gather information for the discovery of the 
Western Sea. During this journey he visited practically every mis- 
sion in the Louisiana territory. Concerning the work itself we can 
best quote John Gilmary Shea, his English translator: "Histoire de 
la Nouvelle France is too well known and too highly esteemed both 
for style and matter to need any explanation of its scope and object. 
The praise of Gibbon will alone assure the reader, that as an historical 
work, it is of no inconsiderable merit." 

The first reference to Christianity was written concerning the 
Illinois village at Pimiteouy. We are led to put credence in the 
words of Charlevoix regarding the impossibility of judging whether 
Indians were Christians or not, simply from the religious articles 
that they wore on their person. Charlevoix tells an interesting 
account of an Illinois warrior who came to visit him: 

Perceiving a cross of copper and a small image of the Virgin 
suspended at the neck of this Indian, I imagined that he had been 
a Christian, but was informed it was quite otherwise, and that he 
dressed himself in that manner only to do me honor. I was likewise 
told a story which I am not going to relate to you without desiring 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 193 

you should give it any more credit than its authors deserve, who were 
Canadian travelers, who assuredly have not invented it, but have 
heard it affirmed for a certain fact. (II p. 208.) 

He then states that in some way unknown to him the image of 
the Blessed Virgin had fallen into the hands of this Indian and its 
significance had been explained to him. He put great trust in the 
Mother of God, and on an occasion when he was surprised by a hostile 
Indian who was about to kill him, he offered a prayer to the Blessed 
Virgin and was saved. Charlevoix expresses the belief that it must be 
the fault of the missionaries that this Indian was not as yet a Chris- 
tian. There had been a missionary at Pimiteouy before this time (p. 
210), and the people there knew something of the fundamentals of the 
faith, for before leaving the village our traveler was asked by a 
woman to baptize her dying child. A few days later he arrived 
at the combined village of the Kaokias and Tamourous Indians. Here 
he remained one day, and writes : 

I passed the night in the missionaries' house, who are two eccle- 
siastics from the Seminary of Quebec, formerly my disciples, but 
they must now be my masters. M. Taumer, the eldest of the two, 
was absent ; I found the youngest, M. le Mercier, such as he had been 
represented to me, rigid to himself, full of charity to others, and 
displaying in his own person, an amiable pattern of virtue. But he 
enjoyed so ill a state of health, that I am afraid that he will not be 
long able to support that kind of life, which a missioner is obliged 
to live in this country. (II, p. 219.) 

This appreciation of Mercier is like that of Bossu. The ill health 
of the priest was not so soon to end the great work that he was 
doing on the Indian missions. He was still at his post and the 
admiration of all, when Bossu visited Cahokia thirty years later. 
The next stopping place of the French traveler was at the village of 
the Kaskaskias, of which he writes: 

Yesterday I arrived at Kaskasquias about nine o'clock in the 
morning. The Jesuits have here a very flourishing mission, which 
has lately been divided into two, thinking it more convenient to have 
two cantons of Indians instead of one. The most numerous is on 
the banks of the Mississippi of which two Jesuits have the spiritual 
direction; half a league below stands Fort Chartes, about the dis- 
tance of a musket shot from the river. M. Dugue de Boisbyillard, a 
gentleman of Canada, is commander here for the company to which 
the place belongs. The French are now beginning to settle the coun- 
try between this Fort and the first mission. Four leagues farther is 
a large village inhabited by the French, who are almost all Canadians 
and have a Jesuit for their Curate. The second village of the Illinois 



194 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

lies farther up country at the distance of two leagues from this last 
and is in charge of a fourth Jesuit. (II, p. 221.) 

From Kaskaskia to Natchez there seems to have been very little 
that was of a Catholic nature to give a report about. In the two 
lengthy letters written in that portion of his tour, there is not a 
glimpse of the condition of the Church. It is from New Orleans that 
he writes, in January, 1722 : 

This is the first city, which one of the greatest rivers of the world 
has seen erected on its banks. If the eight hundred fine houses and 
five parishes, which our mercury bestowed upon it two years ago, 
are at present reduced to a hundred barracks, placed in no very good 
order; to a large warehouse built of timber; to two or three houses 
which would be no ornament to a village in France; to one half of 
a sorry warehouse, formerly set apart for divine service and was 
scarce appropriated for that purpose, when it was removed to a tent. 
(II, p. 275.) 

Considering this condition of the city in 1722, it is surprising 
to read the accounts of a few decades later, when the city and 
Cathedral drew such praise. The sad condition of the Catholics along 
the Mississippi at this time is very clear from the extensive account 
of the Natchez, of whom he writes : 

I stayed among the Natchez much longer than I expected, which 
was owing to the destitute condition in which I found the French 
with respect to spiritual assistance. The dew of Heaven has not yet 
fallen on this fine country, which is more than any other enriched 
with the fat of the earth. The late Mr. d 'Iberville had designated 
a Jesuit for this place, who accompanied him in his second voyage to 
Louisiana, in order to establish Christianity in a nation, the conver- 
sion of which he doubted not would draw after it, that of all the 
rest; but this missionary on passing through the village of Bayagou- 
las, imagined he found more favorable dispositions toward religion 
there, and while he was thinking on fixing his residence among them, 
he was recalled to France by order of his superiors. 

An ecclesiastic of Canada was in the sequel sent to the Natchez, 
where he resided a sufficient time, though he made no proselites. He 
so far gained the good graces of the woman chief, that out of respect 
for him, she called one of her sons by his name. This missionary, 
being obliged to make a voyage to Mobile, was killed on his way 
thither by some Indians, who probably had no other motive for this 
cruel action, but to plunder his baggage as had before happened to 
another priest on the other side of the Arkansas. From this time 
forth all Louisiana, below the Illinois, has been without any ecclesi- 
astic, excepting the Toncias, who for several years have had a mis- 
sionary whom they love and esteem, and would even have chosen for 
their chief, but who was not able, notwithstanding all this, to per- 
suade one single person to embrace Christianity. But how can we 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 195 

imagine that measures are to be taken to convert the infidels, when 
the Children of the Faith themselves are without pastors? I have 
already had the honor to inform your Grace, that the Canton of the 
Natchez is the most populous in this colony; yet it is five years s-ince 
the French have heard Mass, or even seen a priest. I was indeed 
sensible that the greatest number of the inhabitants have an indif- 
ference towards the exercise of religion, which is the common eli;ect 
of the want of the sacraments. Several of them, however, expressed 
much eagerness to lay hold of the opportunity my voyage afforded 
them to put the affairs of their conscience in order, and I did not 
believe it my duty to suffer myself to be entreated on this occasion. 

The first proposal was to marry, in the face of the Church, those 
inhabitants, who by virtue of a civil contract, executed in the pres- 
ence of the commandant and the principal clerk of the place, had 
cohabited together without any scruple, alleging for excuse, along 
with those who had authorized the concubinage, the necessity there 
was of peopling the country, and the impossibility of procuring a 
priest. I represented to them that there were priests at the Yasous 
and New Orleans, and that the affair was well worth the trouble of a 
voyage thither; it was answered, that the contracting parties were 
not in a condition to undertake so long a voyage, nor of being at the 
expense of procuring a priest. In short, the evil being done, the 
question was only how to remedy it, which I did. After this, I con- 
fessed all those who offered themselves ; but their number was not so 
great as I expected. (II, p. 277.) 

PETER KALM 

Travels in North America 

(1748-1749) 

Peter Kalm was born in Osterbotten, Sweden, in 1715. He re- 
ceived his early education at Upsala. By order of the Swedish 
government and the approbation of Linnaeus, he set sail from Sweden 
in 1745, to undertake a scientific tour of the United States. After 
two years in this country, his salary having proved too small to 
accomplish the objects of his visit, he returned home in an impover- 
ished condition. He was appointed Professor of Natural History at 
Abo, where he died in 1779. A memorial of his visit to this country 
is to be found in the botanical name given to the wild laurel found 
in our woods. This plant was first made known in Europe by him 
and in his honor was called Kalmia. His work. En Besa til Norra 
Amerika, appeared in Stockholm in 1753 and was soon translated 
into Dutch, German and English. 

Kalm made but one reference to the Catholic faith in this country, 
and that is but a simple remark. Yet it is helpful. In speaking of 
Philadelphia he says : 



196 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

The Roman Catholics have in the southwest part of the town a 
great house, which is well adorned within and has an organ. (I, 
p. 43.) 

The early history of the Church in Philadelphia is very uncertain. 
"Watson claimed that as early as 1729 there wasi a chapel in the house 
of Miss McGawley. There appears no evidence for this statement. 
That the Jesuit, Father Greaton, built the first church appears well 
founded from two documents. There is a public document, that some 
priest purchased land on "Walnut Street about 1734, and in his first 
account of his mission to Propaganda, John Carroll mentions Father 
Greaton, saying that he had gathered a congregation about him in 
1730 or a little later. This would lead us to believe that the priest 
who purchased the land was Father Greaton and that he built St. 
Joseph's Church at that time. The original chapel is said to have 
been rebuilt in 1757, but from Kalm's description of the church 
which is "well adorned within and has an organ," it would seem 
that the new chapel had taken the place of the original one before 
1748, when Kalm visited the city. 



CAPTAIN BOSSU 

Travels in that Part of North America Formerly Called 

Louisiana 

(1751-1760) 

Bossu, a Captain in the French Marines, in his volume, Travels 
through that Part of North America Formerly Called Louisiana, 
gives to the reader a very interesting and at the same time an en- 
lightening account of all that he saw. As the author stated in the 
preface of the French original, it was his intention to give pleasure 
as well as information. That this was done is evidenced by the sev- 
eral editions of the work which appeared in a short time. In a letter 
to Emerson, Carlyle says of the book, that it "has a strange interest 
to me, like some fractional Odyssey," thus giving testimony of the 
French writer's love for the picturesque. 

Concerning the different religious orders that were then in New 
Orleans, he says: 

The Capuchins are the first monks that went over to New Orleans 
as missionaries in 1723. Their first superior was the vicar of the 
parish; these good friars only employ themselves in the affairs rela- 
tive to their station in Life. 

After two years the Jesuits settled in Louisiana. These cunning 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 197 

politicians have found means to get the richest settlement in the 
colony, which they have obtained through their intrigues. 

The Ursuline nuns were sent thither almost at the same time. The 
occupation of these pious girls, whose zeal is very laudable, is the 
education of young ladies; they likewise receive orphans into their 
community, for which the king pays them fifty ecus a head pension. 
These nuns are likewise charged with the care of the military hos- 
pital. (Page 24.) 

In this account of the coming of the various Eeligious Orders to 
New Orleans, Bossu's statements are not correct as regards the dates 
of their arrival. Bishop de Mornay was appointed as Vicar General 
of Louisiana in 1714. When the Company of the West applied to 
him for priests, he offered the field to the Capuchins, of which Order 
he was a member. The Capuchins of the Province of Champagne 
accepted the call. The first to arrive at New Orleans was Father 
Jean de St. Anne, who came in 1720. It was in 1722 that Bishop 
de Mornay entrusted the spiritual direction of the Indians to the 
Jesuits. The founder of the mission was Father Nicholas de Beau- 
bois, who was appointed as Vicar General for his district. He sailed 
for France to enlist priests for the new mission, and at the same time 
was commissioned by Bienville to obtain sisters of some Order to 
assume charge of a hospital and school. The Ursulines of Eouen 
accepted this call and eight professed sisters and two lay sisters 
arrived in New Orleans in the summer of 1727. With them were 
Fathers Tartarin and Doutreleau. If the Jesuits at that time were in 
possession of the richest settlements in the colony, it was due to their 
own labors for the Indians. In 1751, the same year that Bossu 
arrived in New Orleans, the Jesuits had introduced the sugar cane 
from Hispaniola and were already raising indigo and myrtle-wax on 
their Indian plantations. 

In other statements Bossu is also incorrect in certain details as 
when he narrates : 

In 1720, an Indian, having hid himself in a lonely place on the 
banks of the Mississippi, had murdered the Abbe de St. Come, who 
was then a missionary in the colony. M. de Bienville, who was then 
Governor, made the whole nation answer for it ; and to spare his own 
people several nations of his allies were employed to attack them. 
(Page 26.) 

Doubtless the reference here is to Father J. B. St. Cosme, a Sem- 
inary priest and younger brother of the missionary at Tamarois. He 
was born in Quebec in 1667 and was the first American priest who 
fell by the hands of the savages in this country. It was in 1706 
that he started from his mission at Natchez for Mobile, to try to 



198 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

be relieved from a ciniel infirmity under which he was laboring. 
While he slept at night on the banks of the river, his party was 
attacked by a band of Sitimachas. He was murdered about fifty 
miles from the mouth of the river. Jean Baptist Le Moyne de Bien- 
ville, who is here mentioned as the Governor, was one of the founders 
of the Louisiana colony and under his direction the City of New 
Orleans was built. He was born in Montreal and had come to 
Louisiana with his elder brother in 1698. 

At Fort Chartres Bossu left his party and went to Cahokia, con- 
cerning which place he writes: 

The priests of the order of S. Sulpicius have established a mission 
here under the name of the Holy Family of Jesus. There are but 
three priests. I have been particularly acquainted with Abbe Mer- 
cier, a Canadian by birth and vicar of the whole country of the 
Illinois. He was a man of probity and had acquired a knowledge of 
the manners of the Indians who were edified by his virtue and dis- 
interestedness. ... He had spent forty-five years in cultivating 
the Lord's vineyard in these distant countries and the Indian nations 
of these parts have always respected him. This worthy apostle of 
Louisiana fell into consumption and died of it, expiring as a Chris- 
tian hero. The French and Indians were inconsolable. (Page 159.) 

Abbe Mercier was born in Canada and sent to the Indian mis- 
sions from the Foreign Mission Seminary in 1718. Charlevoix 
mentions him as being at Cahokia when he passed there in 1721. The 
other two, who were at this mission at the time of Bossu 's visit, were 
Father Laurens, who arrived at Cahokia in 1739 and cared for the 
mission there and the one at Fort Chartres; and the other. Father 
Duverger, who came to Cahokia in 1745, being the last priests sent 
to the Illinois missions by the Seminary. Bossu visited Abbe IMercier 
in 1756, consequently, instead of being a missioner in the Illinois 
territory for forty-five years, he had just completed his thirty-seventh 
year. 

ANDREW BURNABY 

Travels Through the Middle Settlements in North America 

(1758-1760) 

The Reverend Andrew Burnaby was a native of Lancashire and 
a graduate of Queens College, Cambridge. He became vncar of 
Greenwich in 1769, and obtained some credit as an author by the 
publication of an account of a visit to Corsica. His book on America 
was "praised and valued" as an agreeable and fair report of the 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 199 

colonies, then called ''Middle Settlements." Writing during the war, 
the writer frankly declares that while his first attachment is for his 
native country, his second is to America. He felt that "fire and 
water are not more heterogeneous than the different colonies of 
America," and while he sympathizes with the American demand of 
representation for taxation, he could not see how the United States 
would remain united. 

Bumaby's remarks on the Church are few and very concise. Of 
Maiyland he says : 

The established Church is that of the Church of England, but 
there are as many Catholics as Protestants. (Page 54.) 

Father George Hunter, S. J., was the superior of the Maryland 
mission at this time. It was but a few years later that he stated in 
his report that the Catholic adults in the mission numbered ten 
thousand. This number included the few missions in Pennsylvania. 
Of Philadelphia the minister wrote: 

There is here one Roman Chapel. (Page 60.) Papists are here 
present, all religions are tolerated. (Page 65.) 

The Church here mentioned is that of St. Joseph, the Church of 
St. Mary being erected the following year. Father Harding was at 
this time the pastor and Father Farmer his assistant. Burnaby says 
that all religions were tolerated ; while it is true that the Church did 
not suffer a great deal, it is worth noting that a year before Burnaby 
visited the city, there was passed the "Militia Bill," which obliged 
Catholics to surrender all arms and ammunition. AU who would 
have been liable to military duty were obliged to pay a tax to the 
Captain of the company in which, no matter how willing, they were 
not allowed to serve. This tax was a hardship on many Catholics, 
who would have served in the militia if the law did not prevent them 
from doing so. Of New Jersey the traveler writes: 

There is properly no established religion in this province and the 
inhabitants are of various persuasions. (Page 79.) 

New Jersey was at this time a mission field without a church. It 
was visited occasionally from Maryland and Pennsylvania. The next 
place that Burnaby visited was New York, and concerning the re- 
ligion of that city he says : 

Besides the religion of the Church of England, there is a variety 
of others, dissenters of all denominations, particularly Presbyterians, 
abound in great numbers and there are a few Roman Catholics. 
(Page 86.) 



200 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

There are traditions that there were priests who came at regular 
intervals to New York at the time of Burnaby's visit, but Shea does 
not favor this opinion and claims it is unfounded. The only other 
mention of religion in the book is a well-known fact about Boston : 

The established religion here, as well in the other pro\ances of 
New England, is that of the Congregationalists. (Page 107.) 

ANON. 

Journal of a French Traveler in the Colonies 

(1765) 

Searching Paris archives under the direction of Mr. W. G. Leland 
of the Carnegie Institute, Mr. Abel Doysie discovered a manuscript 
of seventy-nine pages. The first fifty-four were written in English, 
the remaining pages in French. The writer was a Catholic and 
apparently a Frenchman and an agent of the French Government. 
All efforts to identify him have thus far been unsuccessful, except 
that it has been demonstrated that he was not M. de Pontleroy, whom 
Choiseul sent over to inspect the colonies in 1764. The unknown 
author of this journal studied the cities of the coast and especially 
Norfolk, Philadelphia and New York. His purpose seems to have 
been to ascertain the strength of the defenses of these cities and the 
ease with which they might be attacked. There are a few peculiari- 
ties of execution in the manuscript, including the constant capitaliza- 
tion of C, D, and E. Being a Catholic, he made the acquaintance of 
a number of Catholics in and around Maryland. 

The first remark on religion is concerning Virginia: 

The prevailing religion is the protestant, no romans allowed. 
(AHR, vol. 26, p. 743.) 

In Virginia the Catholics had not received a favorable welcome. 
In 1641, they were forbidden by law to hold services and the follow- 
ing year all priests were expelled. By 1669 they had lost all right 
to vote and six years later were not recognized as witnesses in court. 
The law forbidding their presence in court was renewed to cover all 
cases as late as 1753. It was not until 1776 that religious freedom 
was granted to them. Bishop Challoner in his report of 1765, stated 
that the few Catholics in Virginia were cared for by the Jesuits of 
Maryland. John Carroll in 1785 reported that there were about two 
hundred Catholics in that State and they were administered to three 
or four times a year by the priests from Maryland. The narrative 
runs on : 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 201 

Set out from thence for Mr. hunters, missionary, where I re- 
mained all next day and night. Mr. hunter is a Jesuit and superior 
of the Mission in this part of the Country. There are four Clergy- 
men and four houses like this in the province, the fathers go about 
the Different parts to atend the Dispersed Catholiques. Charles 
County has more of the Catholique religion than any other but are 
poor in general. Lord Baltimore when he had the grant of maryland 
himself was one, but his unworthy Descendants have abandoned his 
principles therefore the poor Catholiques have lost most of their 
privileges, they were very much treatend in the beginning of the 
last war. father hunter tells me that there are about 10,000 Catho- 
liques still in the Colony, he has generally from 800 to a th'd at his 
Sunday mass. (AHR, vol. 27, p. 70.) 

Father George Hunter was the superior of the Jesuits in Mary- 
land from 1756 to 1758. The war mentioned here is the Seven 
Years War, at the close of which the Catholics found themselves 
ground down with taxes and disabilities, liable at any moment to 
have their property taken away from them. The statistics here given 
agree with those of Father Hunter's report of July, 1765, except 
that there were at least six, and probably seven, stations at that time 
instead of four. The following day there is entered in the journal : 

from Piscatoway to mr. Diggses, 12m. this is a Gentleman of the 
Roman Catholique Religion, and much respected In the Country by 
Every one that knows him. he has a considerable fortune. Mr. 
Thomas Diggs his brother is a Jesuit, he lives with him and at the 
same times Does religious Duty all around this part of the Country, 
he Certainly is an honor to his religion, he is a very respectable 
person in Every respect, amiable in the Eyes of all that are acquainted 
with him. makes those that are in his Company happy, he is a 
learned man and has seen much of the world. (AHR, vol. 27, p. 71.) 

Father Thomas Digges was born in Maryland in May, 1711, and 
entered the Society of Jesus at the age of eighteen. He went to 
Europe to study and returned to this country in 1750. He was 
Superior of the mission for two terms, from 1750 to 1756. He lived 
to a great age and died at Milwood in 1805. He was among the first 
who favored the election of a Bishop for the United States. A few 
days later the traveler entered the following statement : 

Dined at the tavern in a large Company, the Conversation Con- 
tinually on the Stamp Dutys. I realy surprised to here people talk 
so freely, this is Common in all the Country, and more so in the 
Northland, the Catholiques seem to be very Cautios on this occa- 
sion, we went to Mr. Digges where I had again the pleasure of Con- 
versing with the Rever'd father thomas, to my great satisfaction. 
(AHR, vol. 27, p. 73.) 



202 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

The silence on the part of the Catholics in regard to the Stamp 
Duties was not caused by lack of resentment to this act, but by 
caution. They were already in a miserable political condition and 
realized that it would be folly to express their feelings at this time. 
Following this in the journal are two references to the different 
Charles Carrolls which are not easily recognized. The first reads: 

here I met my good friend Mr. Christy who accompanied us to 
Charles Carol Esq'r, about three miles from town (that is the town 
of Patapsco), where he has considerable Iron Works. (Page 73.) 

This most probably refers to Charles Carroll, the son of the Bar- 
rister. The second reference is entered two days later and reads 
as follows: 

Dined with old Squ'r Carrol of anapolis. he is looked upon to 
be the most moneyed man in maryland but at the same time the most 
avaritious. he is a stanche Roman Catholique, keeps but little com- 
pany owing perhaps to his distaste to protestants. I was never 
genteeler received by any person than I was by him. he has no 
family, only a b. son who he intends to make his sole heir, he had 
part of his education in f ranee. (Page 74.) 

This visit was without a doubt made to Charles Carroll, the father 
of Charles Carroll of Carrollton. The description of the man and 
his manner of life as well as the name "of anapolis" point to this 
conclusion. 

This visit was made at the time that Charles of Carrollton was 
returning from Europe. Whether or not the traveler had been in- 
formed that this son was an illegitimate child is not stated, but there 
is no question of such in respect to Charles of Carrollton. The 
writer of the journal was probably given false information by some 
of his friends. 

Two remarks are made concerning the family of Baltimore: 

Mary'd were formerly all Catholics, but very much altered since 
the Change of the stupid propietor. (Vol. 27, p. 75.) 

Lord Baltimore is Both Proprietor and Governor of Maryland, 
the family is now protestant in persuasion, but not a bit more 
Essteemed for it. he is much Dispised in Maryland partikarly. 
(Page 76.) 

In 1713 Benedict Leonard Calvert, in the hope that he would 
recover the control of the province of Maryland, paid the price of 
apostacy which was demanded for this power. His son regained the 
control the father had sought and the House of Calvert remained 
Protestant until it ended in dishonor. 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 203 

Philadelphia was visited and two events in the journal have a 
Catholic bearing: 

went with Mr. harden the roman Catholique missionary to dine 
with Messers. mead and fitsimons also roman. (Page 78.) 

there is a roman Church here to which resorts about 1200 people 
many of which are Dutch, they are in generall poor. (Page 79.) 

St. Joseph's Church, Philadelphia, is the one here mentioned. 
St. Mary's was being built at the time and must have been nearing 
completion, although it is not mentioned. 

There is but one remark concerning New York: 

all religions are permitted here Except the roman Catholique. 
(Page 82.) 

After the death of James the Second, all Catholics were excluded 
from New York. It was not until after the War of Independence 
that they were again free to practice their religion. 



JONATHAN CARVER 

Travels Through the Interior Parts of North America 

(1766-1768) 

Travels Through the Interior Parts of North America, though 
challenged by a number of early critics, generally passed until re- 
cently as the work of Jonathan Carver. This book, which is in fact 
a compilation from *earlier travels, purports to be a narrative of 
Carver's journey. E. G. Bourne in the American Historical Review, 
of January, 1906, pointed out that the veracity of Carver had 
been questioned as early as 1832. At that time Charlevoix and 
Lohantan were named as the sources from which whole passages had 
been copied. It has also been suggested that Cai"ver's Travels in 
their present form may have been compiled by Dr. John C. Lettsom. 
As a source for Catholic Church history, the volume is concerned 
exclusively with the Indian missions. The first mention is of the 
Huron Indians about Detroit. 

Almost opposite (Detroit) on the eastern shore, is a village of the 
ancient Hurons, a tribe of Indians which has been more treated and 
by so many writers that adhering to the restrictions I have laid 
myself under of only describing places and people little known, or 
incidents that have passed unnoticed by others, I shall omit giving a 
description of them. A missionary of the Carthusian order of friars, 
by permission of the Bishop of Canada, resides among them, (Page 
142.) 



204 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

Until 1767 this church of the Hurons was under the direction of 
the resident priest at Detroit. In that year the pastor, Father Sim- 
plicius Bocquet, a Recollect, requested Bishop Briand to divide the 
parish. It was accordingly divided and Father Potier, another Recol- 
lect, became the first resident pastor of the Huron Church. Detroit 
was at this time under English rule and most of the residents of the 
town were English traders. 

A long description of attempted reforms among the Indians is 
given near the end of the volume. In speaking of the Indian slaves 
found among the tribes, he says : 

I have been informed that it was the Jesuits and the French mis- 
sionaries that first occupied these parts that occasioned the introduc- 
tion of these unhappy captives into the settlement, and who by so 
doing taught the Indians that they were valuable. 

Their views indeed were laudable, as they imagined that by this 
method they should not only prevent much barbarity and bloodshed 
but find the opportunities of spreading their religion among them 
increased. To this purpose they encouraged the traders to purchase 
such slaves as they met with. 

The good effects of this mode of proceeding was not however equal 
to the expectations of these pious fathers. Instead of being the 
means of preventing bloodshed it only caused the dissentions between 
the Indian nations to be carried on with greater degrees of violence 
and with unremitted ardour. The prize they fought for no longer 
being revenge or fame, but acquiring of spirituous liquors, for which 
their captives were to be exchanged. ... It might still be said that 
fewer of the captives were tormented and put to death but it does 
not appear that their accustomed cruelty to the warriors they take 
is the list bit abated. 

The missionaries finding that contrary to their wishes, their zeal 
had only served to increase the sale of noxious juices, applied to the 
Governor of Canada in the year 1693 for a prohibition of this baneful 
trade. An order was issued accordingly, but it could not be totally 
stopped. (Page 325.) 

Both the French and the English were to blame for the manner 
in which liquors were supplied to the Indians. It was impossible to 
control the Red Man when he had intoxicants, and this was the 
complaint of Father Bruyas at Oneida, of Father de la Vente in 
Louisiana and Father Le Roy in the country of the Alibamons. The 
last mentioned, when he denounced the sale of liquor, was forced to 
leave his mission by order of the French commander, Montberault, 
who was, according to Bossu, a hater of the Jesuits. In speaking of 
the kindness shown to Indian prisoners. Carver writes: 

This forbearance, it must be acknowledged, does not proceed alto- 
gether from their dispositions, but is only inherent in those who have 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 205 

held some eommiinication with the French missionaries. "Without 
intending that their natural enemies, the English, should enjoy the 
benefit of their labors, these fathers have taken great pains to incul- 
cate on the minds of the Indians the general principles of humility, 
which has diffused itself through their manners and has proved of 
public utility. (Page 322.) 

This praise for the work of the French missionaries is followed 
by the expression of an idea similar to that of Charlevoix and the 
others, concerning the impossibility of judging the religion of the 
Indians by outward appearances : 

It is with the greatest difficulty that one obtains a knowledge of 
the religious principles of the Indians. Their ceremonies and doc- 
trines have been so often ridiculed by Europeans that they endeavor 
to conceal them and if after the greatest intimacy you desire them 
to explain to you their system of religion, to prevent your ridicule 
they intermix with it many of the tenets they have received from 
the French missionaries, so that it is at least rendered an uninteUig- 
able jargon, and not to be depended upon. (Page 356.) 

THOMAS ANBUREY 

Travels Through Interior Parts op America 
(1776-1781) 

An officer in the English army under General Burgoyne, Thomas 
Anburey, was under fire at Ticonderoga and later at Saratoga, where 
he was taken prisoner. With others he was marched to Boston, where 
they remained for many months. At the end of that period they 
were moved to the south and were allowed a certain amount of liberty 
in Virginia. When the exchange of prisoners was affected, Anburey 
was again moved to the north, and sailed from New York in 1781. 
His two volumes are a compilation of his letters. They were not 
written with the intention of publication, but are extremely interest- 
ing. The Canadian letters of the first volume are very copious in 
Catholic references. Those which were written from the colonies, 
and which are here considered, contain but little to our purpose. 
While a prisoner at Boston he wrote: 

Since the war every Church over the province is shut up, nor will 
the inhabitants suffer any other religion but the Congregationalist ; 
they are to seize the opportunity to suppress the Church of England, 
as it was fast gaining, and therefore objected to it on the ground 
that they were praying for the King and Royal family. Some minis- 
ters offered to omit that part, but toleration is no part of their creed 
and they were happy to seize so favorable an opportunity to crush it. 
(II, p. 65.) 



206 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

It is evident from this passage that the Catholic Church was not 
the only one to suffer from the Congregationalist spirit of intolerance. 
There was then no Catholic edifice in Boston and practically no 
Catholics, due to this opposition. The only other mention of the 
Church contains a reference to what is well known: 

In traveling through Pennsylvania you meet with people of almost 
every different persuasion that exists. In short, the diversity of reli- 
gions, nations and languages here is astonishing; at the same time, 
the harmony they live in is no less edifying. . . . Among the numer- 
ous sects of religion with which this province abounds, there are 
Churchmen, Quakers, Lutherans, Catholics, etc. (II, p. 284.) 

M. L'ABBE KOBIN 

New Travels in North America 

(1782) 

The Abbe Robin was one of those French priests who came to this 
country as chaplains to the French forces dui'ing the Revolutionary 
War. Landing at Boston, he proceeded to Newport, where he met 
the French army and accompanied them to the south. His book of 
travels was not written as such, but like that of Anburey, it is a 
series of his letters, written from the various camps where the army 
stopped. His position gave him a fine opportunity for viewing the 
Chui'ch in this country and his records of the same are of value. The 
first American city that Robin passed any time in was Boston, which 
was at that time the most puritanical of communities and of which 
he wrote: 

There are nineteen churches here of the different sects. Sunday 
is observed with the utmost strictness; all business, how important 
soever, is then totally at stand, and the most innocent recreations and 
pleasures prohibited. Boston, that populous town where at other 
times there is such a hustle of business, is on this day a mere desert. 
You may walk the streets without meeting a single person, or if by 
chance you meet one, you scarcely stop and talk with him. Upon 
this day of melancholy you can not go into a house but you find the 
whole family employed in reading the bible; and indeed it is an 
effecting sight to see the father of a family surrounded by his house- 
hold, hearing him explain the sublime truths of this sacred volume. 
Nobody here fails to go to the place of worship appropriated to his 
sect. In these places there reigns a profound silence; an order and 
respect is observed that has not been seen for a long time in our 
Catholic churches. (Page 13.) 

He then describes the churches and the want of any outward 
signs of devotion, the lack of all ornaments, which are so common to 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 207 

the Catholic religion. The strange ideas that the inhabitants of the 
colony had of the Fi-ench, previous to the war, is accounted for by 
the action of the English who disseminated prejudices and the Pres- 
byterians who were bitter enemies of the Catholic faith. At the 
beginning of the war, he says, the French who came to this country 
seemed to verify these beliefs, being as they were, a group from 
the lowest classes of French society. This condition was gradually 
changing. In this regard he says: 

Notwithstanding the fact that I was a Frenchman and a Catholic 
priest, I was continually receiving new civilities from several of the 
best families in the town; but the people in general retain their old 
prejudices. (Page 18.) 

Certain proofs of this retaining of prejudices on the part of some 
are related and there is then no mention of the Catholic faith in the 
five following letters. In the sixth letter, he states that the army is 
at Philadelphia, and he remarks about that city : 

The Roman Catholics have two chapels here, governed by an ex- 
jesuit and a German priest, who reckon the number of their commu- 
nicants at eleven or twelve hundred. (Page 41.) 

The two churches were those of St. Joseph and St. Mary. It seems 
that at the time of Abbe Robin's visit, 1781, the two churches were 
under the ex-jesuits. Father Farmer had been joined by Father 
Molyneux in 1773 and they cared for both parishes. They were still 
in charge of the two congregations when Carroll visited them in 
1785. Of the condition of the Church in Maryland he wrote from 
Baltimore about thfe middle of September, 1781 : 

Lord Baltimore, an Irish Catholic, formerly established 200 of his 
persuasion in this place, and gave his name to the settlement. About 
one quarter of it is peopled by these unfortunate Acadians, and their 
descendants, whom the English cruelly forced away from their own 
happy country, to leave them destitute and poor, in a region where 
they are utter strangers. Their quarter is the meanest in appearance, 
and worst built of all, and the tyranny of the British Government 
has, till lately, hindered them from gaining anything by the happy 
situation of this town; being for the most part seafaring men, it is 
hoped they will not fail in time to make up by commerce, the loss 
of their fertile settlements in Acadia. 

They still preserve the French language among them and are 
prodigiously attached to the nation from which they originated, espe- 
cially in their religious worship, which they keep up with a strictness 
that would have done honor to the primitive ages of Christianity. 

Their way of life is simple and plain, and their manners similar 
to those prevalent among them while they were yet in the happy 
regions of Acadia. The priest there exercised the authority over them 



208 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

which virtue and education allow, over men not yet corrupted in their 
morals; they were their judges and their mediators and to this day 
these exiled people never mention their names without tears. (Page 
42.) 

The French chaplain then tells of a Monsieur le Clerc, who was 
their pastor in Acadia. This priest, of which name there was none 
in Acadia at that time, is said to have given them vestments and 
sacred vessels, admonishing them to be loyal to the faith of their 
fathers. Then follows a picture of their present condition: 

Their Chapel is built without the town on a height near four or 
five churches of different sects. They complain much, that they do 
not find in their present ministers the zeal and affection of those in 
Acadia. Taken up with their temporal concerns, they bestow few 
instructions upon their flock, and their whole pastoral function seems 
to be confined to saying low mass once a month. (Page 43.) 

The letter then relates that Abbe Robin himself was requested to 
officiate at one of their services, which he did. In a letter of Arch- 
bishop Carroll at a later date, it is remarked that these people who 
had stood so much for their faith, were weakened by the number of 
free-thinking Frenchmen who came among them during the war. 
There was also some emigration among them before the coming of 
Abbe Robin, as is to be learned from the account of John Smyth. 
The author of the letters goes on to say: 

Maryland has a great proportion of Catholics among its inhabi- 
tants. At Fredericksbourg and other places in Virginia there are 
several Churches, as well as at Charlestown, the Capitol of South 
Carolina. All the North American Churches are under the jurisdic- 
tion of the bishop of London, who since the war, however, has relin- 
quished all connection with them, ; Protestants and Papists are now 
left to themselves without head or unity. The religion and the num- 
ber of these people ought nevertheless to claim the attention of the 
patrons of the Church. (Page 44.) 

Shea in considering this quotation concludes that Robin mistook 
a hastily written note. He had probably noted a church in Feder- 
ickstown, and several chapels in Charles County, Maryland. Toward 
the close of his last letter Robin foretells with much correctness, one 
of the future struggles of the Church: 

The immense variety of different forms of worship will probably 
operate the first cause of future dissentions in America, although it 
is to this very circumstance that they owe their rapid increase in 
power, and which will still contribute to their aggrandisement; but 
to suppose that toleration can be prejudicial to States is not the 
opinion of our times. (Page 82.) 



travel literature as source material 209 

Summary 

The authors considered in this first part of our essay have fur- 
nished us with but little that is of Catholic importance. At most 
they have pointed out the conditions under which the Church then 
existed in this country. Passing references are comparatively numer- 
ous, considering the narrow confines within which the Church was 
then forced to exist. There is no mention of the Church until the 
rebellion of the followers of Sir Edmund Plowden, which resulted in 
the failure of the first attempt at Catholic colonization in the present 
United States. 

There are frequent mentions of Catholics and the Church in 
Maryland and Philadelphia. The other cities of the Atlantic Coast 
contained but a few Catholic families, and these were, as is indicated 
in the volumes here considered, forbidden by law to practice their 
religion in public. Boston, the most intolerant of all the cities in 
the colonies, was toward the close of this period gradually taking a 
broader view of the Catholic Church. This change of attitude is 
evident from a comparison of the writings of Abbe Robin with those 
of another clergyman, the Labadist minister, Bankers. Charlevoix 
and Bossu have left us delightful pictures of the Church in the Mis- 
sissippi Valley. That there was a lack of priests in that section is 
clear from a reading of these books, and a result of this lack was a 
condition truly lamentable in certain sections. Yet the Church had 
taken root and was flourishing. Mention of missionary work among 
the Indians is always in the form of praise. 

Of the number of facts contained in these authors, none of them 
is novel. Each of them has been recorded elsewhere. They do, how- 
ever, contain appreciations and sketches of the condition of the 
Church in the different parts of the country, and portray the gradual 
decline of intolerance toward the church. It was not until the close 
of this period that the Church was in any sense free in this country. 
It was at the close of the War of Independence that the Church began 
to grow and to exercise a wide-reaching influence on the Catholic 
people. After the appointment of John Carroll as Prefect-Apostolic 
of the United States, the Church assumed more form, there was more 
for the traveler to see, more that would attract his attention and a 
greater number of activities about which he could write. 



210 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 



PAET II 

During the Prefecture and Episcopate of John Carroll 
(1784-1815) 

The close of the American War of Independence found many- 
foreign soldiers, chaplains and travelers in the United States. Many 
of these took advantage of the Treaty of Paris (1783) to visit the 
cities along the Atlantic coast and the towns in the hinterland. 
Added to these, during the next decade, were many others driven 
out of the French West Indies and France during the worst period 
of the French Kevolution. While the number is not large — only 
twelve authors have been treated here — the excerpts found in their 
works are of higher historical value than those of the first period. 
Besides, some of these travelers, such as Chateaubriand, Moreau de 
St. Mery, Bernard and Plessis, were Catholics and their reflections 
on the condition of the Church here are of greatest importance. 



J. F. D. SMYTH 

A Tour of the United States of America 
(1784) 

Smyth's tour, as is evident from his book, was made under very 
unfavorable circumstances. During his journey, as he recounts, he 
was taken a prisoner, and from his own portrayal of those days, he 
was very harshly treated. The asperity of the author is doubtless 
due to this persecution which he had to endure in America, because 
of his loyalty to England during the Revolution. That he left our 
shores with unfriendly feelings toward the nation at large is judged 
from the fact that he advised against all emigration and prophesies 
the rapid decline of the country. While there seems to be a little 
animosity towards the Church, he seems to have given his honest 
opinion. We doubt whether all of his account can be looked upon 
as personal observation. His first observation is entered while in 
New Orleans, and is an insight into the sufferings of the Acadians, 
and their removal from Maryland: 

This gentleman, descended from a Roman Catholic family in 
Maryland, was the master of a vessel belonging to his brother, 
Athanasius Ford, of Leonard Town in St. Mary's County, and had 
sailed from the River Patowmac with French Neutrals (as they are 
called) who had been driven out of Nova Scotia by the British Gov- 
ernment on account of their strong predilection to the French interest 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 211 

there, which at every risk they always were ready to promote and 
support. 

The vessel was navigated by British sailors and was bound for 
the Mississippi, in order to carry the French Canadians to their 
countrymen there, where they intended to settle. But having got 
into trade winds they landed at the mouth of the Rio Grande, in the 
Kingdom, or the Province of New Mexico, instead of the Mississippi. 
(I, p. 249.) 

This emigration accounts for the few Catholics of the Acadian 
group who were found in Maryland at an earlier date. A number of 
them did arrive at New Orleans. Those mentioned here were seized 
by the Spanish and carried to New Mexico, where they were made 
to suffer a great many hardships. Smyth mentions that a priest on 
learning of their condition was of great assistance to them. It is 
noticeable that the quotations which follow this first one have a very 
close resemblance to others found in the pamphlet The Present State 
of the Catholic Missions Conducted hy the Ex-Jesuits in North 
America, by the Rev. Patrick Smyth. The similarity has led many 
to confound the two authors. The answer which John Carroll pre- 
pared for Patrick Smyth's article is sufficient answer for the other. 
It seems very probable that Father Smyth had seen the work of John 
before he started to write and used many of the things there recorded 
to strengthen his own argument. These descriptions are as follows: 

Near the town of Port Tobacco upon a commanding eminence 
overlooking the Patomack, is a seat belonging to the late Society of 
Jesuits, in occupation of a Roman Catholic Priest named Hunter, 
in a situation the most majestic in the whole world. The house itself 
is exceedingly handsome, executed in fine taste and of a very beau- 
tiful model. (II, p. 114.) 

Carroll stated that the only house of the Jesuits that bore even 
an inviting external appearance was this one of Father Hunter. The 
Rev. Patrick Smyth had said that these houses were all fitted out in 
the most comfortable manner possible. To this Carroll replied that 
this house alone was comfortable, but even this one contained nothing 
in the way of comfort that would not be found in the homes of the 
middle class in America. The account goes on: 

The Province of Maryland, which was first granted as an asylum 
for the Roman Catholics, still contains a great majority of them, 
although the Church of England is the established church, to which 
they pay an equal proportion as the Catholics. There are in all 
probability three Roman Catholics for one Protestant throughout this 
province ; and the counties of St. Mary 's, Charles, Calvert and Prince 
George's, there are at least six parts out of seven of the inhabitants 
that profess that religion. 



212 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

Previous to the dissolution of the Society of Jesuits, they had a 
powerful establishment in Maryland and were possessed of an 
immense property in that province, consisting chiefly of lands and 
slaves. Three of their principal seats or establishments are in Charles 
and St. Mary's counties; one just mentioned by Port Tobacco, the 
most beautiful place in the world and the most elegant situation, in 
the possession of the Eeverend Father Hunter, who was the prin- 
cipal or head of the society in this province ; the next is at the mouth 
of Briton's Bay on the River Patomack also, in the occupation of 
Father Ashby; both of the two last named places are in St. Mary's 
county. 

Besides these there are several others, very considerable establish- 
ments belonging to the Jesuits, in this province where no person 
resides but the priests and their attendants. However, at each of 
these places they seem to have a haram of female slaves, who are 
now become white by the mixture. There are at this time numbers 
of beautiful girls, many of them as fair as any living, who are abso- 
lutely slaves in every sense of these priests, and whose posterity must 
remain in the same degrading unfortunate situation. 

By far the greatest number of Eoman Catholics are on the Western 
Shore (of the Chesapeek) ; and what is surprising, it is also the 
most violently rebellious and disaffected. The principle Roman 
Catholic families in this province are generally better descended than 
is common in America, where they are the most frequently ashamed 
to trace their ancestors a single generation back ; but the chief fami- 
lies in this province, at least those of the Roman Catholic religion, 
came over with the first Lord Baltimore, and were originally from 
good and respectable families in England. 

About the time of the dissolution of the Society of Jesuits, there 
happened a great confusion amongst them as well as all the Roman 
Catholics in the province, occasioned by a profligate priest of that 
order, who after playing a number of tricks with the female part 
of his flock, thought proper to lay aside his habit and his vows, and 
enter into matrimony with a young Roman Catholic widow, along 
with whom he lives to this day, in open defiance of the Pope and 
his bulls, yet still professing the same religion. This I mention as 
an extraordinary occurrence, so rare to be met with that a similar 
instance I do not imagine can be produced. (II, p. 115.) 

The two houses mentioned here as the residences of Fathers 
Lewis and Ashby were said by Carroll to be far from superb, but 
were instead mean and despicable. The question of slavery was also 
considered by Carroll, in fact the entire letter, which was written 
to refute Patrick Smyth, can be used in reply to the work here cited. 
This letter of Carroll will be found in Doctor Guilday's Life and 
Times of John Carroll, pp. 313-321. 



A 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 213 

FRANQOIS DE CHATEAUBRIAND 

Voyages en Amerique, en France, et en Italie 
(1791-1793) 

The well known author of Le Genie du Christianisme was also a 
traveler in the United States. He was born in Brittany in 1768 
and received an excellent education in early life. In 1791, Chateau- 
briand, then a young man of 23, embarked for America. He 
remained here for two years and then returned to his own country. 
His Voyages en Amerique was not published until thirty-four years 
later, and contains quotations from another French traveler who did 
not come to this country until 1823. As first hand material, Chateau- 
briand can hardly be used. Some have gone so far as to question 
whether or not he came to this country. In the same year that his 
book was published an article appeared in the American Quarterly 
Review denying that the accounts were the personal experiences of 
the author. The beautiful scenes he describes on the banks of the 
Ohio make one wonder, if in his search for the passage to the 
Western Sea, he has gone further than Niagara. His account of the 
vast jungle on the banks of the Mississippi assured deTocqueville that 
his countryman had never visited that river. A consideration brings 
the first remark on the subject of religion : 

The religious traditions of the Indians are become much confused ; 
the instructions first imparted by the missionaries of Canada has 
mingled foreign ideas with the native ideas and at the present time 
we perceive through the gross fables distorted Christian doctrines. 
Most of the savages wear crosses for ornaments, and the Protestant 
traders sell them what was given to them by the Catholic mission- 
aries. To the Honor of our country and the glory of our religion 
be it said that the Indians were strongly attached to the French. 
They have never ceased to regret them, and the Blackrobe is still 
held in veneration in the America forests. (II, p. 95.) 

This is a reiteration of the same idea expressed in the writings 
of Charlevoix and Carver, with the addition that the French were 
honored and respected by the Indian. On the following page 
Chateaubriand quotes from Beltrami. He introduces the quotation 
with the words that this is of greater value because in the earlier 
pages of Beltrami's book the author was very harsh in his treatment 
of the Jesuits. Chateaubriand quotes him as follows: 

To do justice to truth, the French missioners in general have 
invariably distinguished themselves by an exemplary life, befitting 
their profession. (II, p. 96.) 



214 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

In our treatment of Beltrami we will consider this same quota- 
tion as it appeared in the original of the author. Beltrami is here 
no more favorable to the Jesuits than he was in other parts of his 
book. The quotation reads, "The French missioners, when not 
Jesuits, etc." It is noticeable here too that this book should have 
been consulted by Beltrami's countryman, when there was a space 
of about thirty years between the visits of the two. Of the southern 
valley of the Mississippi, Chateaubriand is not a reliable witness. 
He remarks at great length that the Spanish in that section are not 
fitted for life in the American democracy. This he claims must be 
so, for the Spanish people have never been other than slaves to the 
Spanish Crown, and that the masses of the people were uneducated 
and uncontrolled. He includes too as a proof of his thesis that the 
priests of the Spanish colony have led lives truly immoral: 

Nothing was more common than to see ecclesiastics surrounded by 
a family, whose origin they took no pains to conceal. (II, p. 125.) 

That he was altogether wrong in his statement of the impossibility 
of the Louisianians becoming good citizens of the United States is 
now a demonstrated fact. The independent government which would 
have been established need not be thought of, the condition of de- 
mocracy in those parts being satisfactory. The final reference to 
things Catholic is like the others of a doubtful character. It is 
concerned with Columbia, of which he writes: 

The whole of the clergy of Columbia are American. Many of 
the priests, by a culpable infringement of the discipline of the 
Church, are fathers of families like any other citizens and do not 
even wear the habit of their order. This state of things is no doubt 
prejudicial to morals, but on the other hand it has the effect of 
rendering the clergy, though Catholic, favorable to emancipation from 
the dread of more intimate relations with the Church of Rome. Dur- 
ing the troubles the Monks were more soldiers than churchmen. 
(II, p. 136.) 

We have found no record of a single native born priest in that 
section at the time of Chateaubriand's visit. We say with Bacourt, 
"I agree with M. de Tocqueville, who said that Chateaubriand had 
not seen all the places that he wrote about," and wonder where he 
gathered the information of the condition of the Mississippi Valley as 
he describes it. 



i 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERL^L 215 

MOREAU DE ST. MERY 

Voyage aux Etats-Unis de l'Amerique 
(1793-1819) 

Medric Louis Moreau de Saint Mery was born at Fort Royal, 
Martinique, on January 13, 1750. At the age of 19 he went to 
France to study law, and later practiced his profession there for 
three years. Returning to his native isle, he was made Conseil 
Superieur of the colony. During his period of professional law, he 
collected all the written laws of the Island, and the publication of 
these has made his name immortal to all students of West Indian 
history. Called to Paris in 1784, he aided in the administration of 
the colonies. At the outbreak of the Revolution, he became one of 
its ardent champions and defenders. He was for a time president 
of the Electeurs and served as a member of the permanent governing 
body of the Commune. When Robespierre came to power, Moreau fled 
from France and arrived in America in 1793 with his wife and chil- 
dren. He settled at Philadelphia and there published a number of 
works from his own press. He was friendly with Talleyrand when the 
latter was in Philadelphia. Moreau 's last days in America were 
clouded because of the bitterness that was then manifested toward 
the French. Returning to France he entered upon a brief but not- 
able career, holding a number of high government offices. His last 
years were spent in publishing the Colonial History, which is con- 
tained in the Collection de St. Mery. He died in January, 1819. 
Stewart L. Mims of Yale found the manuscript of the Voyage aux 
Etats-Unis among the collection in Paris. Parts of it had been used 
previous to the find of Professor Mims. The Yale publication is in the 
original French. 

Norfolk was the port at which Moreau landed. There was at the 
time a number of French refugees at that port. Concerning the 
religion of the city he says : 

There is here also, as I have said before, a place consecrated to 
the exercise of the Roman cult. It is a chamber very much in dis- 
order, where the preacher comes to the unhappy refugees of St. 
Domingo. This minister receives his powers from Mr. Carol, conse- 
crated a Roman Bishop in London, named vicar general by the Holy 
See and resident at Baltimore. (Page 55.) 

Passing through Frenchtown in Maryland he wrote in his diary: 

They say that the name of this town was given to it because it 
was formed in 1715 by a reunion of Acadians, whom the English 
had sent into banishment. (Page 95.) 



216 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

There is a passing mention of the Church in Baltimore (p. 88) 
and one of that in New York (p. 163). The greatest amount of 
data of the Church in this country is concerned with the condition 
of affairs in Philadelphia. It is very bitter in parts, which is to be 
expected after reading the account of his stay there. His mother-in- 
law died in Philadelphia and for some reason was denied burial from 
the Catholic Church. She was finally buried from the Episcopal 
Church, with the Bishop of that denomination officiating. The 
account of the Church is as follows: 

The Episcopal and Roman Catholic Churches have organs. That 
which I have said in regard to the concord which reigns among per- 
sons of different communions, does not at all apply to the Catholics. 
I have said that they have three churches in Philadelphia. The one 
which is simply called a Chapel is placed back between Walnut Street 
and a little alley, and between Third and Fourth Streets south. This 
is the first church of this communion in Philadelphia. It is not more 
than a sort of oratory where they say low mass and where they 
administer for the convenience of the priests who dwell in the same 
place. The priests of this Chapel are Irish and consequently fanatics. 
They have the care of St. Mary's Irish Church on Fourth Street 
south. This church is only an ordinary house with a large door and 
another at the side. Over the altar is a crucifixion for a reredos. 
The pulpit touches the altar on the Epistle side. 

The third church is the English Catholic Church at the north 
corner of Spruce and Sixth Streets. Those who frequent this church 
have separated from the Church of St. INIary, because of the Irish 
domination there prevalent, and because the priests are here real 
administrators. The English church has been built recently, and is 
much prettier than the other, if indeed this word is known to the 
other two. The pulpit is on the Cjospel side, but too near the 
choir. They preach here in English. The altar has for a reredos a 
dreadful painting which intended to show Christ ascending into 
Heaven and being received by his father, who holds in his right 
hand a monstrance with a host. It has pews and a small organ. 

The churches have a common cemetery which surrounds the 
Church of St. Mary, but each has a limited portion of this land. 
After the prayers for the dead the clergy, preceded by the cross, 
go to conduct the dead to the cemeter3\ The Roman Churches are 
the only ones seen to exercise publicly and in the street an act of 
their cult. 

The English priests of this church pass for moderns, for* the Irish 
will not marry one without a note of confession, and will not bury 
those who have not confessed. These two churches derived their 
authority from the Roman archbishop Mr. Carol. The Catholic 
cemetery is like that of the other communions in Philadelphia, full 
of marble and inscriptions. 

On the 5th day of March, 1797, there was fulminated in the 
Irish Catholic Church of St. Mary a mandate of M. Carol, who inter- 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 217 

dieted the English Catholic Church. The motive of this interdiction 
is the pretention that M. le Cure of the English Church, usurped 
all the fees, and at the same time his vicar performed all the func- 
tions. The church wardens proposed to him to take all the product 
of all that he did and one-half of that which his vicar received, but 
he would not, and was sent away. Then it was found that the Irish 
priests of St. Mary 's made of this a capital affair, because the church 
wardens of the English church had separated originally from them. 
They rebuked the Irish priests always for encroaching on the tem- 
poral administration. The only effect of the interdict has been to 
carry more people to the English church. (Page 365.) 

W. WINTERBOTHAM 

An Historical, Geographical, Commercial and Philosophical 
View of the American United States 

(1795) 

Winterbotham was a dissenting minister and a political prisoner 
who was born in London, December 15, 1763. He became a Calvinist 
and at a later period a Baptist minister. At Plymouth in 1792 he 
preached two sermons for which he was arrested and tried for sedi- 
tion. He was sentenced to serve two years for each sermon. It 
appears to have been during his imprisonment at New Gate that he 
prepared his View of the United States. This he did to meet an 
acknowledged want in Europe, where so many contemplating immi- 
gration to America anxiously sought for accurate information and 
for local and political details. The chief resources for his facts and 
principles seems to have been quotations from writers, both European 
and American. A similar work on China was written by him at this 
same time. As far as we have been able to ascertain, there is no 
record of the author having at any time visited the United States. 
He does not make this claim for himself in his: books, but is generally 
believed to have made the voyage. He died at New Market, March 
31, 1829. 

After describing the condition of the other religions in some detail, 
he says of the Roman Catholics : 

The whole number of Roman Catholics in the United States isi not 
estimated at above 5,000, one-half of which are in the State of Mary- 
land. Their peculiar and leading tenets are too well known to need 
recital here. They have a Bishop, who resides in Baltimore and 
many of their congregations are large and respectable. (I, p. 383.) 

There is in this quotation a serious mistake in regard to the 
number of Catholics in the country at that time. There was none 



218 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

who had visited the State of Maryland alone and estimated the 
number so low. In the second volume there are a number of remarks 
concerning the Church: 

The New York State legislature has passed a law for all denomi- 
nations to appoint Church trustees to care for the temporalities. 
(II, p. 334.) 

This law included the Catholic Churches as well as the others. 
The effect of this legislation is well known. Then follows a number 
of less important remarks: 

There is one Roman Church in Boston. (II, p. 140.) 
There are a few Catholics in Maine. (II, p. 221.) 
There is one Eoman Catholic Church in New York. (II, p. 317.) 
The Irish in Pennsylvania are mostly Protestants from the North 
of Ireland. (II, p. 439.) 

The third volume contains also but passing references: 

The Eoman Catholics were the first to settle in Maryland and are 
now the most numerous sect in that State. (Ill, p. 41.) 

In Kentucky there are a few Roman Catholics. (Page 149.) 

There is little of value in these volumes for the history of the 
Catholic Church. The other religions receive more ample treatment. 



ISAAC WELD 

Travels Through the States of North America 

(1795-1797) 

Disturbed by the war-torn condition of Europe, and determined 
to learn whether "any part of these territories might be looked for- 
ward to as an eligible and agreeable place of abode," brought Isaac 
Weld to our shores. It is he who is so often quoted as saying that 
Washington had known of mosquitoes in New Jersey that could bite 
through the thickest soles. He found much to discourage him in this 
country. He thought our manners cold and suspicious, our taverns 
crowded and ill managed, while he correctly remarked that Princeton 
and other colleges that he visited "better deserve the title of gram- 
mar school. ' ' For our purpose his narrative is of very limited value. 
In Detroit he remarked: 

There is a large Roman Catholic Church in the town of Detroit 
and another on the opposite side called the Huron Church, from its 
having been devoted to the use of the Huron Indians. (Page 186.) 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 219 

This is the same church that was mentioned by Carver in 1768. 
It was about the time of Weld's visit that this territory was assigned 
to the Diocese of Baltimore, having at that time been ceded to the 
United States. Father Richard and his two priest companions 
arrived in Detroit about the time Weld was making his observation. 
The author goes to some length to show that the different sects have 
not been in the least successful in converting the Indian and says 
in this regard : 

The Catholics have the greatest number of converts among them, 
but this is because they place little restraint upon them. (Page 283.) 



LA ROCHEFOUCAULT-LIANCOURT 

Travels Through the United States of North America 
(1795-1797) 

La Roehefoucault-Liancourt, a Frenchman, was at Rouen when 
the Constituent Assembly, of which he was a member, was dissolved. 
Subsequently he passed many months in England and then came to 
America. His Voyage dans les Etats-Unis and his efficiency in intro- 
ducing the use of vaccination in France, caused him to be remem- 
bered as a man of letters and benevolence. He lived to a venerable 
age and won the highest respect, although long subject to the asper- 
sions of partisan opponents, whom his liberal nature failed to con- 
ciliate. There is little of novel information to the American reader 
in his voluminous work, except the record of local features and social 
facts. He occupied himself chiefly with economical investigations, 
especially those connected with agriculture. He made himself much 
at home with all classes of society. The work on his trip to America 
is his chief source of literary reputation, and has been characterized 
by a French writer as "froide, sans imagination et sans I'esprit 
d 'artiste." 

The first Catholic fact mentioned is that there is a Church at 
Reading, Pa., for German Catholics, (I, p. 26.) Following this 
there is no mention of the Church until he arrived at Detroit. He 
says of the Country in that part: 

A seventh of the lands is allotted to the support of the Protes- 
tant clergy. For the Catholic service nothing is paid except in 
Detroit. In Detroit half of the inhabitants are Catholic but no 
Church has yet been built. (I, p. 265.) 

There is an error in the observation of the traveler in this 
remark. The Church of St. Anne was dedicated on July 26, 1701, 



220 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

the present church being the sixth of that name. There was a 
church there continually from the first dedication until 1805. After 
the fire of that year, services were held for a time in a house which 
had been furnished as a chapel. At the very time that Weld was 
making his observation that there were two churches, one in the 
city and other on the opposite share, Liancourt was noting that 
there was no Church at all. When he visited the city, Fathers 
Richard, Levadoux and Dilhet were on their way from Baltimore, 
if they had not already arrived in Detroit. They were to take the 
places of the French missionaries who had been recalled to Canada 
when the territory was ceded to the United States. 

Of the Indian missions there is mention of Loretto, which place 
though not in the United States, we consider as important, because 
it was composed of Indians who for the most part had gone from 
the States to that mission. 

The Indians of Loretto have attained, it is asserted the last 
stage of civilization, at least in the point of incorruptness of morals 
and manners. No other village can in this respect rival Loretto. 
These Indians who on working days dress like the Canadians, wear 
on feast days and Sundays their usual dress. They cultivate their 
fields in the same manner as the whites, live like them and speak 
the same language. They are of the Roman Catholc persuasion and 
a curate resides among them. (I, p. 322.) 

Loretto was a small Indian village of Hurons and located north- 
west of Quebec. It has its name from a small chapel there, after 
the model of Santa Casa at Loretto in Italy. An image of the 
Blessed Virgin was sent from Italy to the Indian converts, and was 
said to closely resemble that in the Italian sanctuary. 

Of Norfolk we read: 

There are three churches in Norfolk ; one a Protestant Episcopal 
subject to the Bishop of Williamsburg, one belongs to the Roman 
Catholics and the clergyman derives his powers from Mr. Carrol, 
Bishop of Maryland; the third is a Methodist Church. (II, p. 17.) 

JOHN BERNARD 

Retrospections of America 
(1787-1811) 

John Bernard was one of the cleverest of comedians and one 
of the shrewdest theatrical managers of his time. He was born in 
Portsmouth, England, the son of a naval officer. At the age of 
eighteen he went on the stage. At the height of his power, at the 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 221 

age of forty-one, he came to America, with his wife, a versatile 
actress. Bernard left in manuscript an autobiography, a portion of 
which was published by his son under the title of Retrospections of 
the Stage. The portion dealing with America was long after pub- 
lished by his heirs, and issued under the title of Retrospections of 
America. The last years of Bernard's life in America are missing 
in this volume, the manuscript for these years having been lost. 
The author traveled considerably in this country and was a quick 
observer and shrewd in his conclusions. The book contains many 
anecdotes and the style is admirable. After meeting Charles Carroll 
he made the following entry in his diary. 

From the refinement of his manners, a stranger would have 
surmised that he had passed all his days in the salons of Paris. 
He had all the suavity and softness, in combination with dignity, 
which bespeak the perfection of good taste. This attested the char- 
acter of his society. Ease may be natural to a man, but elegance 
— the union of propriety with ease — must be acquired; the art of 
respecting one's company as well as one's self implies that one's 
company is worth respecting. But Mr. Carroll possessed higher 
qualities than mere external polish. He had a heart that colored 
all his thoughts and deeds with the truest hues of humanity. No 
man was fonder of doing good, and certainly, none could do it 
with a better grace. (P. 28.) 

Such high praise of an American who had been a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence, could hardly be expected from an 
Englishman during the period between our two wars with the 
mother country. It is the more valuable, for Bernard had made the 
acquaintance of the greatest men in America in that day, and of 
none does he write so highly. One other Catholic he saw fit to 
write about, but it is not his own personal observation, but an 
account given to him by a certain Mr. O'Donnell. It is concerned 
with Lord Baltimore: 

He had the fortitude, forethought and deep undefiled spring of 
benevolence. Thus qualified to head an enterprise which planted 
the tree of liberty, where it was destined to shoot up and spread its 
greatful shelter over thousands. His spirit seems to have entered 
into the atmosphere of the country and gives it its happy harmoniz- 
ing influence. (P. 138.) 

There is reference here to the then new Constitution. He further 
quotes in the words of Lord Baltimore the letter that was written 
to the Swedish Governor: 

The opposed of one country I can not become the oppressor in 
another. To me America is a city of refuge, not strife ... on the 



222 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

land where I am a stranger our children may become brothers. 
With God and our consciences for our friends, pride and envy and 
dissimulation will be our only enemies. (P. 139.) 



THOMAS ASHE 

Travels in America 

(1806 

Ashe has the distinction of being the first to discover that a 
book abusing the people of the United States would be profitable 
by its popularity. This stranger in our land was born in Ireland 
in 1770. He had traveled much in Europe before being forced to 
flee to this country because of financial difficulties. Having lived 
for a time in Maryland, he obtained a position in the secret service 
department under Jefferson. His Travels in America purport to be 
a collection of forty-two letters written by him during a journey 
from Pittsburg to New Orleans. They are concerned with the 
western states of that day, for he very early dismisses the eastern 
territories, remarking in his first letter that, 'Hhey are unworthy 
of your observation." The book helped to keep alive the enmity 
which both the British and the Americans had inherited from the 
Revolution, and it became an unsavory tradition. In Pittsburgh there 
was a favorable impression concerning the Catholics. He states : 

I was content on being assured that the better kind of people 
frequent the Protestant Church and the Romanish Chapel. (P. 28.) 

Father Helbron, the Capuchin, cared for the Catholics of Pitts- 
burgh at this time. There was no resident priest there, this priest 
making his headquarters at Clear Spring near Greensburg. This 
hard warking priest labored in that part of Western Pennsylvania 
until 1815. 

A very interesting account is given of the almost forgotten 
Gallipolis Colony. It is so complete that we have decided to give the 
entire text: 

Galliopolis being a French town and settlement which has made 
a considerable noise in the world, I feel myself under a more im- 
mediate obligation to give you a correct and historical account of 
its rise, progress and fall. A land speculator who explored this 
western country a few years ago, took plans of the site of Gallio- 
polis; surveyed two hundred thousand surrounding acres and sub- 
mitted his labors on parchment, with all the embellishments of a 
draftsman, and all the science of a topographer. The site for a 
town was represented on a high plane of great extent and beauty, 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 223 

commanding views up, down and across the river for several miles. 
Eminences were everywhere pointed out as eligible for the residence 
of the wealthy, and comfortable secluded spots were marked for 
the retreat of the more humble and indigent. Long extended and 
fertile tracts were noted as proper places for the exertion of the 
most powerful and industrious, and water falls, cataracts and rapid 
streams descended and flowed for the benefit of mills, the promotion 
of commerce, and the diffusion of prosperity and happiness. When 
these advantages were magnified by the high colored machinery 
of hanging woods; ever verdent meads interspersed clumps of 
flowering magnolia and oderiferous catalpa, natural vineyards with 
purple clusters of grapes bending to the ground, and all other 
objects incident to sublime landscape, it may well be supposed that 
the gentleman's plans cultivated the sanguine French and formed 
an irresistable lure to this celestial paradise. His maps and surveys 
had marginal notes illustrative of its natural history, and the buf- 
falo, elk, deer, birds, fish, and game of every description were stated 
to abound in such quantity that for several years man could subsist 
without any labor other than the healthy and pleasant occupations 
of hunting and fishing. 

Furnished with testimonies of so flattering a nature and with 
credentials of the first authority to the most respectable houses in 
Paris, he repaired to that Capital and met with all the hospitality 
and attention to which he was entitled by his manners, intelligence 
and introductions. After associating with the great some months, 
he gave publicity to his views ; opened by permission of the Govern- 
ment a land office ; ; exhibited his charts and plans and offered lands 
they expressed for a French crown per acre. The troubles then 
existing in France were favorable to his intentions. Those who 
were compelled to stifle their resentment against the state, were 
rejoiced at the opportunity to abandon it, and the Government at 
length tired of the perpetual work of the guillotine, preferred to 
get rid of the disaffected by emigration, to the labor of compression 
in dungeons or the effusion of blood. 

Numerous emigrants were ready to repair to the extolled terri- 
tory. Of these a few of the more opulent, liberal and enlightened 
combined to purchase the speculators whole right and title, and extin- 
guished all his claim for one thousand crowns, and of course assumed 
to themselves the disposition of the lands and the charge of settling 
them, but without any pecuniary advantage. A proceeding as honor- 
able as this in the proprietors had the auspicious effect. In a short 
time five hundred families previously well situated embarked with 
the proprietors for the United States, crossed the mountains and 
descended the river to their new possessions to the "promised land, 
flowing with milk and honey, and abounding with all the necessaries 
and luxuries of life." 

The lands were divided among them according to priority of pur- 
chase, and where it could with propriety, according to predilection 
and choice. Some went to subjugate the forests; some to reside on 
the rivers' banks. Some went in pursuit of mill seats, cataracts and 



224 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

falls, and others contented themselves to look at the flowering 
meadows and arromatic groves. A considerable number remained 
to settle the town now called Galliopolis. 

Such a body of settlers soon effected a change in the face of 
nature. A very neat town quickly arose on a delightful plain, and 
a number of little comfortable homes adorned the best situations 
along the river. Having brought with them implements of husbandry 
and seeds of all kinds of fruit and vegetables from Europe, the 
colony appeared to flourish to an unprecedented degree and to extend 
its fame to the widest bounds. This unexampled character and suc- 
cess was the operation of two years. On the third, the settlers retired 
to the back country, and who did not suffer death came in and 
reported that the meadows and good lands they went in search of 
proved no more than swampy intervals between mountains where 
men could not exist, and that the mill seats and waterfalls were dry, 
except during the dissolution of the winter snows, which could not 
be calculated upon only for the short period of about three weeks 
in the year. 

The return of these disappointed speculators alarmed the infant 
town, and the river settlements spread an apprehension of the want 
of bread and general distress. Small patches of gardens and vistas 
to the water had gone to the drudgery of preparing ground heavily 
timbered for the purposes of raising corn or producing the other 
necessaries, which are the result only of toil and unremitting in- 
dustry. Unfortunately, too, the settlers were for the most part 
artisans who had resided all their lives in Paris, Lyons and the 
other great towns of France. To labor in gloomy woods, and clear 
for agriculture land crowded with trees several feet in diameter, was 
a task incompatible with their former habits and views. A con- 
tracted system of horticulture was all they were equal to and such a 
mode could not provide for any supernumerary mouths. The dis- 
contented were resolved to return home, and others to proceed to the 
Eastern States, sell their shares and resume their ancient professions. 
From the sale of possessions, however, very little trouble arose. 
At the time when affairs were progressing, and improvements going 
on with as much vigor as could be expected from emaciated me- 
chanics and effeminate shop-keepers, a person arrived in the colony, 
claiming it as his own, and stating that the man who sold the land 
in France was an impostor. To a people already under suffering 
and disappointment, this was a dreadful blow that could not be 
averted, and which involved in its fall the ruin of their hopes and 
the labor and toil of the four previous years. The new claim was 
sanctioned by Congress, and a proposition was made to the French 
to abandon their improvements, or to repurchase a certain quantity 
adjoining to and including such improvements, at the rate of two 
dollars more per acre. Many spurned at this proposition however 
fair, and left the country in disgust, while others with large families 
remained, again purchased and persevered to give the settlement a 
rise, in despite of disappointment, imposition, calamity, and a host 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 225 

of evils and difficulties which required all the energies of human 
exertion to avoid and to remove. 

Such strength of mind and perseverance merited a successful fate, 
and no doubt would have terminated in a happy issue, but for ponds 
lying behind or near the town, which often infected the air and 
predisposed to fever and ague, even from the commencement of the 
settlement, but on the fifth year they became so contagious that many 
died and several became so seriously alarmed as to throw up their 
improvements and sell all their titles for the little they required to 
travel to Philadelphia or New York, where they might follow handi- 
craft trades and procure bread with more ease and security. Those 
who remained were principally the infirm and young children; few 
improvements went on, the place continued rapidly to decline, and 
is now at the period of my writing, in a fair way of being restored 
to nature, and returning to the gloom of its primative woods. The 
total number of habitable houses is reduced to nine, about seven 
more are occupied in the original purchase. Thus I account for six- 
teen families out of five hundred who came into the country a few 
years before, big with expectations of felicity and dreaming of noth- 
ing less than perpetual comfort and continual happiness. The 
sixteen families which persist in remaining are those who purchased 
a second time. I am happy to have authority to account for seventy 
more families who arrived from France and which seventy were those 
who left Gallipolis in disgust on the learning of the springing up 
of the new proprietor, who required them to make a new purchase 
or to quit the premises. Congress, much to its honor, made their case 
a national one and has granted them lands lower down the river in 
lieu of those they had to abandon in this place. They report to their 
friends that their new grounds are excellent, but that sickness and 
excess of unaccustomed labor keeps thinning them by no very insen- 
sible degrees. (P. 163 ff.) 

The history of Gallipolis started in New York with the founding 
of the Scioto Company. This company was formed by William Duer, 
then Secretary of the United States, who saw an opportunity of 
profiting by joining with the Ohio Company, who was at this time 
attempting to purchase land from Congress. By his association with 
members of the Ohio Company, and by persuasion used in Congress, 
Duer succeeded in obtaining about one-half of the land sold to the 
Ohio Company. It was his intention to sell the land and he looked 
to Europe as a place of possible sale. To attain this end he dis- 
patched Joel Barlow to France. Arriving there in 1788, Barlow 
soon learned that it was not possible to sell the land as one tract, 
and formed a French Scioto Company to sell in small lots. William 
Playfair seems to have managed the business of the company from 
that time on, and received whatever money was paid by the French 
buyers. In 1789 the French company made their purchase, and 



226 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

apparently they knew at the time that they had only an option on 
the land, although the literature that was circulated did not say this 
explicitly. French travelers who had visited this country warned 
their countrymen not to buy the land, but their advice was not 
heeded. Those who came represented a complete cross-section of 
French society at the outbreak of the French Revolution. It was 
suggested that a seminary be built at Gallipolis, to serve as a refuge 
if St. Sulpice in Paris were closed. It was a fond hope that the 
Church would be placed on a firm foundation in the new colony and 
the question of establishing a bishopric there is an interesting chapter 
in our Church history. Troubles started as soon as the first of the 
colonists arrived in the country and found that the land they had 
bargained for was the property of the Ohio Company. They arrived 
at the settlement in October, 1790. Of Dom Didier, the Benedictine 
who accompanied them, little is recorded. Father Badin, who visited 
the town in the same year as Ashe, said that though the settlement 
had much declined, he found the spark of faith there, and a number 
of Irish settlers in the vicinity. 

Of the Church in New Orleans a rather long account is given by 
Ashe. It is not correct in every detail, but is so substantially. It 
runs as follows : 

The religion is Catholic; that is, the religion of the French and 
Spanish is Catholic; as for the Americans they have none. They 
disregard the Sabbath entirely ; or if they go to the Catholic Church, 
there not being any other, they go to a spectacle, where fine women 
are to be seen and fine music to be heard. 

The Catholic Church, as well as the Town House, the Jail and 
the palace of the priests, were all built by the once celebrated mer- 
chant, Don Andre, on condition that he should be made a noble of 
Spain. He lived to expend two million dollars on these and other 
public works, but he died before the ambitious honors were lavished 
upon him ; and his wife has the mortification still to be called 
Madame Andre. 

The Church is a very large structure, built of brick and plastered 
in front and painted to give it the appearance of marble. 

In the Sacristy there are several relics; among which is a thorn 
of our Saviour 's crown, tinged with his blood ; a cloth of Santa 
Veronica, enriched with his image, and a cross of Indian workman- 
ship, said to be found on the bank of the Riviere Noir, on the very 
spot where the famous Ferdinand de Soto ended his discoveries and 
his life, and where his remains now lie buried. The priest who ex- 
hibited the altar and the relics, appeared much displeased with the 
little belief afforded them by Americans, and informed me that orders 
had arrived from the Bishops of Cuba and Mexico to forward all 
the pictures and relics from the Churches of Louisiana to New Spain, 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 227 

where the honours of belief and admiration, in anxious solicitude 
awaits them. 

Besides the Church there is another place of religious worship — 
a convent for the instruction and accomodation of fifty nuns. They 
have a very neat Chapel where mass is celebrated twice daily, during 
which the nuns join in the melody of the service from a situation 
separated from the audience by close iron bars. I could just distin- 
guish that they were dressed in black robes, with the same colored 
veil flowing from the head to the feet. They are not allowed to take 
in novices; as on the death of the present nuns, the American gov- 
ernment purposes to seize on their possessions and lands, which are 
very considerable both in the city and neighborhood. (P. 336.) 

Don Andre Almonaster y Koxas generously offered his aid when 
the New Orleans conflagration of 1788 destroyed the church, school 
and Capuchiu convent. He offered to build the church, priests 
house and a building for public offices and was to be repaid at a 
later date. This offer was immediately accepted and work was started 
at once. Don Andre died in New Orleans on April 26, 1789, and 
was buried in the church he had built. His remains now lie in the 
Cathedral. He received a cedula from Spain, conferring on him the 
honors and rights of Royal Patronage, but it did not arrive until 
1794, five years after his death. The Ursuline convent here spoken 
of is the original dwelling of that order in New Orleans. At the 
time that Ashe was in the city, there were but six sisters in the 
convent, the others having gone to Havana when the United States 
annexed Louisiana. The statement that they were not allowed to 
take novices is not true. A few years before this the nuns were 
advised by the President of the United States that they would 
receive every protection that could be given by the Government. It 
is also a fact that a few years after Ashe's visit a number of Ursu- 
lines arrived at this convent to take the places of those who had left. 
Bishop Du Bourg was a few years later seeking postulants for the 
community in France and a number of young girls responded. The 
sisters moved out of the city in 1824, because the city had gradually 
grown about the convent property and a street was about to be cut 
through the grounds. The land was not, however, taken by the 
government. The original building still stands, the oldest conven- 
tual structure in the United States and the oldest building in the 
Louisiana Purchase. When the sisters moved, it became the first 
episcopal residence and later the diocesan chancery. 



228 REV, JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

EDWAED A. KENDALL 
Travels Through the Northern Parts of the United States 

(1807-1808) 

Edward A. Kendall, a miscellaneous writer, was born about 1776. 
There is little known about his early years. He traveled through 
the northern part of the United States in 1807 and about a year 
later published a somewhat dull account of his wanderings in three 
octavo volumes. No previous work on this country so fully explains 
the State policy and organization of New England and the social 
facts connected therewith. "The intention of travel," he says, "is 
the discovery of truth." He pays much attention to New England 
customs, the famous Blue Laws forming a curious chapter. He 
returned to England and in 1819 founded the Library and Weekly 
Review. In his writings on Ireland he was a pronounced anti-Cath- 
olic. He wrote a great number of works and died at Pimlico, October, 
1842. 

The first volume of Kendall's travels does not include any Catholic 
data. The second volume has a few references, all bearing on New 
England. The first is a mere mention: 

There is one Roman Catholic Church here (Boston). II, p. 243.) 

The Church of the Holy Cross was the first church erected in 
Boston. It had been consecrated just a few years before this time 
by Bishop Carroll. It was a noteworthy fact that at this time, in 
puritanical Boston, $11,000, or about one-third of the whole cost of 
the structure, had been raised among the well-to-do Protestants, 
President John Adams heading the list. Charles Bulfinch, another 
Protestant and the designer of the Capitol at Washington and the 
State House in Boston, supplied the plans for the church without 
charge. 

A very poor motive for the zeal that caused the French missionaries 
to seek out the Indians is put forth in the following manner, after 
speaking of the struggle between the French and the English for the 
supremacy of the trade with the Indians: 

To counteract the obstacles that lay before them, the French had 
but one resource and that was in the propagation of the Christian 
and Roman Catholic Faith. They avow again and again, that 
wherever they were obliged to enter into competition with the 
English, they had neither friend in the field, or customer at the 
trading house, but among those that knelt at their altars. (II, p. 60.) 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 229 

A rather complete account is given of the death of Father Rale 
in the third volume of the account of travels. It is as follows: 

The first attempt of the government of Boston against the mission 
(Abenakieg and Nanrantawacs) consisted in the very allowable one 
of sending a Protestant missionary to effect, if possible, a change of 
religion among the Indians. After the Treaty of Utrecht, the English 
found means to build trading posts on the Kenebec, even with the 
consent of the Indians, but new wars succeeded and the mission of 
the Nanrantawacs was the cradle of Indian dissaffection. In Jan- 
uary, 1722, a party ascended the river to seize the person of Father 
Rale, the missionary. On the report of their arrival Father Rale 
escaped to the woods and the party returned without success except 
that it was able to pillage the church and the Missionary House and 
carry away what provisions it found in the village. It had chosen 
a season in the year when the strength of the village was absent at 
the chase. 

(Second attack) Having reached the village undiscovered, a dis- 
charge of musketry, of which the balls pierced the bark coverings of 
the wigwams, was the first intimation given to the Indians of the 
presence of the enemy. The next moment. Father Rale, a man of 
sixty-seven years, showed himself and was no sooner perceived in the 
street than a general shout was raised by the assailants, accompanied 
by a second discharge of musketry by which he was wounded and 
killed. (Ill, p. 63.) 

If the Nanrantawacs' Mission was the cradle of disaffection the 
cause was well known. Massachusetts Bay colony, in claiming the 
Maine territory, paid no attention to the claims of these Indians and 
made no attempt to purchase the lands from them. Moreover, the 
religion they had espoused was no longer permitted in the colony. 
This was naturally resented by the Indians. In 1698, when the 
commissioners of the colony met the Indians in conference at Pen- 
tagoet, the latter had refused to expel the missionaries. The request 
was again made in 3701 and again refused. In 1704 the English 
took a different means to effect their wish. After destroying the 
missions the English offered to rebuild them if the priests were sent 
away. This means also failed. A final attempt was made in 1717 by 
sending a Protestant minister to reside among the Indians to convert 
them to the Protestant faith. No more success awaited this person 
than had been met with previously. The first armed attempt to end 
the mission was made in 1722, when two separate attacks were made ; 
one on the Penobscots and the other on the Village of Norridge- 
wock, where Father Rale was stationed. This time the missionary 
hid himself in the woods and escaped. The second attempt on his 
life, which was successful, was made in 1724, under Colonel Moulton, 
who commanded a band of English and Mohawks. Father Rale 



230 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

knew that he was the chief object of the attack and delivered himself 
up to save his Christians. Seven of his Indians died at his side in 
an attempt to save him. The mission was burned and most of the 
survivors went to Canada. 



HENRY TETU 

Journal des Visites Pastorales par Mgr. Plessis 
(1815-1816) 

Joseph Octave Plessis was bom in Quebec on March 3, 1763. He 
was educated in the schools of Montreal and Quebec and was ordained 
a priest in 1786. Eleven years later, in 1797, he was named Vicar- 
General of Quebec and chosen as coadjutor. The bulls having been 
delaying owing to the imprisonment of Pius the Seventh, Plessis was 
not consecrated until 1801. He immediately assumed the greater 
part of the administration of the diocese, Bishop Briand being old and 
infirm. In 1806 he became Bishop of Quebec and in this position 
won the love and respect of all who knew him. When the United 
States declared war in 1812, the Bishop urged the Canadians to be 
loyal to England, for which he was honored by the English Govern- 
ment. In 1815, Plessis made a tour of New England and New York. 
His diary of this time contains a number of valuable references, as 
does that of a year later when he visited Detroit, while on a visitation 
to the western part of his diocese. 

The excerpts from this work, if taken in extenso, would we feel, 
carry us too great a length. In the case of this pastoral record of 
visitations, then, we will give the substance of what is there con- 
tained. On the 24th of August, in 1815, Plessis was en route to the 
United States and wrote in his diary : 

About a half a league from this place (Mouse Island) on the 
right bank of the river Sante-Croix, is situated the Abnaquis village, 
called Point Pleasant, where the Bishop of Quebec at the request of 
the Bishop of Boston, has promised to give confirmation. (I, p. 132.) 

It was five days later that the Canadian party reached the town 
of Point Pleasant. The journal contains a very lengthy account of 
the history of this Maine mission, and then follows the happenings 
of the day. He writes: 

This village is composed of Abenaquis, Canibas, Malechites or 
Amerecites, gathered together as has before observed in regard to 
the Indians of the Saint Jean River ... it was toward the River 
Sainte-Croix that the first Jesuits were sent when charged to an- 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 231 

nounee the faith to the savages of North America. The first seed has 
not been lost. (I, p. 135.) 

He then goes on to relate the trials that came to the Indians, first 
from the English and later from a Keeollect lay brother, who ap- 
peared among them and, pretending to be a priest, went through all 
the forms of the Sacraments, and finally robbed the Indians of their 
few savings. This brother had come from Canada, in 1782, being 
known there as Brother Juniper. These Indians were without a 
priest for several years and suffered : 

The privation of spiritual assistance until M. Adrien Leclere 
started a mission at Madawaska, (I, p. 137.) 

This was in the year 1786. The distance from the Indian villages 
to Madawaska was so great that the natives petitioned the Bishop of 
Quebec, Msgr. Hubert, to send them a priest. This prelate reminded 
them that the Maine district was now under the United States and 
that the Spiritual direction of those parts was under Carroll, an 
ex-Jesuit, who had been named Prefect-Apostolic of the United 
States. A second time the Indians returned to the Bishop of Quebec, 
who on this occasion informed them that there was a new Bishopric 
in Baltimore and that Carroll had been consecrated as the Bishop 
of the new See. 

They lost no time, and that same year (1791) they sent a depu- 
tation of three Indian villages of the rivers Sainte-Croix, Penobscot 
and Saint-Jean, vtdthout considering that these last were still British 
subjects and belonged to the Diocese of Quebec. The deputies were 
given a letter signed by the chiefs of the three cantons, written in 
English by some strange hand, and dated May 17, 1791. Among 
other things they said to the new Bishop: *A great number of our 
young have grown up, without having received Baptism ; our women 
have not the ceremonies of the Church after childbirth. We our- 
selves are covered with a multitude of sins ... we pray you, father 
of the Church in this land, to send us a priest, we await with anxious 
heart and hoping a gratious answer. (I, p. 138.) 

The Indians at the same time presented to Bishop Carroll a cru- 
cifix, thinking that this image would have more of an appeal than 
their words. This pious artifice had its effect, and the Bishop wrote 
the same day to the Superior General of Saint Sulpice, M. Emery, 
for priests. The following year two priests arrived in Baltimore and 
one of them. Father Ciquard, was sent immediately to the Passama- 
quody, on the River Sainte-Croix. He remained here until he was 
transferred, in 1794, to the River Saint-Jean, and from this latter 
station he visited the Penobscots. There follows a very long account 



232 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

of the Abbe Cheverus, his arrival in America and his appointment 
under Father Matignon, whom Plessis praises in the highest terms. 
There then follows an account of the day itself. It was the 29th of 
August that Plessis arrived at the Penobscot village : 

They found between sixty and eighty families gathered together 
to receive Confirmation from the hands of the Bishop of Quebec. He 
was received with all the ceremonies as if he had been the Bishop of 
the Diocese. (I, p. 140.) 

It was necessary to wait a few days before administering the 
Sacrament, for in the Bishop 's mind : 

They had been badly prepared to receive it, all having been occu- 
pied, up to the moment of our arrival, in a national festival, which 
was to end that same night with a feast and a dance. (I, p. 140.) 

The following afternoon Father Romagne, who had met the 
Bishop when the latter arrived in the village, heard the confessions 
of the Indians, the festival having in no way interfered with the 
devotion of the people : 

This village, like that of Sainte-Anne, is remarkable for sobriety, 
of which the other savage nations furnish few examples. (I, p. 142.) 

The State of Massachusetts was at this time paying to Father 
Romagne a yearly salary of about 350 piastres, because of his labor 
among the Indians. On the last day of August, the Bishop and his 
priests celebrated mass, and having said the office of the day, con- 
firmation was conferred, after which Father Romagne spoke to the 
people in their own language. During the afternoon the episcopal 
party departed from the village and boarded the Minerva for Boston. 
On the fourth day the party arrived in Boston and expressed their 
surprise at the view of the city which arose before them. They at 
once went to pay their respects to Bishop Cheverus. Plessis wrote 
in a tone of wonder, on beholding the changed attitude towards 
Catholics in Boston: 

The city of all America the most opposed to Catholicism, where 
every year in the month of November, they believed it to be an act 
of religion to burn the pope in effigy . . . these follies have ceased. 
Some respectable Irish Catholics have become citizens of this city 
. . . they are free to follow whatever cult they please, the spirit of 
persecution and fanaticism is lost. A certain French priest by the 
name of Poterie arrived in this city and gathered about him some 
French and Irish families whom he found there, and set himself up 
as their pastor. He purchased an abandoned edifice, which had some- 
times served as a temple for the French Hugenots. It was here that 
the Abbe Poterie commenced to exercise his functions after having 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 233 

given to the church the name of Holy Cross, without having asked 
for powers from Father Carroll, the ex-Jesuit of Baltimore, who had 
been appointed Prefect Apostolic for the United States. It is prob- 
able that the Abbe Potierie did not know of this, because the Holy 
See had but recently established it. But he certainly knew that he 
was not able to set up this mission of himself, and he did not need 
to be informed that there was somebody from whom he must draw 
his power. Quomodo Praedicant, nisi mittantur? This was in 1787. 
(I, p. 147.) 

The story of the departure of Poterie for Canada and his stay 
there is then portrayed. The Bishop then goes on with the early 
history of Boston : 

There appeared, then, another intruder, Abbe Rousselet who put 
himself in possession of the Church in Boston . . . the prefect of 
Baltimore was at length informed of what was going on. He had 
sent M. Thayer, recently arrived from Europe, who had been born 
in Boston and was brought up in the principles of Puritanism (there 
then follows a long account of the conversation of Thayer and the 
struggle between himself and Rousselet in Boston). Father Carroll 
became Bishop in 1791. He received the following year, M. de 
Matignon, a doctor of Navarre, and decided to send him to Boston 
to denounce M. Rousselet, charging him to denounce him to the 
people for what he was. The Abbe Matignon arrived and communi- 
cated to him (Rousselet) the orders he carried and begged him not 
to put him to the necessity of publishing them. Rousselet accepted 
in good part and retired to the Islands of the Gulf of Mexico, where 
he later died on the guillotine after having prepared for death in a 
very edifying manner. (I, p. 149.) 

One section of the above quotation is not true to fact. Bishop 
Carroll suspended Rousselet in 1791 and made a personal visit to 
Boston in that same year. In the Massachusetts capital the Bishop 
was well received and succeeded in settling the strife between the 
two factions. Rousselet had most probably left Boston before Abbe 
Matignon arrived there in 1792. The journal continues: 

M. Thayer remained one year with M. Matignon, after which he 
went to occupy diverse places in the State of New York, in Balti- 
more, in England and finally in Limerick, in Ireland, where he died 
in February last, having always kept high his piety and zeal, but 
having no ability to settle down. (I, p. 150.) 

M. Cheverus has come to join Doctor Matignon, and the two 
worked with zeal and success to advance the work of God in the City 
of Boston and the vicinity. Providence fructified their labors. With 
but few resources they were able to acquire in the center of the city 
a large plot, on which they have built in brick a beautiful church 
which cost more than 20,000 piastres. It was consecrated by the 
Bishop of Baltimore on September 29, 1803, under the name of Holy 



234 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

Cross. A short time after, they acquired a lot adjoining the first, 
which furnished a house for the two of them. (I, p. 150.) 

The journal continues with a narrative of the division of the 
Diocese of Baltimore and the nomination of Egan, Coneanen, Flaget 
and Cheverus. Bishop Coneanen was consecrated in Rome and set 
out for America. Arriving in Naples, he was unable to secure pas- 
sage to America, due to the Neapoleanic blockade. He died after a 
short imprisonment in that city. Before death the newly consecrated 
Bishop had sent copies of the briefs of the other three nominees to 
M. Emery, who in turn forwarded them to America. The three 
Bishops were consecrated in October and November of the year 1810. 
Returning to the story of Boston, Plessis continues : 

Msgr. Cheverus returned to Boston not at all changed in his 
manner of life, and continued to fulfill, as he had done heretofore, 
all the duties of a pastor and a missionary, always in perfect har- 
mony with Doctor Matignon. (I, p. 152.) 

It was the intention of Bishop Plessis to return at once to Quebec, 
but he was persuaded to visit New York. Father Matignon accom- 
panied the episcopal party for the rest of the tour. On the morning 
of the seventh of September, Bishops Cheverus and Plessis made a 
few calls before the latter left the city. In relating these visits he 
says in part: 

At breakfast we had the pleasure of the Abbe Brosius' company, 
a priest of Luxenbourg, who, with Fathers Romagne and Matignon, 
forms the entire clergy of Boston. This Abbe Brosius is of no 
help to the others in the ministry because of infirmities which he 
contracted during eight or nine years during which time he exercised 
his ministry with much success and edification in the diocese of Bal- 
timore. He is obliged to teach mathematics, in which he is well 
versed, in the vicinity of the University of Cambridge. He has rented 
a beautiful large mansion, the property of the Vice-President of the 
United, States . . . in a word he is one of those rare men who know 
how to win and to maintain the favor of all those with whom he 
comes in contact. (I, p. 150.) 

The trip from Boston through Worcester and Hartford to New 
Haven drew no comment concerning religion. At New Haven the 
party proceeded to New York by boat. On arriving there : 

The first care of the Bishop was to send Messrs. Matignon and 
Boucherville to look for a good hotel. The latter was acquainted 
with a young merchant of the city named Willcox; the other had 
known for a long time, the father-in-law of M. Andrew Morris, the 
richest Catholic in New York, who is zealous for the good of the 
community, one of the trustees of the two churches, St. Peter's and 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 235 

St. Paul's. The only one of his faith, who was at this time a member 

of the House of Representatives of the State of New York they 

came to the Town Hall where M. Boucherville awaited them and 
where Father Fenwick, the Jesuit, had come to join them. . . . 
There are in the City of New York alone 15,000 Catholics cared for 
by three Jesuits; namely, Fathers Malou, Fenwick and Ranza. The 
Bishops of the Province assembled in Baltimore in 1810 and in- 
formed of the Death of Bishops Coneanen, unanimously appointed 
Father Kohlmann to administer the diocese of New York during the 
vacancy of the See. This one has been called by his superiors to be 
placed at the head of the novitiate at Georgetown, leaving the admin- 
istration to Father Fenwick, the superior of the house in New York, 
although he is the younger of his two confreres. (Plessis here ques- 
tions the validity of this transfer of administrative power and then 
proceeds.) The Sovereign Pontiff has answered by the nomination 
of Bishop Connolly, an Irish Dominican like his predecessor, and 
living at Rome for 37 years. They know indirectly that he was 
consecrated in the autumn of 1814 and that from Rome he went to 
Ireland. Of the rest they do not know if he intends to come and 
take possession of his church, where many things are in suspense, 
no other prelate caring to interfere in the affairs of a see, which has 
a head named and known. Those of the diocese show a little ill 
humor at the slowness of their new Bishop. Some likewise have 
started to say that they would leave if he does not come. At least 
it is hoped that if he does come, they will conduct themselves better 
toward him, than was done by those of Philadelphia toward their first 
Bishop, Mgr. Egan, who died last winter of sadness that there was 
directed at him the evil actions of the faithful confided to his care. 

Before now there has been but one Church for the Catholics, that 
of St. Peter, situated in the center of the city. Convinced of its 
incapacity, they undertook last year to construct another on the 
Bowery, that is to say, on the opposite extremity of the city. It has 
already cost 90,000 piastres . . . this church was consecrated last 
year in May, by the Bishop of Boston, under the name of St. Patrick. 
It is destined to be the Cathedral of the Bishop . . . the construc- 
tion of the church of St. Patrick has put the Jesuits to the necessity 
of doubling their divine offices. They say each Sunday a high and 
a low mass here as well as at St. Peter's, and since there are only 
three of them, it is necessary for one of them to binate in his turn. 
Father Malou was already old when he came from Flanders, his 
native land, and Father Ranza is German. Neither the one nor the 
other is able to preach in English, so that all the duty of preaching 
falls upon Father Fenwick, who was born in America. These priests 
occupy a house midway between the two churches, about a mile from 
each. The Bishop of Quebec went to visit the Jesuit college, formerly 
occupied and abandoned by the Trappists. (I, p. 159 ff.) 

On the seventh of September the Bishop and his companions 
sailed up the Hudson, making no mention of any religious institu- 



236 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

tions until they passed Albany, concerning which town the Bishop 
wrote: 

There is a Catholic congregation here, at the head of which is an. 
Irish priest by the name of McQuade. Because of the strong action 
of the trustees or parishioners, he voluntarily left his place for a 
mission in the diocese of Quebec. (I, p. 163.) 

When they arrived at Burlington they found a number of Cath- 
olics who had not been visited by any priest for a number of years. 
The Bishop asked Father Matignon to return to Boston by this way 
and give them the benefit of a mission. Being subject to the Diocese 
of Boston, Father Matignon did stop on his return. (P. 169.) 

The year following this tour of New England and New York, 
Bishop Plessis set out for a visitation of the western part of his 
diocese hoping to meet Bishop Flaget, as he remarked in the first 
part of the journal. The two Bishops did not meet during this jour- 
ney, but a great deal is related of Father Richard and the Church 
in Detroit, where Bishop Plessis conferred the Sacrament of Con- 
firmation. In his description of the city, when he first arrived, the 
Bishop says in part: 

One of these homes is occupied by Father Richard, a priest of 
the Congregation of St. Sulpice, who is the missionary or pastor of 
all that part from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario, under the authority 
of the Bishop of Bardstown. (II, p. 41.) 

Mention is made that in 1795, when this territory was ceded to 
the United States, the Bishop of Quebec withdrew all his priests who 
were in that section of the field. The account continues: 

The Bishop of Baltimore, charged by the Holy See with the spir- 
itual government of all the United States, sent to Detroit three 
priests, all Sulpicians, namely, Fathers Levadoux, Richard and Dilhet, 
who left France at the time of the Revolution. Fathers Levadoux 
and DiDiet retired some years ago, leaving only Father Richard, who 
from the jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Baltimore, passed in 1810, 
under that of the first Bishop of Bardstown, which diocese embraces 
all this section as a part of the district of Michigan. The City of 
Detroit having undergone a general fire in 1805, the Church of St. 
Anne and its presbytery were consumed, like all the other buildings. 
When it was necessary to rebuild, the parishioners were not in accord 
and they feared a little to build a church in a city where already the 
number of Protestants far exceeded the Catholics. They divided 
themselves into two parishes, the one situated in the North-east side in 
a place two or three miles from the city, the other about a half a 
league outside. (II, p. 42.) 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 237 

There follows some account of the trouble that was started by 
these two factions and the misunderstandings that were a source of 
bitterness for the pastor. Of him personally we read: 

This ecclesiastic is, however, perfectly estimable for his regularity, 
for his variety of knowledge, and above all for an activity of which 
it is difficult to form an idea. He has the ability to do ten entirely 
different things at the same time. (II, p. 43.) 

A few of the various duties which this priest took upon himself 
are then enumerated, and are of such diverse occupations as the 
control of a newspaper, tending to his garden, exercising the spiritual 
affairs of his ministry and teaching plain chant to the children of 
hisi school. 

This is an abridged portrait of the extraordinary man, who was 
extremely kind to the Bishop of Quebec and his companions, but 
having behind him the great majority of parishioners entirely decided 
against him, and many of them in their self conceit and frenzy would 
prefer to live without a priest than to keep him. (II, p. 44.) 

The Bishop spent a week in Detroit and the neighborhood and 
was well received both privately and by public demonstrations of 
welcome and honor. On Sunday, the 28th of June, he writes: 

This is the day on which the Bishop of Quebec had engaged to 
cross over to Detroit, to give confirmation to the parishioners of 
Father Richard, united in the Chapel of the North-east. The Bishop 
and his assistants went to the high mass, at the close of which 150 or 
200 persons had the happiness of receiving the sacrament. (II 
p. 53.) 

Some days before this the Bishop had received a petition from 
the people for a church and complaining against the pastor. After 
Confirmation the Bishop spoke on this subject, urging them to unite 
and impressing on them that it was with permission of the Bishop 
of Bardstown that he was there and that their Bishop was the chief 
pastor, who had received from God the power of governing the Cath- 
olic Church in those parts. 

Summary 

The twelve authors we have chosen for treatment in this division 
furnish us with abundant material for Church history, although it 
is not of great importance. The Church in the United States was at 
this time beginning to show itself, it was an evident entity in the 
life of America, and could hardly be overlooked by the traveler. The 
authors in this period were more elaborate in their comment on the 



238 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

Church than were those of the previous period. Praise for the work 
of the Church is more frequent. The number and extent of Catholic 
activities do not greatly differ from those of the first period. Mary- 
land and Baltimore in particular are still the central points about 
which most of the comment centers, as they were the centers of 
Catholic activity in the United States. Nothing of great value is 
mentioned about Baltimore by any of the travelers who visited the 
city. Philadelphia does not fare well at the hands of the disap- 
pointed Catholic, Moreau de Saint Mery, but his writings give us a 
clear insight into the conditions under which the Church in that 
section was suffering. The Catholicity of the Indians is touched 
upon by Bishop Plessis, Edward Kendall and de Kochemont. In 
this regard the same praise for the work accomplished accompanies 
the comments. Boston evidences a rapid growth. The description 
of this metropolis, but a short time before, the most Puritanical of 
cities, is surprising. Detroit receives frequent mention, although at 
this time there was little constructive activity of any import by 
Catholics in that city. The Gallipolis project is given full and valu- 
able treatment by the Irishman, Thomas Ashe. New York City 
and New Orleans occasion a few passing comments. The absolute 
silence in respect to Catholicism, by the number of travelers who 
sailed up the Mississippi, is noticeable. Few persons are commented 
upon in this period. Charles Carroll, who was the outstanding figure 
in American life during a part of this period, receives the highest 
praise from all who met him. From none does he receive higher 
admiration than from John Bernard, whose appreciation of the 
signer could hardly be surpassed. The few priests of the Dioceses 
of Boston and New York are mentioned by name in the journal of 
Bishop Plessis. This account by the Bishop of Quebec is the most 
valuable of those we have here considered, tracing as it does the 
history of the Diocese of Boston, from the first resident priest in 
that city until 1815; portraying the condition of the Diocese of 
New York just previous to the arrival of Bishop Connolly; and 
giving a glimpse into the troubles of the Church in Detroit in 1816. 
As has been said in regard to the first period, there is nothing 
here that is new, yet the conditions here put forth are an aid to 
understanding the different problems in the Church history of this 
period. 

{To he continued.) 

Rev. Joseph Paul Ryan, A. F. M. 
Maryknoll. 



JOHN ENGLAND^ 

It is a rare achievement in authorship for an intensely busy man 
to produce within a lustrum two biographical works of ponderous 
content that evidence exceptional scholarship. This has been accom- 
plished by Dr. Guilday. The Life and Times of Jolin Carroll, 
published five years ago, was acclaimed as the most notable contribu- 
tion to American Church history since the publication of John 
Gilmary Shea's, History of the Catholic Church in the United States, 
nearly fifty years ago. The Life and Times of JoMn England is a 
work evincing even greater research and more profound study than 
The Life and Times of John Carroll. That it will evoke even acrid 
criticism is beyond question; that it will be inadequately evaluated 
may be surmised; that it will revive dormant antipathies, may be 
predicated as a certainty. Despite these forebodings. The Life and 
Times of John England must be rated as being no conventional 
biography, for apotheosis jdelds place to humanization and documents 
are the warp and woof of a remarkable synthesis. Dr. Guilday is 
critical at times, but not of men or motives. His statements are 
buttressed with evidence. The reviewer, however (a fellow-laborer 
in the same academic field, whose harvests are often scant), has put 
interrogation marks to some of his conclusions. 

The field of American Church History is only partically explored. 
Dr. Guilday has blazed new trails and opened larger vistas for the 
student. Yet much remains to be done. Only by co-ordination of 
individual efforts and the adoption of a wider outlook can we secure 
an adequate conspectus of all that the term American Church History 
connotes, and, inferentially, a correct appraisal of the vast heritage 
which has come to us from lands across the Atlantic that have so 
generously contributed to the upbuilding of the fabric of Catholicism 
in English-speaking America. Dr. Guilday has demonstrated how 
important it is to obtain accurate knowledge (not information) of 
persons, places, and conditions in the countries whence came to 
American shores the men who planted the seed which has germinated 
and fructified into goodly harvests. 

It is not generally known, perhaps, that in two earlier volumes, 
The Norfolk Schism, and The Church in Virginia, he gave us the 



^ The Life and Times of John England, First Bishop of Charleston (1786- 
1842). By Peter Guilday. New York: The America Press, 1927. Two volumes. 
Pp. xii-|-596, 577. Frontispiece and Index. 

239 



240 J. W. BROWNE 

prologue to his magnum opus whose raison d'etre is found in the 
following: "Owing to the scattered and unorganized condition of 
our archival sources, the more prudent method (as the norm of the 
historical explanation of the one hundred and forty years of the 
established hierarchical life in this country) is to center around the 
great figures in our Church the story of their times, with the hope 
that, as the years pass, our documentary knowledge will be increased 
and the institutional factors of our Catholic life become more salient 
and tangible." Hence the work on John England, for owing to the 
"peculiar conditions prevailing at the time both within and without 
the Church, everything he did assumed national importance." 

Ireland, in common with France, sent in the early days many 
distinguished "personalities" to the Western world, not all of them 
to the American mainland; Burke, O'Donnell, Fleming, Mullock, 
some of whom were contemporaries of John England. Burke, not 
unlike England in his attitude towards fellow-laborers of French 
nationality, has been the subject of a dissertatio contentiosa in a 
volume of "Memoirs" compiled by a former prelate whose literary 
indiscretions were notorious, historically and otherwise. O'Donnell 's 
career was unique in many respects; he is the only instance, as far 
as is known, of a Catholic colonial bishop who received a pension 
from the British Government; Fleming caused the passing into 
innocuous desuetude of the infamous penal laws which the fanatical 
Palliser rigidly enforced in England's oldest colony, and left behind 
him the most distinctively Celtic Church in North America — the 
largest in point of size (except Notre Dame, in Montreal) north of 
the Rio Grande. It will interest New Yorkers possibly to learn that 
it was while assisting as one of the conseerators of this noble edifice 
that the great John Hughes got the inspiration to build St. Patrick's 
Cathedral in New York City. Mullock, "the intellectual giant," 
militant, too, in an ecclesiastical sense, was the greatest "Home 
Ruler" who ever adorned an American episcopal see and to him, in 
addition to its system of denominational education, Newfoundland 
owes in a large measure its charter of Responsible Government from 
which emanated what has been not inaptly termed the "Magna 
Charta of British Dominions beyond the Seas." Readers of Dr. 
Guilday's lengthy discussion of the fanatical Samuel Morse, of tele- 
graph fame, may be surprised to know that the idea of a trans- 
Atlantic cable emanated from the fertile brain of the great Catholic 
Bishop, John Thomas Mullock. 



JOHN ENGLAND 241 

Vixere fortes ante Agamemnona 
Multi; sed omnes illaerimabiles 
Urguentur ignotique longa 
Nocte, carent quia vate sacro. 

When John England entered upon his episcopal career in the 
United States his lines had not fallen in pleasant places; he came 
to a heritage that was heavily encumbered, for from 1815 to 1820 
there were many dissensions in the nascent Church, which had be- 
come ' ' a veritable epidemic of misrule, ' ' for in the years immediately 
following the death of the apostolic John Carroll "new and variant 
elements had arisen to place and preferment in the Church. Party 
feelings and racial discord had become vocal, and the building of tbe 
House of God in the six dioceses of the United States was kept almost 
at a standstill." 

Archbishop Marechal, who occupied the see of Baltimore, when 
Bishop England came to Charleston, in a Report to the Sacred Con- 
gregation, de Propaganda Fide (October 16, 1818) stated the lament- 
able condition of the Church. He was convinced that the root of the 
evil lay in the rebellious attitude of individual Irish priests whom 
he mentions by name : 

Non Americani, non Angli, non almrum Europeanorum gentium 
advenae, pacem perturharunt aut perturhant, Carolopoli, Norfalkio, 
Philadelphiae, etc., sed sacerdotes Hibemi intemperantiae aut amhi- 
tioni dediti, una cum contrihulibus suis, quos innumeris artihus sihi 
devinciunt. 

Bishop Plessis of Quebec, who had been sent by the Holy See as 
Apostolic Delegate to the United States, reported as follows: 

Je crois aussi de mon devoir de reiterer a Votre Eminence (Car- 
dinal Fontana) que les Catholiques des Etats-Unis ont, en general, 
beaucoup de respect et d 'affection pour leurs eveques frauQais, et que 
s'il y a des plaintes contre cette nation, elles sont sucitees per des 
moines irlandais, vagabonds, ambitieux, qui pour le malheur de ces 
dioceses, voudraient y occuper les premieres places. 

Dr. Guilday says of the Reports of Marechal and Plessis: "While 
the sincerity of their authors is beyond question, it must be remem- 
bered that Marechal and Plessis displayed in this correspondence a 
strong anti-Irish bias." By way of offsetting this, there is introduced 
a lengthy document, from the Dominican archives of Tallaght, near 
Dublin, written by Father William Vincent Harold, O. P., in Rome, 
about the end of the year 1820. It should be noted here that Father 
Harold in later years was a disturber of the peace in the Church at 
Philadelphia, and appealed to Henry Clay, the Secretary of State, 



242 J. W. BROWNE 

against commands from Kome and the Vicar-General of the Domini- 
cans. To vindicate his attitude "he pointed out that he had a prece- 
dent for his action in the appeal made by the Jesuit Superior of the 
State Department in 1824 against the decision of the Holy See in 
regard to the Society's property at Whitemarsh." 

Father Harold's document criticizes the clergy (of Baltimore) as 
"being engaged mostly in teaching in the colleges of Baltimore and 
Georgetown, and stigmatizes 'the remainder of the clergy of that 
See who were for the most part stationed on the estates belonging to 
the incorporated clergy of Maryland, which are of considerable 
extent, and were cultivated by slaves.' Then follows the statement 
Harold once made to Dr. Carroll on this subject, and it was not well 
received, namely, that priests 'when appointed to superintend these 
estates and direct the labor of these slaves degenerate into mere 
farmers.' " Here it may be noted that similar charges had been 
made three decades before by Rev. Patrick Smyth in The Present 
State of the Catholic Missions conducted hy the ex- Jesuits in North 
America, published in Dublin, 1788. The Harold document has much 
to say about another cause of dissension in the Church in the United 
States — Trusteeism, from which developed the spirit of Gallicanism. 
Moreover, there were other causes: "The relations between Rome 
and Baltimore were strained at the time" and "the selection of the 
bishops for Philadelphia, Richmond and Charleston found Marechal 
and Cheverus glacis d'effci at what they felt a dangerous precedent 
on the part of Rome" (p. 29). "That the action of the Sacred Con- 
gregation in ignoring the candidates presented by the American 
bishops for the Sees of Philadelphia and Charleston in 1820, and in 
appointing to these Sees bishops who could not have known American 
conditions, struck Marechal and his suffragans with fear and led them 
to believe that the American Church was the victim of a foreign con- 
spiracy, no one who has read the documents can deny" (p. 31). 

Why was John England appointed to the See of Charleston? He 
was a prominent figure in Irish life, notably in opposition to the 
Veto ; ' ' the documentary evidence for his prominence in the great 
fight is indeed scanty" yet "tradition remains that his influence in 
Ireland was second only to that of Daniel O'Connell, the Liberator." 
Is this statement of Coppinger an explanation? 

He (England) had been editor of an influential Cork paper, and 
conducted it with great patriotic spirit and ability. The hierarchy 
rather feared his influence and views, which were decidedly demo- 
cratic, and a memorial, signed by nearly all the Bishops in Ireland, 
was sent to Rome praying his Holiness to appoint him to some vacant 



JOHN ENGLAND 243 

foreign See. Some of the episcopal body seemed to fear that on the 
death of the Bishop of Cloyne, Dr. England might be elected to the 
dignity, and whether truly or falsely, he was suspected to have been 
tinged with revolutionary |)rineiples. (Page 123.) 

When Bishop England came to Charleston the Southland was in 
a very disturbed condition. The diocese had been created largely at 
the instance of Archbishop Marechal "as the best way to settle all 
the troubles in the old southern city." These troubles are minutely 
detailed by Dr. Guilday and cover nearly one hundred and fifty pages 
of his volume. ' ' The real danger, however, arose when factions from 
New York to Savannah sought to form a racial coalition for the pur- 
pose of forcing the trustee principles upon the American bishops of 
the day through civil legislation. Failing in this, they were plan- 
ning at the time of Archbishop Marechal's accession to the See of 
Baltimore to secede from the jurisdiction of the American hierarchy 
and to set up for themselves under schismatic bishops an independent 
American Catholic Church of their own creation," 

The Catholic Church in the United States has often been disturbed 
by this spirit of racial trouble. In many of the difficulties that have 
arisen since the organization of its hierarchical life, racian antagon- 
isms have been present. Apparently, throughout much of this period 
one race has predominated in point of numbers and in point of 
representatives in the Sees of this counti-y; and those who have 
broken with central diocesan rule have often made the claim that it 
has been the inability of the influential class in the hierarchy to 
understand certain insurmountable racial sentiments and policies 
which caused them to set up independent churches. It is highly sig- 
nificant, therefore, to witness in these early days of our organized 
Catholic life the fact that it was the same spirit of unrest over what 
was claimed to be a delicate ignoring on the part of the Holy See of 
the Irish element in the affairs of the Church, which brought the 
discipline of the clergy and laity to so dangerous a pass. 

The Irish Catholics, cleric and lay, who came to the United States 
during the period previous to 1815, apparently came with certain 
prejudices regarding Church administration (p. 164). 

Charges had been made by such individuals as Smyth (mentioned 
above) that were "bound to create animosity between the priests 
who had borne the burden of the day and the heats for so many 
years, and the bustling and somewhat arrogant type of clergymen 
who came here to enjoy a liberty in some cases a license which Ire- 
land did not afford." When the Sulpicians came to the United 
States "the feeling of animosity was diverted from the former mem- 
bers of the Society of Jesus to these French clerics, so many of whom 
rose to episcopal honors after 1808. . . . The Irish clergy did not 



244 J. W. BROWNE 

consider it blameworthy to promote the idea that the future of the 
American Church was in danger with so many 'foreigners' in the 
seats of the mighty." The antipathy to these "foreigners" was very 
pronounced, and Dr. Guilday says : ' ' The absence of certain failings, 
political and moral, among the French clergy, placed their priestly 
lives in contrast with too many of their clerical brethren from the 
Emerald Isle" (p. 166). 

The story of the divisions and scandals in Charleston before the 
arrival of Bishop England is neither edifying nor pertinent to this 
brief survey; nor is it necessary to discuss the conspiracy to organize 
"The Independent Catholic Church of the United States!" 

He was fully aware of the difficulties confronting him and "of 
the complexity of the struggle between the episcopal authority of 
Baltimore and this far-distant congregation." His first official act 
was the issuance of a Pastoral — the first of its kind in the history of 
the American Church." In the following year (1821) Bishop 
England "decided to publish a Catechism for his own diocese. Owing 
to 'peculiar circumstances' he added a question on religious tolera- 
tion. Both Bishop David and Bishop Conwell criticized him to 
Marechal for bringing out the new catechism. No copy of the Eng- 
land Catechism was found, and it is surmised it was not successful" 
(p. 314). This is an apparently trifling incident, but to the reviewer 
it has portentous implications. Then followed an episode "which 
caused a flurry in the ecclesiastical circles of Rome for a time" — 
the appearance of the Roman Missal which Bishop England published 
in New York some time during the summer of 1822. The Sacred 
Congregation had understood it was to be a translation and not (as 
it really was) a reprint. 

Realizing the omnipotence of the press in the United States, Bishop 
England informed Cardinal Pontana (May, 1822), that "he intended 
very shortly to begin the publication of a weekly newspaper of eight 
pages for the dissemination of Catholic truth. In case Cardinal 
Fontana wished him to refrain from using the power of the press 
for the sake of the Church, he would never write again — 'liheravi 
animam meam: vos videritis.' Dr. England was beginning to feel 
the effect of the secret opposition of ]\Iarechal and some of the other 
bishops to his projects, and if it would ease the minds of his col- 
leagues, Cardinal Fontana was informed that his resignation was at 
his disposal" (p. 331). 

The Bishop's next project was the establishment of a Diocesan 
Seminary — a huge undertaking that met with meager success. This 
was followed by a "Constitution of the Diocese," which met with 



JOHN ENGLAND 



245 



opposition on the part of the prelates of Philadelphia, Bardstown 
and Baltimore. Dr. Guilday says: 

An echo of this can be seen in Marechal's letter to Cardinal della 
Somaglia, dated Baltimore, December 21, 1824, where he writes: 
"Rumor vagatur Illmum D. England Episcopum Carolopoleos con- 
didisse constituHonem democraticum, juxta quam intendit ecclesias 
suae dioceseos regere; atque earn misisse ad Sacram Congregationem 
ut ahipsa approhetur. Quihusnam principiis nitatur,^ nescio. Atta- . 
men non possum satis orare sanctissimos et emintissimos patres ut 
hanc constitutionem democraticam non approhent, nisi lente admodum 
et post valde maturum examen. Exhihitur namque quasi multum 
opposita bono et prosperitati ecclesiae" (p. 351). 

There is no satisfactory evidence that Rome ever approved this 
"Constitution," which, briefly, meant the organization of the diocese 
into a "house of laity" and a "house of clergy," or an adaptation 
of "democracy" to Church government. In Section 1 of this Con- 
stitution occurs a clause on Papal Infallibility, which has been inter- 
preted in terms of Gallicanism. Bishop Maes (former Bishop of 
Covington, Ky.), in an article "Le Catholicisme aux Etats-Unis" (Le 
Correspondent, vol. 250, pp. 11 ss.), makes this charge. So does 
Brownson, in Brownson's Quarterly Review, vol. iv (1850). 

Meanwhile in furtherance of his program he was now militantly 
engaged in the field of journalism, having launched the United States 
Catiiolic Miscellany June 5, 1822, the object of which was "to supply 
an apparent want in the United States of North America." It met 
with a frigid reception on the part of his episcopal brethren, but it 
was a powerful agency in the dissemination of Catholic truth. Says 
Dr. Guilday: "Had John England done nothing else, he would have 
contributed more than any Catholic of his day to the general educa- 
tion of the American public in the fundamental principle of religious 
equality. ' ' 

Bishop England's activities (unfortunately perhaps for both him- 
self and the spiritual charge committed to his care) extended beyond 
the limits of his diocese, and we find him attempting to bring order 
out of the chaos consequent upon the Hogan schism in Philadelphia 
and the unseemly ecclesiastical brawls in New York. His intrusion 
into these issues brought no satisfactory results. "From the vantage 
point of a century (says Dr. Guilday) Bishop England's part in the 
trustee troubles appears foolhardy, unless it be judged in the light 
of a Christ-like zeal for the good of Catholicism" (p. 433). 

With the passing years murky clouds of disappointment and dis- 
illusion lowered ominously on John England's episcopal horizon. Few 
gleams of sunshine came to make him less forlorn. Not only was he 



246 J. W. BROVSTSTE 

at grips with his Metropolitan, but in open conflict with an Institu- 
tion which has been nursery of the Catholic priesthood in the United 
States. He insisted with what we dare term intemperate zeal upon 
the absolute necessity of a native clergy and an establishment for 
their training. In this Bishop England differed from some of his 
Celtic brethern in the episcopate elsewhere, one of whom is on record 
as the author of the following: "While there are so many colleges 
in Ireland, France and Rome, we ought not to think of creating an 
institution calculated to foment divisions between natives and colon- 
ists. " He not only discouraged native vocations to the priesthood 
but raised a barrier against the admission of some excellent young 
women into a religious community in his diocese. 

Bishop England "exhibited a firm resolve not to permit the 
young aspirants of his diocese to be educated under French influ- 
ence. " This of course applied to St. Mary's Seminary in Baltimore, 
with which the spiritual sons of John Jacques Oliver have been identi- 
fied since that distant day when Pius V said to Father Emery (who 
was about to withdraw the Sulpicians from Baltimore) : "My Son, 
let that Seminary stand ; it will bear fruit in due time. ' ' The fruits 
that it has borne are abundant. 

Bishop England's excursus into the religious affairs of Florida 
(of which State he became Vicar-General) was not attended with any 
success, "the trustees of the Church in St. Augustine refusing to 
recognize Bishop England's jurisdiction." 

There were likewise other fields in which Bishop England's ener- 
gies found expression — controversy and diplomacy. In the former, 
mainly through the Miscellany, he attained distinction; in the latter 
he was an egi'egious failure. His public utterances (and they were 
many) were eloquent, and he seems to have had exceptional ability 
to command the "applause of listening senates." The best known 
of these utterances is his famous address before both houses of Con- 
gress on Sunday, January 8, 1826, when he delivered an oration that 
lasted for two hours and a half on the foundations of Catholic Faith 
and wove into it a refutation of an attack on the Catholic Church 
made some years before by John Quincy Adams, who was then Presi- 
dent and who was present. Bishop England's venture into the "realm 
of diplomacy" was disastrous. Dr. Guilday states: "The Apostolic 
Delegation to the Republic of Haiti was Dr. England's outstanding 
failure. ... It had not only brought no peace to the Church in 
Haiti but had accentuated the Galilean stand of the Government in 
its attitude towards the Catholic religion." The fact is that it had 
borne serious results. There is testimony to the effect that England 



JOHN ENGLAND 247 

"had erred badly in handling not only the problem itself but the 
persons and the details connected with it." 

A further instance of lack of judgment on the part of Bishop 
England is found in the selection of Bishop Clancy as coadjutor. 
"This appointment (says Dr. Guilday) was the least fortunate of all 
Bishop England's acts." The coadjutor had a rather kaleidoscopic 
career, ending ecclesiastically as Bishop of Demerara, in the West 
Indies. He was deposed by the Holy See and died in Cork on June 
19, 1847. 

Many readers of Dr. Guilday 's erudite volumes will possibly be 
chiefly interested in the historic events crowded within the years 
covering John England's episcopate since they are of prime import- 
ance to the student of American Church History whilst John Eng- 
land's activities, with certain exceptions, left little impress upon 
American Catholic life. He lived here barely twenty years, and most 
of his projects collapsed at his death. It is futile to speculate on 
things that belong to the domain of probabilities if England had 
been "in one of the larger cities, or better still, had he succeeded 
Marechal or Whitfield in the Metropolitan See of Baltimore." 

The limits set to the writer preclude the discussion of England's 
connection with the holding of Provincial Councils, his educational 
program, and other things of importance. These will presently be 
dealt with elsewhere. A fitting conclusion to this brief review is fur- 
nished by the editor of America, who says "There is a deep note of 
tragedy in these volumes, and the reader closes them asking, as often 
England did himself, whether his life was not after all a failure." 
The saying of one who, like the Bishop of Charleston, had a somewhat 
militant career, ecclesiastically, seems apposite as an envoi: 

"Heureux Vhomme quand il n'a pas les defauts de ses qualites." 

P. W. Browne. 
Washington, D. C. 



GEORGE ROGERS CLARK IN OHIO 

This must be a plain unvarnished tale. It were difficult to heroize 
George Rogers Clark. Children seem to have the final vote in the 
election of heroes. Now, let them know that Clark in his old age 
wore a wooden leg — well, that might not be so bad; and that he 
smoked — even that might pass; but add that he was unable to 
restrain his appetite for strong drink: then, presto, his name is 
erased from among the candidates for Valhalla, and the vote is 
final. The world accepts the verdict of the truthful heart of child- 
hood ; for the world, after all, is merely those same children, grown 
up, with minds distracted by a thousand cares, yet at bottom still 
true in its judgments of high merit and of blame. There can be 
no attempt under these circumstances to apotheosize General Clark. 

Yet he undoubtedly deserves well of America. It has been given 
to very few to accomplish such important, permanently priceless 
deeds for the nation. He deserves to be called the Washington 
of the West. Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Michigan, Wisconsin, 
and to some extent Minnesota, are indebted to him for their union 
to the original American states. Without this link, the entire 
Trans-Mississippi could scarcely have found its way into the Amer- 
ican nation. Clark's achievement can never be omitted in the 
story of the national expansion. 

The nation has not been ungrateful. Nations are not things 
of a day, and they expect not momentary but almost eternal en- 
durance of those who are to secure their plaudits. Clark started 
out to be a hero. He sulked in his tent before the test of his 
worthiness was over. Perhaps the nation was asking something 
superhuman of him. This seems to have been the case. But there 
have been heroes who have done superhuman things. This 150th 
anniversary would have been a much greater affair, and would have 
been a large part of the nation's payment, had Clark measured up 
to superhuman stature. 

George Rogers Clark, the son of John Clark and Ann Rogers, 
was born in old Virginia in 1752 just when the cradles of that 
colony were producing giants. He felt the call of the wild and 
went over the AUeghanies into the Ohio Country before the attain- 
ment of his majority. If he went into the west with any idea of 
avoiding, as a quiet surveyor, the trouble that was already brewing 
between the liberty-loving people of his piedmont Virginia and the 
royalists of the tide water sections, he took the wrong direction. 

248 



I 



\ 



GEORGE ROGERS CLARK IN OHIO 249 

Matters of mighty moment were in the lap of the gods concerning 
the Ohio Country just at the hour of his arrival and he was to be 
the instrument of fate for their fulfillment. 

Ohio writers complain, with some appearance of justice, that the 
general historians of the United States have been largely Eastern 
men, and that few of them ''are tall enough to look over the Appal- 
lachian range to learn what has happened on the other side." Ohio 
historians claim that the War for American Independence began 
in 1774 in Ohio, and ended in 1794, after twenty years of uninter- 
rupted struggle, in the same commonwealth. They hold that the 
Ohio Declaration of Independence antedates not only that of Phil- 
adelphia but that claimed for Mechlenberg, North Carolina, as well. 
They maintain that the greatest disaster of the Revolutionary strug- 
gle was not that attendant on Washington's withdrawal from Long 
Island but the terrible defeat of General St. Clair in Ohio, where 
the killed, the wounded, and the prisoners, surpassed in numbers, 
as well as in the frightfulness endured by them, the better-known 
New York debacle. 

There is no need of taking these Ohio complainants more ser- 
iously than they take themselves. There is no need, for instance, 
that the Eastern historians crane their necks to so towering an 
altitude that they may be able to behold the lands beyond the 
mountains; nor need it be thought that the Ohio Declaration of 
Independence has anything of the historical magnitude of the Phil- 
adelphia pronouncement. Yet it was not without import, and, 
as Clark here begins his military career, a brief outline of the 
facts are in place. 

In the August of 1774 Lord Dunmore, Governor of Virginia, 
organized an army 3,000 strong, with the purpose of chastizing the 
Shawnee tribes on the Scioto Eiver in Central Ohio. Clark was a 
scout in Dunmore 's division of the expedition, and he thus had an 
opportunity to see a large section of Ohio, and at a season of the 
year, the fall, when, excepting man, everything thereabout was a 
spectacle of entrancing beauty. Interminable forests of oak, beech, 
chestnut, walnut, sycamore and tulip trees; the river valley lined 
with buckeye, papaw, willow, haws, and wild plum; vines, purple 
with wild grapes festoon the tallest branches ; flocks of wild turkeys 
enliven the trails, while the scarlet tanager, the red bird, the blue 
bird, and the yellow hammer bespangle the groves with color. Here 
a drove of deer comes down to the water's edge to drink, while 
far away the last scant buffaloes fly from the arrows of the pur- 
suing native. The atmosphere is balmy; the soil is fertile; and 



250 LAURENCE J. KENNY, S. J. 

beneath the earth, scarcely hidden from the keen eyes of such as 
Clark, oil, and iron, and coal, show signs of presence in abundance. 

The army advanced into the very heart of the State, but a treaty 
of peace was drawn up with the savage chiefs — with all except 
Logan, chief of the Mingoes — assembled about three miles south of 
the present Circleville in Pickaway County. Returning to the Ohio, 
news reached the troops, while they were resting at Fort Gower 
at the mouth of the Hocking River in Athens County, that the 
Conotinental Congress was assembling at Philadelphia, whereat 
they at once drew up a set of resolutions. They declared that they 
would suport the honor and the crown of the British Empire; 
"but" they added "as the love of liberty and attachment to the 
real interests and just rights of America outweighs every other 
consideration, we resolve that we will exert every power within 
us for the defense of American liberty." It were not difficult to 
imagine the woods of Ohio still ringing with the echo of that fine 
appreciation of American liberty. Clark, so far as we know, had 
only an inconspicuous part in this remarkable affair, but it was 
something to have been present on so momentous an occasion. 

He was more intimately associated with Ohio's history in his 
next adventure. There was no such place as Ohio at the period 
under consideration. There was an Ohio River, and the region 
along its course to the north, but more frequently that to the south, 
was known as the Ohio country. Clark was among the leaders of 
those who organized a Virginia county with the name Kentucky. 
The same territory is now the state of Kentucky. By so doing he 
contributed to the focussing of the name Ohio on the section north 
of the river; by segregating or isolating Kentucky, he gave the 
present Oliio its enduring designation. 

Nothing is to be said in this paper of the well-known successes 
of Clark's stategy, resulting in the capture in Illinois of Fort Gage 
and Kaskaskia Avith the British commandant Rochblave, or of the 
taking of Fort Sackville and Vincennes with Governor Hamilton, 
the "hair-buyer", in Indiana. Yet it will be worth while to call 
attention to the fact that these events occurred in Quebec. The 
famous Quebec Act of 1774 extended the Canadian Province of 
Quebec south and west to the Ohio and the Mississippi Rivers so 
as to include the whole section known subsequently as the North- 
west Territiry. Till the coming of Clark, Kaskaskia was in Quebec, 
and Vincennes was likewise in Quebec. 

It is the hope of this paper that it may nominate a site in Ohio 
that should be linked in the trinum perfectum with Kaskaskia and 



GEORGE ROGERS CLARK IN OHIO 251 

Vincennes, the pioneer centers of the two others of the triplet states, 
Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. Hitherto no spot has been pointed out 
in Ohio on which, as in Kaskaskia, Illinois, and Vincennes, Indiana, 
religion had lighted her holy fires, and about which war-fiends 
hover on dark and blood-dripping pinions. Let us see whether there 
is not in truth such a place. 

The poets often remind us that there are dark lonesome places 
upon the earth — a fact the early immigrants into the west knew by 
frequent experience; but the sacred writings with kindlier outlook 
tell us that there are likewise Bethels here below, where angels 
descend the stairs that lead to and fro, from their home of bliss 
even down to the abodes of men. Surely the chapel of St. Francis 
Xavier at Vincennes, and the beautiful minster of the Immaculate 
Conception at Kaskaskia were bright Bethels in the deep dark night 
of the great western wilderness. Was there not some spot in Ohio 
similarly blessed? 

Almost two generations after the period of this narrative, a 
group of simple children of the faith trecked their way from east 
to west across the still pioneer Ohio, and there at the headquarters 
of the Great Miami where the portage to the Maumee begins, they 
staked out their homes and founded the town over which the bells 
from St. Michael's towers, for almost a century now, have regulated 
all the important comings and goings of their numerous descendants. 
The colony had not been long upon the scene when rumors of the 
finding of a golden cross near by, and presently the actual plowing 
up of a large silver cross by one of their own number brought them 
to suspect that they were dwelling on holy ground. This place was 
once known as Loramie's store; later, as just Loramies, and today 
it is Fort Loramie. Near by is a Loramie's Creek, and in its 
course is Loramie's Eeservoir, an artificial body of water, about 
seven miles long and two and a half wide covering 1,800 acres. 
There in Shelby County is a Loramie Township, and the portage is 
known as Loramie's portage. Let us call the place Loramies, its 
old name, and examine whether it may not take its place with 
Kaskaskia and Vincennes in the story of Clark's winning of the 
west. 

Almost all Ohio historians believe that Loramie, for whom the 
place is named, was a Jesuit ; and that this portage — like Kaskaskia 
and Vincennes — was for several years a mission station. They 
would extend its activities as such even down to 1782, that is, until 
the second coming hitherward of General George Rogers Clark, en 
route, as was supposed towards the destruction of Detroit. 



252 LAURENCE J. KENNY, S. J. 

Clark's first coming was in 1780. His movement then was a 
retaliatory stroke, following upon the most ambitious project of 
the British government for the complete extermination of its en- 
emies in the west country. The attack on St. Louis was part of this 
idea. Troups from Florida and Louisiana were to move northward 
carrying wholesale destruction in their path; troops from Prairie 
du Chien and from Chicago were to move down the Mississippi 
Valley and destroy the Spanish town of San Luis as well as the 
British Cahokia. Captain Henry Bird, going forth from Detroit 
with heavy artillery and an overwhelming force of savages and 
whites, moved through Ohio into Kentucky and there gave Fort 
Liberty and Martin's Station to the war-whoop and the flames. 
He could have carried this campaign of destruction, he says, through 
the whole country had not his Indians killed all the cattle. A 
famishing army cannot hope to meet a brave foe successfully. His 
troops and their three hundred prisoners were reduced to starva- 
tion rations. They hastened back to Loramie's hoping there to find 
sustenance. 

It is now admitted, after long dispute, that Clark took part in 
the defense of San Luis on that fateful May 26, 1780, I'annee du 
grand coup; and that he sent Col. John Montgomery to pursue and 
punish the retreating foe. It is not so well known that it was the 
fear of Clark's approach which cut short the dismaying expedition 
of Col. Bird. William H. English, for instance, in his scholarly 
Conquest of the Northwest (p. 680), says: "For some cause never 
explained with certainty, (the British and Indians) retired." Sev- 
eral writers have held that Col. Bird was so shocked at the brutal 
conduct of his Indian allies that he would proceed no further. 
But Wm. F. Poole shrewdly suspected that Bird had learned of 
Clark's movements and changed his designs accordingly. That this 
is the correct explanation is no longer a matter of conjecture as 
may be seen in the Bird Letters in the Haldiman papers. Bird 
there writes that his Indians had heard of Clark's coming against 
them, and they almost all left him, within a day's march of the 
enemy. He rejoices when he has gotten his big guns as far as 
Mons. Lorimier's, and the more so as Lorimier's supplies will serve 
him until he reaches safety. It is curious to note that Bird thinks 
all his American prisoners are ill affected towards the Congress 
at Philadelphia, except two families, Maguire and Mahon. He writes 
with keen satisfaction of his prescience — exact within a day or two : 
"Colonel Clark," he says "arrived a day or two of the time I marked 
for his certain arrival." 



GEORGE ROGERS CLARK IN OHIO 253 

On this first foray, Clark did not advance as far as Loramies. 
He had assembled his forces opposite the mouth of the Licking 
River. Here he built a stockade and a block house for the preser- 
vation of his supplies, as well as for the care of some of his men, 
who, under Hugh McGary, had been wounded on the way to the 
common rendezvous. This was probably the first important struc- 
ture, erected by white men, on the site of the present city of Cin- 
cinnati, if we except a mysterious old stone mill ; and it cannot but 
be a pleasant consideration to those dwelling there today to remem- 
ber that this first dedication of their soil was to purposes at once 
both patriotic and merciful. 

The full details of Clark's march up the valley of the Miami, 
of his destruction of the stronghold of the Shawnee, old Chillicothe, 
and finally of the battle between his troops and the Shawnee at 
Piqua may be seen in a letter, which he wrote, immediately after 
his return from the field, to Thomas Jefferson. A more fully de- 
tailed account has come down to us from the pen of one of the 
soldiers, Henry "Wilson, which agrees with Clark's report in all 
important features. Two items arrest attention. 

First, if the importance of battles is estimated by the number 
of casualties, this Ohio event surpasses Clark's deeds in Kaskaskia 
and at Vincennes. Here Clark lost 14 killed and 13 wounded, 
whereas neither at Kaskaskia nor at Vincennes had he a single 
soldier killed. This Ohio advantage will not be stressed. For it 
is evident that one of the greatest claims of Clark, or of any other 
military leader, to true glory must rest on his care for the lives 
of his men. Few Generals have achieved such triumphs as Clark's 
with so meager a record of deaths. However, he suffered a loss 
here at Piqua that was poignant. Joseph Rogers, a first cousin and 
a companion of Clark, had been captured two years before ; during 
the heat of this battle, he made an attempt to rejoin the whites 
and secure his freedom, but he received a mortal wound when 
between the lines, but whether from friend or foe will never be 
known. Another feature of Clark's method of warfare appears in 
his purpose, which was not to kill the savages but to chastise them 
by the destruction of their crops. Even savage armies travel on 
their belly. There would be no massacring savage raids if there 
were no forage. His troops laid waste between 800 and 1,000 acres 
of corn, together with a great quantity of vegetables "a consider- 
able portion of which, ' ' says Clark, ' ' appears to have been cultivated 
by white men." 



254 LAURENCE J. KENNY, S. J. 

Clark's second and more important Ohio campaign took place in 
the bleak November of 1782. One realizes the ability of Clark 
when he observes how helpless the entire population of the west was 
during his absence in Virginia, and how futile the American forces 
at Pittsburgh proved themselves while the Indians were growing 
in insolence. 

Clark had been counting on a concerted move with Pittsburgh 
on the Indian stronghold in Ohio. He had been striving to awaken 
the general government to the precariousness of life in the west, 
but all in vain. The lion within him was aroused at last by the 
news of the terrible disaster at the Blue Licks, below Cincinnati 
on the Licking River. There on August 18, 1782, a party of savages 
under the skilful leadership of William Caldwell met the very pick 
of Kentucky's defenders, and, although Boone himself opened the 
battle, 77 of the 181 Kentuclcians were killed, while the enemy lost 
but one Frenchman and six Indians. Clark's call for enlistments 
flew far and wide through the west. General Irvine at Pittsburgh 
agreed to co-operate with him and to lead a force against Sandusky 
thus to divide the defensive power of the British and their savage 
allies. However before the campaign was well under way, word was 
received at Pittsburgh that a cessation of hostilities had been 
ordered by Washington, and so Clark was left alone to continue 
the struggle. 

He again assembled his men at Cincinnati, where his old stockade 
Avas still useful. A thousand and fifty determined men, under his 
careful military discipline, began the northward march. They met 
surprisingly slight resistance. Seven Indian towns were committed 
to the flames. One straggling party of Indians were pursued, and 
their squaws, together with a woman whom they had captured in 
Kentucky, Mrs. McFall, were taken. The hostile warriors had all 
been called in to protect Detroit. Clark was again satisfied by 
punishing the Shawnees Avho were the chief offenders. Col. Benja- 
min Logan with 150 horse advanced ahead of the main force and 
reached Loramies, where, writes Clark "property to a great amount 
was burnt. The quantity of provisions destroyed far surpassed any 
idea we had of their stores of that kind." He adds his disappoint- 
ment in failing to learn of the agreed-on attack on Sandusky. 
Word reached him, shortly after, that a soldier, Daniel Sullivan, 
had come all the way from Pittsburgh to Cincinnati alone in a 
canoe bringing word of the cessation of fighting. In the meanwhile 
Clark had spent his days in destroying the crops of the country 
and in distributing the spoils. 



GEORGE ROGERS CLARK IN OHIO 255 

An amusing incident is told concerning the division of the rich 
booty at Loramie's store. A soldier named Burke had found an 
old broken saddle which he desired should be awarded him as his 
complete share. He became* the laughing stock of his fellows when 
he received just what he had sought. It developed that a goodly 
supply of gold coin was concealed in the holes in the saddle, and 
Burke laughed last when his fellows had exhausted" their merriment. 

There were striking evidences in abundance of white civilization 
in the neighborhood of Loramies; thus, we read of regular rows 
of houses; of apple trees planted in order; of fences; of truck 
gardens ; of 6,000 horses ; of miles and miles of corn-fields such that 
General Wayne a few years later writes that he had seen nothing 
equal to them from Florida to Massachusetts. May it be concluded 
that this was a mission station, and are the Ohio historians right 
who are almost unanimous that Loramie was a Jesuit? 

There was a Jesuit named de la Morinie — a name which tradition 
could easily twist into Loramie — who had exercised his ministerial 
functions along the regions of the lakes, and among the very tribes, 
offshoots of which encamped about Loramies, the Miami and Ottawa. 
There were other Jesuits also, who may have come down from 
Detroit, to minister temporarily at least in these parts. But this 
was before our era, if at all. Father de la Morinie removed from the 
St. Joseph mission in Michigan to Kaskaskia, Illinois during the 
Pontiac trouble, and from Kaskaskia he was forcibly carried by 
ungrateful France back to Europe in 1764. He cannot therefore 
be the man who escaped from Clark's men in 1782; and he can 
scarcely be the man to whom the old pioneer, American Indian 
agent, Col. John Johnton refers, when he says: "I have seen the 
Indians burst into tears when speaking of the time when their 
French father had dominion over them, and their attachment to 
this day remains unabated." By "French Father" the French 
governor of Canada was more likely meant. Father de la Morinie 
was born in 1704, and would consequently have been 78 years of 
age at the time of Clark's second raid. 

There is no longer any mystery about the identity of the trader 
who gave his name — in somewhat mangled form — to Lorimies. He 
fled from his burning store to Wapaconette in Auglaize County, and 
shortly after, together with a large following of Seneca, Wyandotte, 
Huron, and Shawnee, Delaware, and Ottawa, removed into Spanish 
Missouri, where he is known as the founder of the city of Cape 
Girardeau. His name was Peter Louis Lorimier, and he was one 
of the outstanding personages in the history of early Missouri. 



256 LAURENCE J. KENNY, S. J. 

His tomb tells us that lie was 64 years and three months of age 
when he died on June 26, 1812. He had a secretary — a brilliant 
scholar of the kind then in honor among the Latin races — who no 
doubt composed the lines which adorn the tomb: 

"Ossa habeant tumulo cineresque sepulti; 
Immortali animae luceat alma dies." 

Lorimier left a numerous progeny. His son, Louis, was graduated 
at the U. S. Military Academy at West Point in 1806, and served 
as Lieutenant on the western frontier during the three following 
years. It is not at all impossible that a corruption of his name was 
given to Laramie Creek, whence it passed to the state capital city 
of today, Laramie. 

It is gratifying to know that Clark's incursions into Ohio were 
not destructive there of the works of religion. There is no con- 
vincing evidence yet found to show that Loramies is located upon 
any specially holy ground. The crosses found there, and in many 
other parts of the west, are not emblems of Christianity meant to 
foster piety, but frauds like the other articles with which they were 
distributed to the savages to win them to the British allegiance. 
Here, for instance, is a list of goods ordered by Lieut. Governor 
Sinclair, Sept. 1, 1782, just when Clark was preparing for his raid 
on Loramies : Gunpowder, 4,000 lbs. ; shot, 2,000 lbs. ; 12 gross of 
scalping knives; 222 kegs of rum of one gal. each; and 222 kegs 
of rum of 2 gal. each; and 200 double crosses, assorted. It is 
sometimes disputed whether the whites in those days encouraged 
the savages to scalp their foes, and just at present there is a con- 
sensus of opinion among American historians that no such imputa- 
tion can be placed against the British officers, Hamilton, Bird, and 
the others. Possibly these scalping knives were given out by the 
gross to encourage the simple children of the soil to play mumble- 
the-peg, and the rum may have been intended as a cure for snake 
bite; and the crosses — well, what were the crosses for? They looked 
so nice upon the breast of a corpse that their purpose was likely 
to encourage the multiplication of crosses. When exhumed today, 
we find the bodies of heathen Indian warriors, who had never re- 
ceived a word of Christian instruction, well adorned with them. 

It has not yet been shown that either as a Bethel or as a scene 
of a great military triumph Loramies can be placed in juxtaposition 
with Kaskaskia or with Vincennes. As a military station, the only 
claim can before something in so dim a past that history cannot 
confirm the verdict, but turning to the other aspect, its military 



GEORGE ROGERS CLARK IN OHIO 257 

importance, much remains to be said. Let it be recalled that the 
fruit of all Clark's labor, his entire claim to national recognition, 
arises from the share he took in securing the northwestern territory 
to the Uniter States. There are a few writers who minimize his 
influence in this matter so far that they scarcely give him attention. 
These are those who study the acquisition of the west from the 
point of view of documents of the Peace Commission that met at 
Ghent in 1782. At Ghent there were interminable discussions of the 
boundaries of the new American nation, and it must be confessed 
that a careful study of these documents seems at first blush to 
point to the conclusion that the original charters of various of the 
early American colonies entitled them to the western lands, and 
that it was on this score that Britain relinquished her claims. 

All this is true, but it must be borne in mind that the commis- 
sioners at Ghent were diplomats and envoys of peace, each of whom 
knew just about what the other desired, and on what grounds. 
The prudent delegate strove to get his own by the argument which 
he thought his opponent most willing to hear. It was no place to 
bring forward irritating remembrances of conquests. When the 
Americans asked for the west, the British knew on what facts they 
based their determination to have that section. They knew the 
story of Clark's victories, but it may be doubted whether they 
knew of any other so well as the most recent incident. They knew 
that the fear of Clark's reaching Detroit had cost their nation 
enormous outlays, for the double purpose of fortifying that post 
and of granting subsidies to the Indians to hold their friendship. 
From this aspect the obscure Loramies begins to look large in true 
American history. 

Moreover, if Clark's campaigns had never touched affairs in 
the Lake regions at all, but had been confined to Kaskaskia and 
Vincennes, far down the Mississippi Valley, it is practically certain 
that the Water basin of the Great Lakes would never have been 
relinquished. If Clark had not advanced into dangerous proximity 
to Detroit, the fur trade at that key-center to the great northwest 
would have become more and more profitable and the profiteers 
would have instructed the Peace delegates to guard their interests. 

An impartial consideration of these items compels the comclu- 
sion that Clark's invasion of Ohio was an essential part of his 
successful work, an essential item in the conquest of the northwest, 
a part not so startingly spectacular as his capture of Kaskaskia, 
nor yet so uniquely bold, and consequently piscuresque on the his- 
torical page, as the taking of Vincennes, yet a part that in the 



258 LAURENCE J. KENNY, S. J. 

impression it produced at the opportune moment of the meeting 
at Ghent, was more productive than either of these in the grand 
result, the acquisition of the northwest. Loramies marks Clark's 
northmost conquest. It must be listed with Kaskaskia and Vincennes 
in any full story of that first step in America's national expansion. 

There remains another consideration of this fact, larger than 
any yet referred to, which consequently calls for attention. Clark's 
victories must be measured, to evaluate their true greatness, not 
merely quantitatively but qualitatively also ; not merely by the 
two hundred and more thousand miles they accessioned to the 
national territory, but likewise by the expansion they gave to the 
domain of liberty. 

It was stated that the Quebec Act of 1774 threw the entire 
northwest into the Quebec province. Kaskaskia, Vincennes, and 
Lorimies had been in Quebec for four years before Clark started on 
his march into Illinois. By the Quebec Act full religious liberty 
was granted to all the inhabitants of that province. The Canadians 
to this day look upon that Act as the charter of their liberties. 
Here was the only place in all the British dominions, in all the 
English-speaking world, where religion was unhampered by civil 
enactments. Non-conformists, not only in Ireland and Scotland, 
but in England itself, had to wait many long years before they 
might hope t oenjoy so full a freedom. Dr. Johnson tried to prove 
that some other American colonies were as free as Quebec; that 
was a fallacy, put forth by one who liked to talk. Not even Virginia 
then knew such a boon. But with the first news of Clark's achieve- 
ment among the little French villages of the west, the legislature 
of the old Dominion hastened to formulate an Act organizing the 
territory of Illinois, by Illinois meaning everything between Missouri 
and Pennsylvania, and in its first " Be-it-enacted " they decreed that 
the inhabitants of the new territory were to take the oath according 
to the forms of their own religion, "which they shall fully enjoy 
— together with their civil rights and property." The Ordinance 
of 1787 of the Continental congress followed this happy precedent, 
and the First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States 
took up he same note, and passed it on, not only to the individual 
states, but to England and the world. 

Advocates of the frontier theory of American history may note 
that herein we have another example, and surely one that yields 
to no other in importance, of the many ways in which the Trans- 
AUeghanies led the old colonial states into the ways of true liberty 
and Americanism. Religious freedom, first won by the patience of 



GEORGE ROGERS CLARK IN OHIO 259 

the habitans of Quebec, entrusted her torch into the hands of Clark in 
the old French West, whence its flame lit up the scroll of the Ordin- 
ance of 1787 that organized this new territory, and passed naturally 
on into the American general Bill of Rights of 1791, the first amend- 
ment to the Constitution. Its first home in the United States was truly 
in the west. Of Ohio, in particular, it may be noted that since no civil 
jurisdiction was ever established there before these several enact- 
ments, Ohio territory was never tainted by the touch of religious 
intolerance. It was reserved to be a home of freedom. 

The plain unvarinshed tale is told, yet it is impossible to pass 
from the contemplation of the broken shrines of Kaskaskia, Vin- 
cennes, and Loramie's (supposing that it was a shrine at some 
early date) upon the nation which has given largest freedom to 
religion. During the sixteenth century the world was Spain 's. That 
nation then protected religion as the apple of her eye and fostered 
the work of Christian missionaries in every part of the globe. The 
seventeenth century was France's. The glory and the after-glow 
of Louis le Grand filled the world. It was then that French mission- 
aries found their way, by the nation's help, into these western 
valleys as well as into remote centers of other continents. But in 
time both these nations turned profligate ; they bound religion hand 
and foot; they destroyed the missions and imprisoned the mission- 
aries. They reached the consummation of their perfidy in 1773 when 
they compelled the Vicar of Christ to sign what seemed the death 
warrant of the great missionary order whose sweat and blood had 
been spilled so generously for the aborigines of America. It was 
just the following year, in 1774, that England, by the Quebec Act, 
took up the policy of freedom, abandoned by these others, opened 
the door for the missionary, the ambassadors of the liberty of the 
children of God. From that hour onward England has, above all 
other nations, been consistently more and more the protector of 
religion, the friend of the heralds of the true faith in every part of 
the world: and the world is hers. Is not this a reward? Undoubtedly 
it is. Now it remains but to ask whether the Stars and Stripes 
will follow the Providential route to true national greatness, which 
Clark initiated, and so make the coming century America's. 

The facts set down above are taken chiefly from the following 
well-known works: 

I— On the Life of Clark: 

a) Illinois State Historical Collections, Vol. VIII and XIX. 
These are the Clark Papers, primary sources. 



260 LAURENCE J. KENNY, S. J. 

b) Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections, esp. the 
Haldiman Papers. 

c) Henry Howe, — Historical Collections of Ohio, (1902) ; 
esp. chapters on Shelby, Auglaize, and Clark counties. 

d Wm. H. English, — Conquest of the Northwest, and Life 

of Clark, 
e) Joseph J. Thompson, — in Journal of 111. State Hist., 

IX, p. 422 ; see p. 447 for further bibliography on Clark. 

II — On Loramies, and Lorimier, and Father de la Morinie : 

a) Ohio Archaelogical and Historical Collections, XX and 
esp. XVII, p. 1. 

b) Louis Houek, — History of Missouri; also his Spanish 
Regime. 

c) Firmin A. Rozier, — Hist, of the Early Settlement of the 
Mississippi Valley. 

The Adjutant, West Point, kindly sent me the record there of 
young Loramier, calling attention to the fact that he is entered 
on the books as Loramier, (note the "a"; Houck and Rozier, as 
well as Col. Bird spell the name with "i". 

Laurence J. Kenny, S. J. 
St. Louis, Mo. 



THE AMERICAN FEDERATION OF 
CATHOLIC SOCIETIES 

{Continued from July issue) 

Second National, Convention Held in Chicago, III., August 

5, 6, 7, 1902 

Rt. Rev. Peter J. Muldoon, D. D., (Administrator of the 
Archdiocese), Sponsor 

The Second National Convention of the American Federation of 
Catholic Societies was held in Chicago, 111., August 5, 6, 7, 1902. The 
Great Northern Hotel was the convention headquarters and the ses- 
sions were held in the Y. M. C. A. Auditorium. Hon. M. F. Girten 
of Chicago, was the local chairman. 

The opening services were held in Holy Name Cathedral, with Rt. 
Rev. P. J. Muldoon, D. D., as celebrant, Rev. Father McDonnell and 
Rev. Father Kavanaugh, deacon and subdeacon. Rev. M. J. Fitzsim- 
mons, assistant priest, and Rev. F. J. Barry, master of ceremonies. 
Among the prelates in the sanctuary were, Archishop W. H. Elder, 
D. D., of Cincinnati, Ohio., Rt. Rev. S. G. Messmer, D. D., of Green 
Bay, Wis., Rt. Rev. J. A. McFaul, D. D., of Trenton, N. J. 

Speaking of the church services, the New World in its daily edi- 
tion of August 6, said: "The delegates attended Holy Mass in a 
body, and created a very favorable impression. This was the first 
public appearance of the delegates, and if their deportment on this 
occasion affords a criterion of their earnestness and ability, which it 
certainly does, the American Federation of Catholic Societies has 
reason to be proud of the character of the gentlemen who represent 
it. A more earnest, dignified and attentive body of men is seldom 
met with." 

The sermon during the Pontifical Mass was preached by Rt. Rev. 
S. G. Messmer, D. D., Bishop of Green Bay, Wis. (now Archbishop 
of Milwaukee). Bishop Messmer called attention to the public 
social duties of the Catholic laity as outlined in the various en- 
cyclicals of Pope Leo XIII; that our first duty was to spread the 
light of Catholic faith. "The more we spread the light of Catholic 
truth," said the Bishop, "the more we bring Catholic principles to 
become a leading factor in shaping and forming the principal force 
and power in the lives of our fellow citizens, especially in the public 

261 



262 ANTHONY MATRE, K. S. G. 

life of society, that the more we become the true and the only true 
benefactors of society." 

"A Federation of Catholic Societies must naturally and neces- 
sarily exert a tremendous power and influence upon its own members. 
Let us imagine that all the Catholic Societies here in the United 
States were actually gathered into one great Federation; that they 
were all brought together in the one bond of peace and the one unity 
of the spirit. Suppose that aU these societies under the guidance, 
first of all, of the appointed shepherds of the Church of God, would 
exercise that Christian spirit, bringing forth into action those Chris- 
tian principles of the Catholic truth and the Catholic faith, what a 
tremendous power that would be for the strengthening and the up- 
lifting, the upbuilding of the Catholic spirit, and Catholic work, and 
the Catholic life among the children of the Church, first of all, and 
then among those who are separated from us." 

Bishop Messmer pointed out the great service the Federation of 
Catholic Societies could render to improve public morality in the 
nation; to enforce stricter divorce laws; to make known the Church's 
stand on the question of Capital and Labor, etc. 

The Bishop closed his stirring sermon with the following words: 
"If the Catholic laity get together and unite under their divinely 
appointed leaders and go forth in the light of Catholic faith and in 
the strength and in the power of Catholic principles, of Catholic 
morality, to help their own brethren and the help their brethren out- 
side of the Church, Oh! what a great and beautiful work they will 
accomplish, worthy of our calling as children of God and children of 
His Holy Church." 

Hon. F. M. Giri'en of Chicago, Opens Convention 

The convention was formally opened at 2:30 p. m. Hon. M. F. 
Girten, Chairman of the Chicago committee, welcomed the delegates. 
He said, in part: "We Catholics have at present large and great 
societies with praiseworthy aims. They are doing immense good, and 
every thinking man hopes that they will increase in membership and 
thereby do increased good. However, each of these organizations has 
its own peculiar and distinct method of doing its work. This keeps 
them apart. To provide a means for the union of all is your mission. 

"This is the age of concentration. Progress in all directions is 
only accomplished by duty. The two great forces of our century are 
concentration and education. A people who make use of these forces 
acquire the greatest material strength. I congratulate the members 
of the American Federation of Catholic Societies upon having en- 



AMERICAN FEDERATION OF CATHOLIC SOCIETIES 263 

tered into this sphere. Your society is for the propagation of unity 
and education. Your field is enormous. 

"To bring the Catholic laity into closer union is your mission — 
to build a structure wherein all can enter and all will feel at home. 
You have undertaken a great work. The obstacles you will have to 
overcome are many. Nationality, misunderstanding, prejudice, ignor- 
ance — these are the most difficult. . . . Federation's motto is not 
centralization, for centralization is death to individuality, it is 'Fed- 
eration;' it is only this, 'In essentials let us be united; let us know 
each other; let us learn to love one another; and though one be Celt 
or Slav and the other Teuton, Saxon, or Latin, or whatever nation- 
ality or race you may please, being members of the one grand and 
magnificent family, the Catholic Church, let us put into practice the 
doctrine of St. John the Apostle, whose motto is, ' Love one another. ' ' ' 

Mr. Girten then introduced Dr. Howard S. Taylor, who welcomed 
the delegates to Chicago, and read messages from Governor Yates and 
Bishop Spaudling of Peoria. Mr. F. B. Minahan of Columbus, Ohio, 
national President of the American Federation of Catholic Societies, 
was then introduced, who, after a brief address, opened the first busi- 
ness session. 

The burning question before the convention was the "Philippine 
Question." Bishop McFaul, who was called upon by the chairman, 
gave a summary of Federation's activities and said among other 
things : ' ' Pope Leo XIII has given us some great encyclicals in which 
he pointed out the principles which should guide our age. We re- 
joice that agitation is keeping before the American people the rights 
and privileges of Catholics. It is the right, it is the sacred privilege 
of every American citizen to raise his voice when there is a question 
of injustice or of grievance, to cry out in behalf of justice of social 
and moral principles. In finding out the truth of those reports from 
the Philippines, to whom should we appeal more confidently than to 
the administration in charge of the government of the United States. 
We would be guilty of cowardice if we did not see to it that our co- 
religionists in the Philippine Islands did not receive their rights under 
the flag of our country because we remained silent and did not educate 
our administration up to the true position occupied by the Church in 
this country. 

"We are not finding fault with the administration. We thank 
the administration for its inclination towards justice. We feel that 
matters in the Philippines could have been settled long before, if there 
had been close touch with Rome. Eome understands the situation in 
the Philippine Islands in all its ramifications down to its root and 



264 ANTHONY MATRE, K. S. G. 

foundations. I feel confident that when by agitation and by educa- 
tion, we lay before the authorities in Washington the true condition 
of things, they will institute such investigation that will bring forth 
the truth about the Philippines and the rights of the Friars in the 
light of the day. Federation intends to hold up the hands of the 
administration until the Philippine Question is amicably settled." 

Mr. Minahan then asked Bishop Messmer to make a few remarks. 
The Bishop said that Federation was a work of education. If Fed- 
eration would undertake to gather together from the encyclicals of 
our Holy Father from the social encyclicals and addresses and from 
letters to the Bishops, all those passages in which he speaks of the 
present duties of the Catholic laity on social questions and social 
needs, such a work would do a great deal of good. 

Mr. Nicholas Gonner of Dubuque, Iowa, President of the German 
Roman Catholic Central Verein, made a few remarlts and stated that 
he would do all in his power to make the Federation a success. 

The President then appointed the following committees: On Cre- 
dentials, Judge M. T. Shine of Covington, Ky., chairman ; Committee 
on Rules and Order of Business, Hon. E. Reardon of Indiana, Chair- 
man ; Committee on Press, Mr. A. G. Koelble of New York, Chairman. 

The first session closed with prayer by Bishop Messmer. 

Public Mass Meeting 

A public Mass Meeting was held in the Association Auditorium 
on Tuesday, August 5th, with Bishop P. J. Muldoon as chairman. 

Bishop Muldoon 's Address 

' * Ladies and Gentlemen : — I am here this evening as a student and 
observer. I am here to listen to the wise words of those who have 
studied the subject that you are debating in your councils this week. 
I with pleasure act as chairman of this meeting, in accepting the 
courtesy that was extended to me through the society, and also, I will 
say to show my appreciation of the American Federation of Catholic 
Societies having as an object the education of the Catholic people, 
the education of that people in the highest possible form, to know 
their rights and to exact them. 

' ' Knowledge is necessary for all of us, and knowledge is especially 
necessary for the Catholic people of the United States — not that in 
any form we are wanting in knowledge that others have, but too long 
some of us have come asking for favors when we should have de- 
manded our rights. We ask for no favors from any American citizen, 



I 



AMERICAN FEDERATION OF CATHOLIC SOCIETIES 265 

and we never proclaim our American citizenship if we have to get 
a label upon it by that proclamation. We are American citizens be- 
cause we were either born in this country or we took this country to 
ourselves as that which we loved best. And as a separate body we 
are naturally separated. We are separated by the very fact that we 
are Catholics, and we desire for ourselves and for our children some- 
thing above and beyond every other class of citizens in this country — 
the education of our children, not only in that which pertains to the 
things of this life, but the education of our children in the things 
that pertain to the life beyond. And we believe, among other things, 
that it is proper for the United States to give us also a pro-rata for 
the education of these children of ours, among other rights that be- 
long to us. 

' ' The objects and aims of the Federation, no doubt, are many, and 
these objects and aims, so far as they make us better Catholics, will 
also make us better citizens, and truer to all the right principles that 
go to make up the American citizen. 

"I welcome you, as administrator of the diocese of Chicago, to 
our city. I trust that when your days of convention are over you will 
have sent a message not only to the Catholic people of the United 
States, but to all citizens of all classes, that will mark you as the 
highest-minded men, that will show to the entire world that you can 
be true Catholics and also true citizens." 

Bishop Muldoon then introduced the Rt. Rev. James A. McFaul 
of Trenton, N. J., and in so doing he said: "Bishop McFaul began 
this movement and through his will power and his love of all that 
he sees in it, he has cemented it from day to day." 

Bishop McFaul Speaks on Philippine Question 

Bishop McFaul then gave a resume of Federation activities and 
launched into the Philippine Question. He said among other things, 
"that if the Filipinos were Protestants and Catholics were to vilify 
their preachers and establish a system of schools among them to which 
they were opposed on religious grounds there would be such an up- 
rising among the Protestants of the United States as would shake 
the foundations of the Republic. And I honor them for their courage. 
This is the spirit which built up American liberty. 

"Notwithstanding the outcry made by the bigots. The Friars of 
the Philippines must go; no compromise with the Vatican, it is to 
the credit of the Catholic press and to Federation and those societies 
that enlisted in this agitation, that is bringing about a satisfactory 
solution. It has been said that as the Friar question is now in the 



266 ANTHONY MATRE, K. S. G. 

hands of the Vatican we should let it rest there. This is very true 
and we are filled with just pride that agitation helped to bring the 
Philippine Question where it belonged and out of the domain of 
party politics. We are satisfied that if such a course had been pur- 
sued all along in the Philippine affairs, the Government would now 
have the Islands in much better civic condition. Federation proposes 
to keep up the agitation, confident that a strong intelligent public 
opinion is necessary to point out the way and help the administration 
in the difficult work demanding attention in our next possessions. 
Federation is deeply interested in obtaining just treatment for the 
Friars who have suffered under so many cruel calumnies and shall 
watch with eagerness the educational interests of the Filipinos. 

"In response to Federation's protest and petition addressed by 
the Executive Board of the Federation to President Koosevelt and 
the War Department, containing information as to the total number 
of teachers employed in the Philippines, the number sent from this 
country and the institutions whence the teachers came from, reply 
was received that according to the records of the War Department, 
between three and four thousand Filipino teachers and nine hundred 
and sixty-seven American teachers were employed. The latter num- 
ber includes eighteen or nineteen Catholics. In obtaining American 
teachers only about half half dozen Catholic institutions were asked 
to propose candidates, whereas over one hundred non-Catholic col- 
leges, teachers' agencies, etc., furnished the balance at the request of 
the authorities. Here discrimination against Catholics is evident. 

"There may be found some who will deny that Catholic teachers 
could have been found in sufficient number. The same reply has 
been made before regarding the scarcity of chaplains in the army 
and navy. A Bishop here and there has been asked to supply a priest 
and may have been unable. When, however, has a determined effort 
been made to obtain Catholic Chaplains, and how many Bishops have 
been asked for priests? There is not the slightest doubt that had the 
invitation for Catholic teachers been extended to all the Catholic 
institutions of the United States, a very large number of capable 
teachers might have been procured. ' ' 

Defends Filipinos and Friars 

The Bishop said that the impression has gone abroad in America 
that the Filipinos were in a state of dense ignorance. "This is a 
great calumny. The Filipinos were not civilized and Christianized 
as we have conferred those blessings upon the Indians of America, 
by rifle-bullets which consigned them to quiet habitations beneath the 



AMERICAN FEDERATION OP CATHOLIC SOCIETIES 267 

sod. During centuries the Friars dwelt with the tribes of the Philip- 
pines, and it is to them they are indebted for whatever they possess 
of education and religion. Like priests, like people, is an old and 
true saying. It is, therefore, impossible, judging from results, that 
the Friars are anything but a holy, pious body of men, zealously de- 
voted to their calling. "We know the tree by its fruit. There may 
have been a few who forgot their holy vocation, but instances of 
depravity must have been very rare. ' ' 

Concluding his eloquent address, Bishop McFaul said: "While 
negotiations between the Taft Commission and the Vatican are pend- 
ing, the Executive and Advisory Boards of Federation will keep up 
peaceful agitation until all these problems shall be solved in accord- 
ance with justice." 

After brief addresses by Mr. M. P. Mooney of Cleveland, Ohio., 
and Mr. Nicholas Conner of Dubuque, Iowa, the Mass meeting came 
to a close. 

Second Business Session 

The business session on August 6, 1902, was opened with prayer 
by Bishop Messmer, Hon. M. T. Shine of Covington, Ky., Chairman 
of the Committee on Credentials, reported that 480 delegates were 
in attendance representing Catholic societies in 31 States. The Presi- 
dent named two important committees, on Constitution, with Mr. 
H. J. Fries of Erie, Pa., as chairman, and that on Resolution, with 
Mr. M. P. Mooney of Cleveland, Ohio, as chairman. 

Rev. H. G. Ganss, D. D., representative of the Catholic Indian 
Bureau, gave an interesting report of the activities of said Bureau. 
He stated that out of 270,000 Indians 106,000 were Catholics. 

National Secretary Anthony Matre stated in his report that four 
Archbishops and twenty-five Bishops have thus far approved the 
Federation movement and that Ohio, New Jersey, Indiana and Massa- 
chusetts had active State Federation, and that fourteen National and 
State organizations had joined the Federation movement : He stated 
that the money collected was $1,738.61, of which amount $1,272.69 
had been expended, leaving a balance of $465.92. 

Mr. M. P. Mooney, Chairman of the Executive Board, made a 
report in which he disclosed his correspondence with President Roose- 
velt and the War Department relative to the Philippine Question. 
He also presented a letter from Hon. Clarance R. Edwards, Chief of 
Bureau of Department of Insular Affairs in which statement was 
made that no discrimination has been made in the appointment of 
school teachers in the Philippines on account of their religious belief. 



268 AJ^THONY MATRE, K. S. G. 

The afternoon session of August 6, 1902, was opened with the 
appointment of two committees, that of Finance, with Mr. John 
Stephan of Pittsburg, Pa., as chairman. Addresses of Mr. Thiele and 
Very Rev. A. B. Oechtering followed. 

Eev. J. T. O'Reilly, an Augustinian Father from Massachusetts, 
was called upon and gave a powerful defence for the Friars in the 
Philippines. Concluding his remarks he said : ' ' We have been silent 
regarding the Church in the Philippines too long. We have been 
silent as a people, our press has been silent, our Episcopate has been 
practically silent because of the justice of our cause and because of 
our confidence that justice would ultimately triumph. But, my 
friends, we have been disappointed. Party interests prevailed. The 
sooner we open our eyes to the true condition of things, the better we 
will remedy them. 

"I stand before you today as a Friar, one of a committee, and I 
think the first of its kind officially appointed, to call on the President 
of the United States and remonstrate against the misrepresentation 
of our people in the Philippine Islands and demand for them their 
rights; and I want to say here that the administration has probably 
done as well as they knew how under the circumstances. ... I iam 
satisfied that the sentiment of this Convention practically represents 
the Catholic people of the United States, and that is that the Friars 
of the Philippine Islands need make no apology for their lives. All 
that the Catholic Church wants in the Philippines is that which she 
enjoys in the United States. ' ' 

A message was then presented to the convention by Rev. E. L. 
Spalding of the Cathedral of Alton, 111., emanating from the pen of 
Rt. Rev. James Ryan, D. D., Bishop of Alton, 111. The message was 
a forceful plea for our Catholic brethren in the Philippines: 

Important Message of Bishop Ryan of Alton, III.. 

Bishop Ryan wrote in part : ' ' The main purpose of the American 
Federation of Catholic Societies is most commendable. The assump- 
tion has too often most flauntingly been made — even put into prac- 
tice — ^that this is a Prostestant country, not the country of all creeds. 
Most generally, indeed, anti-Catholic bigotry has hidden behind the 
hollow mockery of non-sectarianism, a mockery how hollow is seen 
in the treatment of the Catholic Indian schools. Unprejudiced testi- 
mony shows that if Catholic schools had anything like the aid that 
bigotry had, the Indians would have been long since domesticated and 
civilized as they have been throughout Central and South America 
and wherever a Catholic people has dwelt with them, , . . 



AMERICAN FEDERATION OF CATHOLIC SOCIETIES 269 

"Governor Taft has repeatedly, solemnly and officially declared 
that the whole Filipino people desire the Friars removed. A dispatch 
sent to Bishop Richter of Michigan, by the Centro Catolico of the 
Philippines, states that six million and more Filipino Catholics desire 
the Friars to remain. Which are we to believe, the millions or 
Taft? . . . 

"We know well that most of those partisans, greedy politicians 
and army men, who have been loudest in the hue and cry about the 
Friars and barbarous Filipinos, are, from a moral standpoint, not 
worthy to undo the latchet of the shoes of the humblest of either. 
They are like 'whited sepulchres, that outwardly indeed appear to 
men fair, but inwardly are filled with dead men's bones and all rni- 
cleanness.' . . . 

From the beginning of these unhappy affairs there has been too 
little, not too much, protesting on the part of Catholics . . . and 
as Catholics, let it be finally repeated, we stand and make our appeal 
simply on the right — on the fair play and justice and the Constitu- 
tion. As it is now, the Mohammedan can practice his religion and 
train his child as he pleases in the Philippines ; the Filipino Catholic 
finds his religion, under the action and auspices of the United States, 
subjected to virulent onslaught and manifold outrage, and his child 
delivered over in the schools, for which he pays, to a deceitful propa- 
gandism, designed to strip the soul of its most precious inheritance, 
the faith of centuries. This Filipino Catholic parent feels himself 
helpless, crushed beneath the weight of eighty millions of people, the 
vast body of whom certainly mean him not unkindly. In so grave a 
matter we cannot be satisfied with fair words ; we must press for fair 
deeds. ' ' 

The Committee on Constitution then made its report and this 
report was followed by the report of the Resolutions Committee. 

Important Resolutions Adopted 

The Resolutions adopted declared its filial devotion and loyalty to 
Mother Church and the Holy Father. It strongly recommended the 
study of the various encyclicals of Pope Leo XIII. It expressed 
confidence in President Roosevelt in his dealings in the Philippine 
Question and exhorted that peace and order can best be restored in 
the Philippine Islands by securing to the inhabitants their free and 
untrammeled exercise of the religion so long prevalent and now estab- 
lished therein, and through which the natives of these remote lands 
have been lifted from barbarism to civilization. The Resolutions 
further said : 



270 ANTHONY MATRE, K. S. G. 

"Resolved, That we extend to the Friars in the Philippines our 
fullest sympathy in this, their hour of trial ; that we are unmoved by 
the calumnies uttered against them; that we appreciate the value of 
their services in the cause of religion and humanity, and that we 
pledge them our support as American citizens in upholding the hands 
of our government in its determination to see that they are treated 
with that common justice that belongs to all who enjoy the protection 
of the American flag. 

' ' Resolved, That it is our belief that all that is required to speedily 
put a stop to the whole anti-Friar agitation is an honest and impartial 
enforcement of the laws of the United States, giving protection to 
life and property. 

"Resolved, That this Federation congratulate the Vatican and the 
American government on the position attained in the negotiations 
regarding the questions which have arisen in the Philippines, and we 
earnestly trust that these negotiations will be continued until a just 
and amicable solution shall have been obtained. ' ' 

The Federation also, by Resolution, pledged its moral and active 
support to the cause of our Catholic Indian Schools which are in a 
precarious condition, because of government aid having been with- 
drawn, and promised to give the widest extension to the ' ' Society for 
the Preservation of the Faith among Indian Children." 

A Resolution was also adopted to send a message of sympathy to 
the Religious Orders of France in their present persecution; to urge 
Catholic societies everywhere to support the establishment of Catholic 
High Schools. 

"New World" of Chicago Complimented 

The New World of Chicago published daily editions during the 
convention. The Federation took special note of this and passed the 
following Resolution : 

"Resolved, That the thanks of the American Federation of Cath- 
olic Societies be tendered the New World of the City of Chicago, 
for its indefatigable and unswerving devotion to the cause, especially 
during the present convention, for the clear and able manner in which 
it has publicly set forth all pertaining to our proceedings and the 
movement in general." 

The thanks of the Convention was also extended to Bishop Mul- 
doon of Chicago and to all those who helped to make the Chicago 
Convention a success. 

The session held August 7, 1902, was opened with prayer by 
Bishop Messmer. 



I 



AMERICAN FEDERATION OF CATHOLIC SOCIETIES 271 



Anti-Saloon League and Federation 

A letter from the Secretary of the Anti-Saloon League was pre- 
sented asking the American Federation of Catholic Societies to send 
delegates to the Seventh National Anti-Saloon Convention to be held 
in Washington, D. C, September 9-11, 1902. 

Bishop Messmer expressed his views on this matter and said among 
other things: "I feel at the moment that it would hardly be advis- 
able to answer exactly to the invitation that we have received from 
the Anti-Saloon League. I am willing to grant that in many places 
and under many conditions we can and ought to co-operate with 
non-Catholic temperance societies and similar organizations, but we 
know on the other hand that many of them base their efforts on 
principles which we do not admit. Many of them go on the principle 
that the use of intoxicating liquor at any time is wrong and sinful. 
That is against Catholic doctrine, and we do not endorse it. We have 
no right to forbid a man to do what God's Holy Church allows him 
to do. Therefore, inasmuch as a formal participation and communi- 
cation with these organizations might be taken as an indorsement of 
their principles in general, I would not consider it wise to take formal 
part or formal action with them. At the same time I believe we can 
satisfy at least their wishes, and we will at the same time satisfy 
many of our brethren in the Faith, and hundreds of citizens outside 
of the Church, if we present a resolution which will briefly state our 
principles and state what we are willing to do. Therefore, I wish to 
offer the following Kesolution : 

"While we believe that a moderate use of liquor is neither against 
the natural law nor the precepts of the Gospel, we fully recognize 
the sinfulness of intemperance and its dreadful consequences upon 
the individual as well as society. We are therefore heartily in favor 
of all reasonable measures, private and public, tending toward the 
suppression of the abuse of intoxicating liquor." 

After some discussion the resolution presented by Bishop Messmer 
was unanimously adopted. 

In connection with the above resolution Bishop Messmer said he 
would like to recommend to the members of the American Federation 
of Catholic Societies that they strongly disapprove the so-called 
"Treating Habit" as an efficient means of restricting the evils of 
intemperance. 

After the report of the Committee on Ways and Means and an 
address by Rev. N. Eohden of South America, the Nominating Com- 



272 ANTHONY MATRE, K. S. G. 

mittee, of which Mr. J. T. Keating of Chicago was Chairman, made 
its recommendations as follows: 

National President, T. B. Minahan, Columbus, Ohio. 
First Vice-President, L. J. Kaufman, New York, N. Y. 
Second Vice-President, F. J. Kierce, San Francisco, Cal, 
Third Vice-President, Daniel Duffy, Pottsville, Pa. 
National Secretary, Anthony Matre, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
National Treasurer, W. J. Fries, Erie, Pa. 
Marshall, Christ. O'Brien, Chicago, 111. 

Executive Board — 

M. P. Mooney of Ohio. 
Nicholas Gonner of Iowa. 
Edward Reardon of Indiana. 
Thomas H. Cannon of Illinois. 
F. W. Immekus of Pennsylvania. 
J. W. Fowler of Kentucky. 
John Galvin of Vermont. 

The above named gentlemen were duly elected to ofifice. After a 
Resolution of Condolence was adopted on the death of Archbishop 
Feehan of Chicago, and Archbishop Corrigan of New York; and a 
vote of thanks had been extended to Hon. M. F. Girten of Chicago 
for his untiring efforts on behalf of the convention and the comfort 
of the delegates, the convention closed with the singing of "America." 

Anthony Matre, K. S. G., 

National Secretary. 
Chicago. 



NECROLOGY 

ET. REV. PETER J. MULDOON, D. D. 

The death of Bishop Muldoon on October 8, 1927, brought to a 
close a career that meant much for Catholicity in Illinois and the 
United States. Bishop Muldoon will be remembered not only for 
his remarkable work in organizing and developing the Diocese of 
Rockford over which he presided as first bishop for nearly twenty 
years, but for the splendid results he obtained in his capacity of 
head of the Social Action Department of the National Catholic 
Welfare Conference. 

In the April number of the Review which will be a Memorial to 
Bishop Muldoon, we shall attempt to give as adequate a recital of 
his life as can be written so soon after his passing. 

REV. HUGH P. SMYTH, LL. D. 

The Rev. Hugh P. Smyth, pastor of St. Mary's Church, Evanston, 
for 34 years, died on Sunday, November 6, after a heart attack, and 
his passing is sincerely mourned by his host of friends of all denom- 
inations. 

Famous as a writer on religious subjects. Father Smyth's in- 
terests soared beyond the narrow confines of the parish boundaries, 
but his little flock knew him always as father, confessor, adviser, 
friend, philosopher and theologian. Democratic in his ways and 
interested in all worthwhile community movements, he was in fre- 
quent demand as a speaker and lecturer. His books on the Roman 
Catholic faith, which included "The Reformation," "Testimony to 
the Truth," and "The God of Our Fathers" won him a national 
reputation. He was admired and respected and loved, not only by 
his own flock, but by all who came in contact with him and by 
Protestants as well as Catholics. He made Catholicity known and 
respected in Methodist Evanston and was often on the platform at 
Northwestern University. 

Dr. Stewart's Tribute 

The Rev. Dr. George Craig Stewart, rector of St. Luke's Epis- 
copal Church, Evanston, and a close friend of Father Smyth, voiced 
the sentiment of the community when he said : 

"In the death of Father Smyth, Evanston loses one of its best 
beloved citizens. He was a sound scholar, a dignified and devoted 

273 



274 NECROLOGY 

parish priest, a patriotic American and a genuine Christian. He 
was distinguished for his intellectual convictions, for the large and 
charitable tolerance of his spirit and for the twinkling humor of 
his speech. 

"We who knew him and loved him as a comrade in the religious 
life of Evanston suffer in his death a poignant loss. God grant him 
rest and peace and joy and life eternal." 

Dr. Stewart, himself a popular churchman in his home com- 
munity, was often a guest of Newman Council, K. of C, located 
in Evanston, of which Father Smyth was its most illustrious member. 

Father Smyth was born September 21, 3855, in County Cavan, 
Ireland. He was educated in All Hallows in Dublin and shortly 
after being ordained, nearly fifty years ago, came to America. He 
was assistant pastor at the Church of the Nativity, Union Avenue 
and 37th Street, Chicago, for nine years. His first pastorate was 
at St. Peter's Church in Lemont, where he served two years. 

Father Smyth's silver jubilee at St. Mary's in 1906 was attended 
by Catholic dignitaries from all over the country, including Arch- 
bishop Glennan of St. Louis. In 1924 he was given the honorary 
degree of doctor of laws by Loyola University. 

He, too, had a poetic soul, and many of his poems are preserved 
by his old parishioners on Christmas and Easter cards. His two 
great hobbies were the erection of the Margarita Club, a home for 
business girls, and St. George's High School for Boys. Both of 
these ambitions were realized just before his death. — The Columbian. 

THOMAS NASH, CHICAGO'S OLDEST RESIDENT 

Thomas Nash, Chicago's oldest resident and a Catholic pioneer 
of 72 years' residence in the city, died Friday January 7, 1928, at 
the home of his daughter, Mrs. John Dowdle, 429 Briar Place, at 
the age of 103 years. He was buried at Calvary cemetery Monday 
after impressive ceremonies at Mount Carmel Church in which his 
nephew, Msgr. J. J. Nash, of Buffalo, N. Y., participated as cele- 
brant. 

Mr. Nash was the father of Richard Nash, Patrick A. Nash, 
and John Nash and the wife of Dr. J. H. Walsh and was one of the 
founders of the Holy Name parish on the West Side. He was born 
in Ireland in 1825, arrived in Chicago when he was 31 and for 37 
years was employed in the department of public works. He super- 
vised the construction of many of the first sewers and water tunnels 
installed in the city. The firm of Nash Brothers, composed of his 



NECROLOGY 275 

sons, is nationally known and grew out of one founded by Mr. 
Nash after he left the city's employ. 

Fifty priests representing many orders assisted in the services 
at the church and grave and the last blessing was given by the Rt. 
Rev. Edward F. Hoban, D. D., auxiliary bishop of Chicago. — The 
Coluynhian. 



JOHN P. YOUNG 

John P. Young, one of the old Catholic residents of Chicago, 
due to a stroke of paralysis, died at the Alexian Brothers Hospital 
December 28. 

He was attended spiritually to the last by his son, the Rev. 
Father Francis C. Young, assistant pastor of St. Matthew's Church, 
Albany and Walnut Streets. 

He was buried from St. George's Church, 39th St. and Went- 
M'^orth Ave., where his thirteen children were born, baptized and 
raised. A pioneer furniture man in this district he contributed to 
the city's development during his 45 years of active business. 

Mr. Young was born May 31st, 1851, in the Prussian City of 
Confeld, Germany. He married Elizabeth Lauermann, September 
19th, 1876. She was called in death over 21 years ago. At the age 
of 78 years he died a beautifully peaceful death survived by the 
following children : John H. Young, Minneapolis, Minn. ; Joseph 
P. Young, 4932 N. Hoyne Avenue; Mrs. Felix M. Wahlheim, Rock 
Island, 111. ; Peter B. Young, 4711 Greenwood Avenue ; Mrs. William 
P. Ryan, 449 E. 60th Street; Father Francis C. Young, St. Mat- 
thew's Church, and Mrs. John M. Ward, 8001 S. Ada Street. 



CHRONICLE 

Bishop Henry P. Rohlman. Of interest to all Catholics of the 
Mississippi Valley was the consecration in St. Raphael's Cathedral, 
July 25, 1927, of Right Reverend Henry P. Rohlman as successor to 
Bishop James Davis, deceased. 

"Bishop Rohlman 's elevation to the episcopacy," we are told 
by the Daily American Tribune, Dubuque, Iowa, July 26, 1927, 
"marks the sixth graduate of Columbia College (Dubuque) to have 
attained that high honor; the others being Rt. Rev. M. Lenihan, Rt. 
Rev. John P. CarroU, Rt. Rev. Daniel M, Gorman, Rt. Rev. Thomas 
W. Drumm, and Most Rev. Edward D. Howard. ' ' 

Bishop George J. Finnigan, C. S. C, is the first member of the 
Holy Cross order to receive a diocese in the United States, says the 
Daily American Tribune of August 2, 1927. He was consecrated in 
the Church of the Sacred Heart, Notre Dame, Indiana, on August 
1, 1927, by Most Rev. Peter J. Hurth, C. S. C, titular archbishop of 
Bostra. 

Bishop Finnegan was born February, 22, 1885, at Potsdam, N. Y. 
In 1910 he graduated from Notre Dame University with the degree 
of Litt. B. ; that same year he went to Rome to the House of Studies 
of the Congregation of Holy Cross. In 1912 he received the degree 
of S. T. L. from the Gregorian University. He was ordained priest 
June 13, 1915, by Cardinal Pompili, the Vicar of Rome, in his private 
chapel and said his first Mass at the Tomb of Peter on June 14. He 
received the degree of S. T. D. at Laval in Quebec, in 1916, He was 
commissioned in 1918 as first lieutenant chaplain in the 137th field 
artillery and in October, 1918, went to Prance with his regiment. 
After the armistice. Father Finnigan was transferred to the 80th 
field artillery of the Seventh Regular Army Division and in May, 
1919, was promoted to a captaincy. He returned to America in 
June, 1919, and was appointed superior of the Preparatory Seminary 
at Notre Dame, which position he held for six years. In 1825 he 
was appointed vice-president of Notre Dame University and professor 
of philosophy. In 1926 he was elected provincial of the Congregation 
of Holy Cross in the United States. On May 20, 1927, he was ap- 
pointed bishop of Helena. 



276 



CHRONICLE 277 



CORNERSTONE LAYING OF SPRINGFIELD CATHEDRAL 

August 14, 1927, will long be remembered in the annals of Dio- 
cesan history for, on that day the cornerstone of the new Cathedral 
of the Immaculate Conception of the Diocese of Springfield in Illi- 
nois was laid with fitting splendor in the presence of one of the 
largest and most enthusiastic gatherings ever seen in this home city 
of Lincoln. The ceremony was carried out in accordance with the 
ancient prescribed rite, and with all the Catholic solemnity charac- 
teristic of such an important event. The Right Reverend James A. 
Griffin, D. D., officiated and was assisted by several church dignitaries 
of the Diocese. 

A number of organizations, as separate units, participated. The 
Holy Name Society and the Boy Scouts were there, and the fourth 
degree Knights of Columbus acted as bodyguard to the Right Rev- 
erend Bishop. Messrs. Rossiter and Rose, officials of the K. of C, 
marshaled the parade. A large choir, composed of the leading singers 
of the different city parishes and graciously assisted by the Capitol 
City Band, furnished the music for the occasion. 

Written invitations were extended to every Catholic family in the 
Diocese, and the public at large, irrespective of religious affiliation, 
were cordially invited to attend. Quincy, the Tri-Cities and Decatur 
chartered special trains to take care of the crowds attending the 
celebration, and the smaller cities and the country places sent their 
proportionate share. • 

The function began with the laying of the cornerstone. Anent 
this ceremony it is interesting to note that in the Cornerstone was 
placed and sealed, a box containing medals of various kinds, coins, 
old and new, of different denominations, newspapers and letters from 
the Diocesan Consultors. These things, now trivial enough, may 
prove of great historical value to future generations. After the 
laying of the cornerstone came the speakers' program in which the 
following participated: Hon. Emil Smith, the highly respected 
Mayor of the city ; Rev. John Franz, a boy bom in Springfield ; Hon. 
James Graham, a citizen of great ability, and fai- and favorably 
known for his civic worth and devotion to religion, and last, the 
moving spirit of the whole proceedings — Right Reverend James A. 
Griffin. Since the ceremony is essentially religious it was fittingly 
climaxed by Benediction of the Most Holy Sacrament. 

A medal commemorative of the happy event has been struck. 
This medal has a picture of the Cathedral group on one side and that 



278 CHRONICLK 

of the Right Rev. Bishop on the other, thus making it a very appro- 
priate souvenir. 

It is inspiring to recall even briefly the short history of the new 
Cathedral. A year ago it was little more than a beautiful dream 
that seemed well nigh impossible of such quick realization. But six 
months since, the Right Rev. Bishop, with high hopes and a zeal 
worthy of such a noble cause, issued an appeal to the Diocese for 
funds to build a Cathedral that would be in keeping with the dignity 
of the Catholic Church and at the same time in harmony with the 
prevailing architecture of this, the Capitol city of Illinois. The 
response — now a matter of history — ^was electrically prompt, mag- 
nificently generous. In actual fact it was far beyond even the most 
sanguine hopes of the Bishop, And so, with sufficient funds on hand 
and plenty more in view, a valuable site was secured, and work was 
immediately begun. Construction has now so far progressed that 
the Cathedral with its adjunct buildings is already taking shape. 
When completed the group Avill undoubtedly be very imposing, and 
unique in this (if the writer is correctly informed) that it will be 
the only group of its kind in this country in which all the buildings 
were erected simultaneously. 

The new Cathedral, designed by the eminent Chicago architect, 
Joseph McCarthy, K. S. G., belongs to that type of architecture known 
as the Greek Revival Style. This form of architecture was in very 
popular use in Colonial America. Due to its simple lines it is less 
expensive than the Gothic style, yet perhaps not less beautiful. At 
any rate it is a style that easily lends itself to the admirable archi- 
tectural qualities of strength, beauty and utility. 

This basilican Cathedral is 87 feet wide by 180 feet deep, with a 
seating capacity of about 1,000. The entrance will be through a 
portico into a spacious vestibule, and from over the main facade will 
rise a stately tower to a height of 133 feet, measured from the grade 
to the tip of the golden cross surmounting. The interior will be a 
Greek rectangular hall with a ceiling fifty feet above the floor. This 
ceiling will be paneled symmetrically and richly decorated in sym- 
bolic relief. Sixteen Greek marble columns, eight on each side and 
Doric in style, will nobly support a clerestory which in turn will be 
surmounted by an ornate Doric cornice. To allow of ample space 
for the full range of Episcopal functions ,the sanctuary will be ex- 
ceptionally large. The main altar will be a thing of beauty built 
up of Greek marble with a mosaic altar setting of the Immaculate 
Conception after Murillo. The two side altars are so designed as to 
lend the main altar additional beauty. Other features of the interior 



CHRONICLE 279 

call for description, but since space will not permit it is sufficient to 
say that when completed, the interior will be a harmonic whole, 
beautifully calculated to create a devotional atmosphere for the 
worshipper. 

The building itself will be strongly constructed and faced through- 
out by Mankato stone. This stone is not uniform in color, but varies 
from a light cream to a dark buff, thus producing a pleasing and 
chameleon-like effect. The adjunct buildings are also of the same 
style and material, but are so ingeniously arranged in the scheme of 
things that, though beautiful in themselves, they do not detain the 
eye but rather hurry it on to the focus of attraction — the Cathedral. 



GLEANINGS FROM CURRENT 
PERIODICALS 

"Research in Local Catholic History," by Thomas F. O'Connor, 
is the title of a leading article in America for August 6, 1927. Mr. 
O'Connor emphasizes the importance of the individual student and 
investigator of local history as the collector of the source materials 
from which the historical scholar must draw his facts. We believe 
that those interested in the history of their Church are not suffi- 
ciently aware of the important work they may do in collecting this 
material. The following suggestions are offered by Mr. O'Connor as 
to what the investigator may do : 

"In the domain of source-material, a virgin mine awaits the care- 
ful investigator. Town records, including deeds, enactments, and 
other official documents, often reveal facts of information not obtain- 
able elsewhere. Many of these records, especially for the older eastern 
and New England towns, are particularly rich, and offer a field which 
can be explored with profit. Perchance many of these wiU yield 
little information on things Catholic, but the older volumes of the 
colonial and early national days will often afford considerable light 
upon the general conditions of religion and toleration. To these 
should be added, as of much greater value, the classic sources of 
primary material of larger scope, such as the Colonial Documents of 
New York, the Pennsylvania Archives, the Ecclesiastical Records of 
the State of New York, and a number of other similar collections. 

"In securing access to unpublished local records in the offices of 
town and county clerks, and like officials, the local resident often 
enjoys advantages lacking to the outside investigator. Passing over 
the undoubted advantage of personal acquaintance and local influence, 
the careful local investigator, working at this class of material, will 
usually be possessed of greater leisure and of the capacity of more 
speedy orientation in his field of labor. 

"Records of parishes, too, even of non-Catholic parishes, frequently 
offer material of value in arriving at the solution of the larger prob- 
lems of which local instances supply illustration. Though this class 
of material would, very obviously, be more difficult of access than the 
foregoing, yet it is possible of negotiation in some instances. 

"Those living in larger centers, such as metropolitan cities, uni- 
versity towns and legislative centers, possess wider opportunities, but 
the investigation of the past of smaller towns is invaluable, and often 
reveals a general situation in a clearer light than is apt to be the 
case in larger places where the manifold cross-currents of urban life 
often tend to obscure the more simple and fundamental issues of 
passing movements. 

280 



GLEANINGS FROM CURRENT PERIODICALS 281 

"In the realm of secondary works, the investigator has, of course, 
to proceed with greater caution, and to be ready to discount much 
that he finds. The better class of these works, however, furnishes aid 
without which the investigator would be condemned to a much harder 
and more arduous task. The published histories of towns, counties 
and States, especially of the older ones, are often surprisingly ac- 
curate in their recital of facts. Then, too, the special studies of 
various aspects of our national life and of the major groups of our 
traditional American "melting pot," such as the French, German 
and Irish, are likely to be found illuminating on many of the more 
subtle aspects of our Catholic history. 

' ' Even family histories are not to be passed over with total disdain. 
These are not so frequently to be had for our Catholic families, since 
the pioneers of the Faith were, in most instances, hardworking, busy 
folk, with but little time for tracing the roots and branches of the 
family tree. Not infrequently, however, valuable bits of information 
may be gleaned from the records of prominent non-Catholics families 
anent matters of Catholic interest, as, for instance, conversions, mar- 
riages with Catholics, and the like. The writer wishes here, however, 
to enter a protest and, perchance, a warning, against the troublesome 
and "habit-forming" evils that lurk in the way of the unwary skim- 
mer of family histories. He could not rest easy if he felt that in his 
well-meant effort toward arousing a greater interest in the annals of 
a great institution he had ensnared some poor soul into the frightful 
vortex of ancestor-hunting. 

"Histories of individual parishes, too, although often written 
in an uncritical manner, and not infrequently given to over-much 
laudation, frequently reveal much material that may be verified in 
the light of source-material. Diocesan histories, too, might be con- 
sulted, verified and, perhaps, expanded. 

"A further valuable source, in the use of which the local resident 
enjoys a particular advantage, is to be found in the files of local 
papers. This class of material is surprisingly valuable for accounts 
of early religious happenings, and for records of the lives and activi- 
ties of prominent Catholics. Especially are these valuable for the 
light which they shed on non-Catholic and anti-Catholic movements 
in the various localities." 

We hope many of our readers will be encouraged by these sug- 
gestions to busy themselves in their own localities and send us the 
result of their investigations. 



BOOK REVIEWS 

Elizabeth Seton by Madame de Barberey, translated and adapted 
from the sixth French edition, by the Rev. Joseph B. Code, M. A., 
S. T. B. New York. The Macmillan Co. 1927. 

Great men and women of the past continue to appeal to every 
new generation, and to find interested biographers. In early Amer- 
ican and Catholic history Elizabeth Seton stands out as a shining 
light, and her variegated life will always be an inspiration. The 
present volume is not just another translation from the French. 
While it is possibly true that the best life of Mother Seton written 
thus far was in French, the translator has not hesitated to recast 
and to expand it wherever necessary, in the light of more complete 
and more accurate documents, freely made available to him. Therein 
lies its greatest merit. 

A work of this kind, written with constant reference to the 
sources, is of real historical value. The American author — for such 
he may be rightly termed — has not deemed it necessary to obtrude 
his learning. Keeping in mind the general reader, to whom above 
all a book of this kind should appeal, he has wisely dispensed with 
a multitude of footnotes, content to incorporate his researches in 
the text, and relegating to a back page the more important source 
references, where anyone who is interested, may readily find and 
verify them for himself. The text itself becomes a smooth flowing 
narrative. In fact it is largely an autobiography, where the princi- 
pal character has been allowed to law bare her soul in letters and 
diaries, with that older charm of mind and native English style 
which the French rendering of Madame de Barberey could not 
hope to equal. 

The story takes us back to the days of pre-revolutionary Amer- 
ica, when the loyalty of men such as Richard Bailey the physician, 
far removed from political agitations and crosscurrents, was severely 
tested by the Declaration of Independence and the subsequent long- 
drawn-out war. It unfolds itself along strange unfamiliar byways, 
as an invisible hand directs the destiny of young Elizabeth Ann 
Bailey on the tortuous road across the ocean, into Italy, back to 
New York, to end at last at home: in the Catholic Church and the 
blazing light of Faith, where she found intellectual certainty and 
happiness of soul in the midst of prolonged intense suffering. 

282 



BOOK REVIEWS 283 

The Seton and Bailey families have played a not inconspicuous 
role in American history. Anyone at all interested in America's 
past will be glad to meet their various members in these pages and 
to follow their vicissitudes. Quite naturally the religious Sisterhood 
of which Mother Seton became the foundress on American soil, 
plays the most important role. Its numerous communities are scat- 
tered over the wide country, and abroad, continuing the work which 
their foundress outlined for them with so much wisdom and vision. 

The human element is never absent even from institutions that 
bear the unmistakable stamp of divine guidance. The rather acri- 
monious debates that brought about the erection of new congrega- 
tions of Sisters of Charity independent of the original foundation, 
first in New York and later in Cincinnati, are ample proof to this 
effect. However it is hard to have patience with the labored 
attempts at overemphasizing the fact that these Daughters of 
Charity have no kinship with Mother Seton; are rebels as it were 
and aliens to Mother Seton 's ideals. The New York and Cincinnati 
houses were founded with the full approval of ecclesiastical author- 
ity. They grew and prospered and did the work of Christ. It 
seems unfair and narrow to deny them, with meticulous insistence, 
all claims to Mother Seton. As well insist that among the various 
branches of the Franciscan and Benedictine Orders only one has 
an absolute right to claim St. Francis or St. Benedict as their 
spiritual father. With her all-embracing charity Mother Seton 
would hardly disown these other foundations where her spirit still 
presides. Yet it is to the credit of the historian that these internal 
quarrels have been recorded. In fact they might be even more fully 
recorded in a subsequent edition. The truth is never adversely 
affected by the daylight. 

"Elizabeth Seton" is a novel from real life. It will deeply stir 
every reader: the young to ideals of high emprise attained through 
suffering ; the mature to mellow reflection on their own past years, 
and a realization that duty well done is life's highest reward. 

Rev. J. B. Culemans. 
Moline, III. 

Letters of a Bishop to His Flock, by His Eminence George Card- 
inal Mundelein, Benziger Brothers, New York and Chicago, 1927, 
$2.00. 

Under this modest title. Cardinal Mundelein has given us an 
invaluable source book for the history of the Chicago Archdiocese 



284 BOOK REVIEWS 

during the past eleven years. Though it purposes to be only a 
series of letters and addresses it indicates the achievements in 
various lines of Catholic spiritual and social development which 
have been accomplished under the Cardinal's guidance. In the fore- 
word, we are told that His Eminence has recently refused to write 
a description of his ecclesiastical career, especially because the 
success which is visited upon the efforts of the heirarchy and clergy 
"differs from that of leaders in other walks of life, who may have 
and often do have God's blessing on their endeavors but who do 
not have that particular inspiration and supernatural aid that is 
promised those chosen to continue Christ's own mission among 
men," "But," His Eminence says, "the letters of a bishop to his 
flock are no longer his own. As soon as they leave his pen they 
influence those about him. For good or for ill they help to mould 
the conduct of his clergy and people and often the views of those 
not of his fold. They form part of the history of the diocese. They 
record for posterity the story of a people's loyal generosity to the 
successor of St. Peter; they detail the method by us adopted to 
keep fresh in mind of young and old the truths and precepts of 
our Holy Faith ; they picture the growth year by year of the work 
of our organized Catholic Charities. Hence while this packet of 
letters, now in book form, may not prove a notable addition to the 
literature of our times, they do form a contribution to the contemp- 
orary history of the Catholic Church in Chicago." 

How well they tell the story of the progress of the Church ia 
Chicago in the past ten years, is evidenced by a glance at the titles 
of the letters and Addresses. In Group One, "Peter's Pence" the 
letters of 1918 and 1919 stressed the Pope's activities in War and 
reconstruction; the Pope as the Almoner of the World and the 
United States share in the charities of the Papacy are the burden 
of the letters of 1920 to 1923, which were followed in 1924 by a 
personal report of the Cardinal on conditions abroad and in 1925 
by a statement of the Holy Father's expression of gratitude; and 
in the 1926 letter we have a recital of the Pope's interest in the 
Eucharistic Congress. 

Group Two of the letters comprises the annual appeals in behalf 
of the Catholic Charities. This section tells us that "in 1918 the 
Associated Catholic Charities was organized by the Archbishop of 
Chicago. A group of men and women initiated the work designed 
to co-ordinate all charitable effort, to reduce the appeals for aid to 
one annual collection, to save the religious in charge from the 
burden of fund raising. With his organization completed, the 



BOOK REVIEWS 285 

Archbishop of Chicago presents his case to the people, asking for 
the first "registration of the charitable" in his first letter. The 
second, third and fourth letters stress the advantages of unified 
charitable effort in increased efficiency and in w^idened scope of 
the relief work which has resulted in even greater generosity of the 
faithful because they feel that their charity is accomplishing much 
more than in former days of diffused effort. The letters of 1922 
and 1923 bring out the value of the unified work and the increasing 
generosity, which in the 1924 letter is given the credit for the Holy 
Father's signalling out the head of the Archdiocese as the recipient 
of cardinalitial dignity. In 1925 and 1926 the attention of the 
Archdiocese was called to the benefits bestowed upon the city of 
Chicago itself in the rehabilitation of the poor, particularly the 
orphaned. His Eminence says, "we Catholics are proud of the 
contribution we have made to its citizenship which we have recruited 
and built up from the orphaned waifs of a big city." 

Group Three covers the letters outlining the catechetical in- 
structions which were made obligatory in all churches of the Arch- 
diocese at the Sunday low Masses. These instructions originally 
covering the whole subject matter in three years, took up first, 
the Apostles' Creed, next the Commandments of God and lastly 
Prayer and the Sacraments. The third cycle was augmented in 
1925 by a series of instructions on the Liturgy of the Church. 

The fourth group, entitled, War and Peace, dwell upon the 
duties of Catholics as American patriots and also as almoners to 
the war sufferers in after-war Europe. 

In the fifth group we have the Cardinal's pronouncements upon 
that crowning achievement of American Catholicity, the Eucharistic 
Congress. 

Seven letters and six addresses are included in the final group, 
and cover a number of subjects. A eulogy of Cardinal Gibbons on 
the occasion of his fiftieth anniversary of his Episcopal Consecration, 
epitomizes the glory of that great churchman's career. Among 
other titles of interest historically in this section are "A Catholic 
College for Women," "The Holy Name Society," "The Propagation 
of the Faith," and "Dedication of St. Mary of the Lake Seminary. 

It is our sincere hope that Cardinal Mundelein's example will 
be followed generally by the hierarchy, for the publication and 
diffusion of these official pronouncements makes certain their pre- 
servation for future historian. F. J. R. 



286 BOOK REVIEWS 

The Pageant of America., By Ralph Henry Gabriel, and others, 
eds. Cambridge, Mass. Yale University Press, 1925. 

English historians — all modern historians, in fact — but those 
especially under the leadership of Belloc and Chesterton are tireless 
in their efforts for a movement called the vitalization or humaniza- 
tion of history. And it is apparently toward this end that the 
series entitled The Pageant of America has been produced. Each 
volume presents American history under a different aspect although 
the general method is the same. 

Ralph Henry Gabriel has written the Forewords, quite phil- 
osophic in tone and thought, giving the European background, 
origin, and development of the movement under consideration in a 
very general manner. The history of each particular period is 
organized under chapter headings which attract by their human 
interest appeals. Lives of characters form much of the material, for 
it is people, not fate or circumstance, who make history. Illustra- 
tions of source material consulted represent some of the best efforts 
in historical research and herein the advanced student will find the 
set valuable; quite frequently the write-ups are not sufficiently in- 
formative except in a scattered manner. Modern idealized repre- 
sentations of these periods as conceived by artists and sculptors 
of today are also used as illustrations. Care has been taken to 
make the indexes complete and the references exact. 

Clark Wissler, Constance L. Skinner, and William Wood have 
combined authorship in Volume I, Adventures in the Wilderness. 
Herein is treated the history of early America, its discovery and 
exploration — including Mexico and Canada — to almost the end of 
the eighteenth century. The domestic, economic, and social life of 
the Indian are excellently illustrated by facsimiles of source ma- 
terial and reproductions of modern artists, notably those of George 
de Forest Brush. Achievements of such characters as Father Mar- 
quette and the Jesuits in New France, people who were primarily 
Catholics, are impartially treated. 

Industrial history in its agricultural aspect alone is handled by 
R. H. Gabriel in Volume III, Toilers of Land and Sea. Besides 
those pioneers who draw from the earth, there are those, pioneers 
too, who draw from the sea, and in the last chapter, the history 
and methods of fishing are recorded. 

Volume V, The Epic of Industry, by Malcolm Kier, is valuable 
for its well written text and its information about American indus- 
trial history; for its illustrations: maps which show the location 



BOOK REVIEWS 287 

and distribution of industries, and graphs which form the bases for 
statistical comparison; for the correlation which brings related 
topics under one heading and thereby enriches that subject ; for the 
recognition that is given Chicago as a part of the industrial world ; 
and finally because of the democratic and therefore truly American 
spirit which raises the lowliest laborer to a place of dignity as an 
individual, for it is he who can cause or stop the rotation of the 
wheels of American industry. 

Frederic Austin Ogg, in the eighth volume. Builders of the Re- 
public, records the political history of America from the time of the 
early colonies to the election of Abraham Loncoln, the last of the 
"builders" of the republic, for after Lincoln the republic is firmly 
established. 

In Volume XI, The American Spirit in Letters, by S. T. Wil- 
liams, the standard of judgment becomes subjective. The question 
arises: Is it advisable to appraise the worth of productions in a 
history of literature? The judging of literary worth as such seems 
to be the prerogative of the critic although the historian certainly 
needs a discriminating sense in the collecting of facts. For many 
years American literature imitated the English literature of the 
period preceding. But the time arrived when the bonds of conven- 
tion were thrown off and there emerged the "Literature of the 
New America." The study is inclusive from the earliest American 
attempts at writing to Edna St. Vincent Millay. 

P. J. Mather, Jr., handles Painting and the Graphic Arts in 
Volume Xn, The American Spirit in Art ; C. R. Morey, Sculpture ; 
W. J. Henderson, Music. Engraving, etching, and wood-cutting 
are more briefly treated. American art is proved to be a combina- 
tion of many English characteristics plus the brilliancy of the 
French and the classicism of Italian Renaissance art. However, ft 
thoroughly original poetic strain is found in the early landscape 
moods of American artists. Ralph H. Gabriel says, "The art life 
of this trans-Atlantic people, so long retarded by more pressing 
national tasks, has just begun." 

That America will gradually evolve a distinctive type of archi- 
tecture is not to be doubted. In Volume XIII, The American 
Spirit in Architecture, by T. F. Hamlin, the assertion is made that 
America suffered an architectural collapse about the time of the 
Civil War but that Chicago during the Columbian Exposition of 
1893 saw the beginning of the American phase of the Renaissance 
in architecture. In the Exposition buildings the best that Greece 



288 BOOK REVIEWS 

and Rome could offer was combined with colonial ideas. It is fitting 
that in this Pageant of America a splendid bit of writing should be 
done about the inspiring memorial to Lincoln in the city of Wash- 
ington. There shines forth in the description and interpretation of 
that memorial the faith and idealism second only to that of Lincoln 
himself. 

Dorothy C. Kleespies. 
Chicago, III. 



I 



Illinois 

Catholic Historical 

Review 

Volume X APEIL, 1928 Number 4 

Journal of the Illinois Catholic Historical Society 
28 North Franklin Street, Chicago 

MANAGING EDITOR 

F. J. ROONBY 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 

Joseph J. Thompson Chicago William Stetson Merrill Chicago 

Rev. Frederick Beuckman Belleville Rev. Paul J. Foik, C. S. C . . . . Austin, Textu 

Rev. J. B. Culemans Moline Rev. Gilbert J. Garraghan, S.J...St. Louis 




(3IIIinot0 Catl|oItc historical ^ocictg 

28 NORTH FRANKLIN STREET, CHICAGO 

HONORARY PRESIDENTS 

His Eminence George Cardinal Mundelein, Chicago 

Et. Rev. Peter J. Muldoon, D. D., Bockford Rt. Rev. Henry Althoff, D. D., BelleviUt 

Bt. Rev. Edmund M. Dunne, D. D., Peoria Rt. Rev. James A. Grifan, D. D., Springfield 

OFFICERS 

Pebsident Financial Secebtabt 

Eev. Frederic Siedenburg, S. J., Chicago Francis J. Booney, Chicago 
FlEST Vicb-Prbsident 

Rt. Rev. F. A. Purcell, Chicago Rbcobdinq Sbcebtabt 

Second "Vicb-Pebsidbnt Agnes Van Driel, Chicago 
James M. Graham, Springfield 

Tbbasubbb Aeohivist 
John P. V. Murphy, Chicago Rev. Joseph P. Morrison, Chicago 

TRUSTEES 

Very Rev. James Shannon, Peoria Michael F. Girten, Chicago 
Rev. William H. Agnew, S. J., Chicago James A. Bray, Joliet 

Mrs. Daniel V. Gallery, Chicago Frank J. Seng, Wilmette 

D. F. Bremner, Chicago Mrs. E. I. Cndahy, Chicago 

Margaret Madden, Chicago John Coleman, Lake Forest 



Published by 

The Illinois Catholic Historical Society 

Chicago, III. 



CONTENTS 



BISHOP MULDOON MEMORIAL NUMBER 



Right Reverend Peter James Muldoon, D. D Frontispiece 

Right Reverend Peter James Muldoon, D.D., First Bishop of Rockford, 
1863-1927, /. Allen Nolan 291 

Bishop Muldoon 's War and Reconstruction Services, 

Charles A. MoMahon 295 

Travel Literature As Source Material For American 
Church History (Continued) 

Eev. Joseph Paul Byan, A. F. M. 301 

The Dark and Bloody Ground, 

Bev. Paul J. Foik, C. S. C, Ph. D. 364 

Illinois: The Cradle of Christianity and Civilization In 
Mid-America (Continued), 

Joseph J. Thompson, LL.D. 379 

Book Reviews: 

The Joliet-Marquette Expedition -- 1673, 
(Francis Borgia Steck, O. F. M., Ph. D.) 

Bev. Ambrose Smith, 0. P., S. T. Lr. 396 

Shin-To (George Schurhammer, S.J.) 

W. E. Shiels, S. J. 397 



LOYOIiA UNIVERSITY PRSSS 
OmCAQO, ILLINOIS 




Right Reverend Peter James Muldoon, D. D., 

First Bishop of Rockford, 

1863-1927 



Illinois 

Catholic Historical Review 



Volume X APRIL, 1928 Number 4 



Right Reverend Peter James Muldoon, D.D., 
First Bishop of Rockford, 

1863 - 1927 

The national sorrow and regret voiced upon the demise of the 
Bishop of Rockford, Illinois, last October, is but today becoming a 
solemn reality. Towards the end of last autumn this great soul 
passed away, and only as the years advance and the absence of his 
firm, wise guidance is actually felt, will we come to a proper appre- 
ciation of his character and the work he has accomplished. 

Peter James Muldoon was born of Irish parentage in Columbia, 
California, October 10, 1863. Here he received his primary educa- 
tion, making his preparatory course at St. Mary's College, Kentucky, 
and completing his theology at St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore. He 
was ordained priest by the first Bishop of Brooklyn, N. Y., the Rt. 
Rev. John Loughlin, D. D., on December 18, 1886. He served as 
assistant at St. Pius Church, Chicago, for one year under Father 
Frank Henneberry and was then made chancellor of the Archdiocese. 
Later he was appointed to the pastorate of St. Charles Borromeo 
Church. In 1901 he was consecrated Auxiliary Bishop of Chicago 
and was appointed Vicar General by Archbishop Feehan. In 1908 
he was designated Bishop of the newly created See of Rockford, where 
he labored for nineteen years. This, in fine, is the factual back- 
ground of the life history of a gentle character who embraced a life 
of labor and suffering, who accepted the cross of Calvary that he 
might kiss the feet of Christ, who devoted the many years of his 
strenuous life as a successor of Paul, not to reap a harvest, but to sow 
the seeds of virtue in fertile soil so that his successors might gather 
into the granary of Heaven the fruit of his labors. The background 
I have given is one that any uninterested historian might present, 

291 



292 J. ALLEN NOLAN 

but it is colored by the character of the man, is brilliant as the purple 
he wore with such distinction, and sets forth in bold relief the causes 
he espoused. 

In the coat of arms of the lamented Bishop of Rockford was the 
inscription, "Pro fide et patria." He was loyal to his motto, for it 
expressed his principles. I conceive him as a great Catholic and a 
great American: great in the sense that his character excited love, 
admiration and interest. He was not a man who had solely a diocesan 
view of things and it is difficult, therefore, to consider his life only 
in the light of the head of a diocese. This man had a larger scope, 
he had an extra-parochial outlook, for he worked, not for the Church 
in Rockford alone, but for the Church in America: a characteristic 
not too frequently found in the chief pastor of a small diocese. He 
was ever the educated citizen, building schools, establishing social 
centers, contributing to charitable institutions, urging responsibility 
of civic duties, attending public meetings, fighting the battles of the 
oppressed, preaching love and peace and charity. Bishop Muldoon 
prided himself upon his nationality, he never forgot that he was a 
born American, that his work and his life belonged to the people of 
America as can be testified by his labors, not only in the Archdiocese 
of Chicago and his own See, but in the nation as well. He loved his 
country as few men love her; he was not a chauvinist by any means, 
yet he had a definite knowledge and understanding of what these 
United States meant to the world, of the good they could accomplish 
were they carefully guided away from materialism and selfishness 
and elevated to the higher plane of sound religion, charity and justice. 

Bishop Muldoon was a man of vision who was capable of seeing 
things in their concrete adjustments. It was this quality, more than 
any other, which made him a zealous worker in social reform. The 
large number of immigrants coming into Rockford made it apparent 
to him that a social problem lay before him in the care of these souls. 
Acting without delay he brought foreign-born priests into the diocese, 
painted the futures of these peoples to them, foretold the vast and 
fruitful work which awaited them, and began the construction of 
churches. To keep the people within the fold, to guard them against 
dangerous doctrines, to make them citizens commanding the respect 
and confidence of their American compatriots. Bishop Muldoon placed 
social centers in their districts, Americanization halls within their 
parishes, and formed societies to bind them together. By these means 
he turned the people away from erroneous industrial doctrines, he 
changed their habits, customs and manners so that they would con- 
form to those of America. He had seen the way to do it, and he 



EIGHT REVEREND PETER JAMES MULDOON 293 

undertook the task cheerfully. He was the advocate of any sound 
and sane constructive program, for the mind of Bishop Muldoon 
was built along constructive lines which embodied an ideal of help- 
fulness, of building up the principles of the people to meet those of 
the Church and the Democracy in America. In his labor in the 
diocese in establishing the National Catholic Welfare Conference he 
had almost superhuman foresight in being able to foretell the work 
and the results which would come of it. Catholic laymen entered 
the catechetical field teaching and instructing where priests could not 
go, and many children lost to the Church were returned to the em- 
brace of Peter. Particularly was this true among the foreign popu- 
lation who were somewhat lax in their duties. And as this social 
work succeeded in the diocese of Rockford so did it meet the needs 
of many of the dioceses of the United States, for it is Impossible to 
conceive the work of the first Bishop of Rockford as being purely 
diocesan. 

I know of no man who took into consideration, as did this beloved 
figure, the limitations of human nature. That is why he was known 
as a sympathetic man. Seldom would he chide his priests or people 
if they offended him; he bore silently opposition to what he knew 
would be for the best. To some extent this characteristic may have 
detracted not a little from his reputation as a disciplinarian. He was 
too loath to distrust those in his charge; he was patient with an 
offender almost to a fault. He always preferred to make a man 
rather than to break him. Few men suffered greater calumny, few 
men endured more unjust opposition and few men sacrificed more for 
a principle. It will take the healing influence of time to bring out 
completely the facts which these sentences are meant to convey. In 
his grasp he held great honors, yet was always fearful lest he did 
not deserve them. In defeat he used to say: ''Well, we all get so 
much more than we rightfully deserve." Yet Bishop Muldoon was 
a confirmed optimist, smiling at all times, and ah, what a smile I His 
keen sense of humor warmed the hearts of all who knew him. 

The Rockford Diocese, since his appointment, has seen remarkable 
growth in the spiritual life of the Catholic people. In comparing 
the statistics from the year 1909 to 1927, as given in the Catholic 
Directory, twenty-five new parishes have been established, seventeen 
parochial schools with an increase of three thousand seven hundred 
and fifty pupils, seven high schools, two hospitals and two homes for 
the aged have been built. There are seventy-eight more priests to 
administer to the twenty thousand increase in Catholic population. 
Bishop Muldoon believed in small parishes. He never urged the 



294 J. ALLEN NOLAN 

erection of large churches, but rather sought to have a little church 
in every possible settlement so as to better reach his people. 

Now these statistics stand as a monument to the work of the man. 
He was, by nature, an indefatigible worker. He occupied himself, 
outside his rapidly growing diocese, with numerous duties, many of 
which could have been considered relatively unimportant for such a 
gifted man. He thought nothing of traveling from Roekford to San 
Francisco and back to New York to attend commiftee meetings or 
conventions which he felt needed his presence and moral support. 
Regardless of his health he always found time to get everywhere. He 
was never too busy to sit through hours of dry and uninteresting 
speeches and lectures (as though they were a source of great pleasure 
to him) or to write a letter to one of his people, or again, to stop at 
colhges or schools for inspection, or to drop in at a church gathering 
to bid his people success in their work. This, I believe, was the key- 
note of his great popularity. 

Bishop Muldoon, to have been a typical executive, could have 
employed representatives to do this tiresome work — the drudgery of 
a diocese — but in his keen sympathy and natural scrupulosity he was 
always present "in persona." For hours each day that he was at 
home he sat at his desk and answered in longhand most of the mail 
he received; consoling, congratulating, encouraging, advising and 
<;ommanding. He knew that people treasured his letters; he used to 
laugh about them and say that he was "too old-fashioned and never 
got used to the typewriter." Now all this, and much more, was 
entirely unnecessary work which could have been accomplished under 
his direction by someone else. But I now of no greater tribute than 
to show this eccentricity for it demonstrates his consideration for his 
confreres, associates and people. It gave him unequaled popularity 
and the sense of dignity which the Bishop must have; it portrayed 
the generosity of his nature, the self-effacement, the simplicity and 
the sincerity of the man. 

J. Allen Nolan. 

St. Yiator College. 



BISHOP MULDOON'S WAR AND RECON- 
STRUCTION SERVICES 

In Michael Williams' book, "American Catholics in the War" — 
the only comprehensive story published to date summarizing the 
patriotic services rendered by the Catholic body of the United States 
during and after the World War — appears the following : 

"This volume is respectfully and affectionately dedicated by the 
author to the Right Reverend Peter J. Muldoon, D. D., Bishop of 
Rockford and Chairman of the Administrative Committee, National 
Catholic War Council. " 

Those who are familiar with the splendid record written by the 
American Catholic body during this great crisis, and especially with 
the leading part which Bishop Muldoon personally played in inspir- 
ing, guiding and conserving to the nation the patriotic efforts of the 
Catholics of the country, will agree that Mr. Williams' dedication 
was eminently fitting ; not indeed because Bishop Muldoon outstripped 
his fellow prelates in the American Hierarchy or other humbler citi- 
zens of his faith in patriotic zeal and loyalty to the interests of 
Church and Country during this period, but because his great willing- 
ness and capacity for service had the opportunity to manifest itself 
more prominently and effectively on account of the official position 
which he held as Chairman of the Administrative Committee of the 
National Catholic War Council — the organization formed by the 
Archbishops and Bishops of the United States to unify and coordi- 
nate the war services of the Catholic body and the agency officially 
recognized by the United States War Department as responsible for 
the handling of the problems devolving upon members of the Cath- 
olic Church in the United States because of the War. 

Following the preliminary meetings held in 1917, when the first 
important steps were taken to organize a Catholic War Council (the 
first president of which was the Rev. John J. Burke, C. S. P., S. T. D.), 
Cardinal Gibbons proposed the formation of a new War Council to 
consist of the then fourteen Archbishops of the United States and an 
Administrative Committee of four Bishops. Cardinal Gibbons' pro- 
posal received the hearty endorsement of the Archbishops and Bishops 
of the country with the result that the following Administrative 
Committee was appointed : Rt. Rev. P. J. Muldoon, D. D., Bishop 
of Rockford, chairman ; Rt. Rev. Bishops Joseph Schrembs, D. D., 
then Bishop of Toledo ; Rt. Rev. Patrick J. Hayes, D. D., at that time 
Auxiliary Bishop of New York ; and Rt. Rev. Wm. T. Russell, D. D., 
Bishop of Charleston. 

295 



296 CHARLES A. MCMAHON 

In writing to Bishop Muldoon and the other members of the 
Administrative Committee under date of January 12, 1918, Cardinal 
Gibbons, after thanking the Bishops for having consented to under- 
take the work of the Catholic War Council and referring to the 
demands upon their zeal and sacrifice which the work would entail, 
said in part : 

"Permit me to state clearly your position and authority. The 
Hierarchy has created a Catholic War Council consisting of the 
Board of Archbishops ; but as the Archbishops cannot meet at present 
to organize the work of the Council and cannot give it the necessary 
time and labor, they desire to delegate their authority to Your Lord- 
ships as a committee to act in their name. . . . Your task will be 
to direct and control, with the aid of the Ordinaries, all Catholic 
activities in the War. . . . Our national Catholic societies, both of 
men and of women, should be enlisted in this work. . . . Call, too, 
upon any other Catholic forces which you may judge helpful to your 
work. ' ' 

The Cardinal then proceeded to point out some particular prob- 
lems requiring the attention of the Administrative Bishops — the 
spiritual needs of the soldiers in the camps, on the transports, and 
in France ; the need of a sufficient number of chaplains both at home 
and abroad; the possible drafting of seminarians; the complicated 
question of raising funds; and a number of other pressing concerns 
incident to the prosecution of the War. Concluding his letter to the 
four Administrative Bishops, Cardinarl Gibbons' said: 

"I commit to you then, dear Bishops, in the name of the Hier- 
archy, this very important work, confident that you will accomplish 
immeasurable good for souls and for the future of the Church. ' ' 

On January 16, 1918, the Administrative Committee met at the 
Catholic University of America and agreed upon the scope and activi- 
ties of the National Catholic War Council, the foundation of whose 
structure was the fourteen Archbishops of the country, the Adminis- 
trative Committee of Bishops who derived full authority from the 
Board of Archbishops, and the Executive Committee composed of 
the four Bishops of the Administrative Committee and six members 
each from the Committee on Special War Activities, of which the 
Rev. John J. Burke, C. S. P., was chairman, and the Knights of 
Columbus Committee on War Activities, of which Wm. J. Mulligan 
was chairman. 

The details of this magnificent contribution have been ably 
chronicled by Mr. Williams in the volume already mentioned. Suffi- 
cient it is to say here that for the first time in their history the 
Catholic people of the United States had, in the War Council, a 
representative national organization, one that safeguarded their in- 
terests in the multifarious questions arising out of the conduct of 



BISHOP MULDOON's WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION SERVICES 297 

the War; one that enabled their hitherto scattered and disorganized 
forces to assume a unity and a cohesiveness and, because of these, a 
resultant efficiency that added immeasurably to their ability to serve 
the nation and to advance the prestige and glory of the Catholic 
name. 

Through the efforts of Bishop Muldoon's Committee, Catholic 
representation was secured on all war committees which discussed 
and molded national welfare and reconstruction policies. Catholic 
interests and Catholic principles were accorded recognition in all 
governmental welfare work. A mere tabulation of the accomplish- 
ments of the War Council would run beyond the space allotted to 
this article, but the reader will have some idea of the responsibility 
that devolved upon Bishop Muldoon's Committee in a consideration 
of just a few typical matters. 

There were, for instance: the question of the appointment of 
Catholic chaplains in the Army and Navy and the task of securing, 
through measures enacted by Congress, an equitable quota of such; 
the organization of Service Clubs and Visitors' Houses; the estab- 
lishment and conduct of Student Army Training Corps ; the training 
of men and women war workers, field secretaries and welfare repre- 
sentatives to serve at home and overseas; keeping in touch with all 
Catholic chaplains in the various branches of the service and supply- 
ing their many needs; active co-operation with the Government in 
its widespread Americanization activities for the promotion of a 
more active and better informed citizenship ; the establishment of 
rehabilitation schools and employment agencies for the aid of the 
discharged service men; the issuance and circulation, to the extent 
of millions of copies, of pamphlets dealing with social, civic and 
other problems of the hour. 

Among these pam.phlets might be mentioned in passing the * ' Civics 
Catechism on the Rights and Duties of American Citizens," which 
alone has had a circulation of one and one-half million copies, being 
translated into fourteen foreign languages; and "The Bishops' Pro- 
gram of Social Reconstruction," hailed then, as now, as a sound 
charter of economic justice and brotherhood and the most forward- 
looking and enlightening document issued by any American group, 
dealing with the solution of present-day social problems. 

All these and thousands of other equally important tasks were 
capably and effectively handled by Bishop Muldoon's Committee and, 
it may be added, at a cost totaling only one-thirty-fourth of the 
money raised in the United War Work Drive held in November, 1918. 
Perhaps never have funds donated by the general public been so 
carefully and conscientiously administered as a public trust. The 



298 CHARLES A. MCMAHON 

fact that Bishop Muldoon's Committee, with comparatively meager 
finances, was able to cover a field so far flung, so varied, and so im- 
portant, is in itself a striking tribute to the ingenuity, resourcefulness 
and genius of Bishop Muldoon's direction of this work. 

The accomplishments of the War Council were fully reported to 
the Archbishps and Bishops of the United States at the epoch-making 
meeting held at the Catholic University of America in September, 
1919, and attended by 92 of the then 101 Ordinaries of the country. 
So impressed were the Bishops upon reviewing the glorious accom- 
plishments of the Catholic people of the country serving under the 
direction of the War Council that they forthwith decided to convert 
the patriotism of strife into a patriotism of service, or, as they them- 
selves stated in the national pastoral issued shortly thereafter, "to 
maintain the spirit of union and co-operation of our forces for the 
ends of peace." The organization of the National Catholic "Welfare 
Council (later changed to Conference) was the outstanding result 
of this meeting — another tribute to the record build up by Bishop 
Muldoon and his co-workers in the work in the emergency organiza- 
tion. 

The magnificent manner in which American Catholic resources 
were applied during and after the War in varied works of religion, 
welfare and reconstruction evoked the admiration of the entire Cath- 
olic world and caused the then reigning Pontiff, Benedict XV, to 
indite a most remarkable message to the American Hierarchy in 
which he placed a grave responsibility upon the Catholic Church 
and her members in the United States. 

"The Universal Church," said the saintly Benedict, "now looks 
to America to be the leader in all things Catholic and set an example 
to all the other nations. ' ' 

In giving their reasons later for the perpetuation of the War 
Council, the Bishops said in the national pastoral referred to : 

"We have grouped together, under the National Catholic Welfare 
Council, the various agencies by which the cause of religion is 
furthered. Each of these, continuing its own special work in its 
chosen field, will now derive additional support through general co- 
operation. . . . The task assigned to each department is so laborious 
and yet so promising of results that we may surely expect with the 
Divine assistance and the loyal support of our clergy and people, to 
promote more effectually the glory of God, the interests of His 
Church, and the welfare of our Country. ' ' 

Another appreciation of Bishop Muldoon's worth came in his 
selection at the 1919 meeting as Vice-President of the National Cath- 
olic Welfare Conference and Episcopal Chairman of one of its most 
important divisions, the Department of Social Action. 



BISHOP MULDOON'S WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION SERVICES 299 

It is, of course, impossible to treat here of the work of the Con- 
ference during the eight years which intervened between the 1919 
meeting and Bishop Muldoon 's death in October of 1927 ; neither is 
there space to detail the further service of Bishop Muldoon as a 
member of the Administrative Committee of the Conference and 
Episcopal Chairman of its Social Action Department, during this 
time. 

The conduct of this national work required personal service to 
an extraordinary degree. Great crises produce and test great charac- 
ters. Bishop Muldoon was not found wanting. From his home in 
Rockford he traveled for monthly meetings to Washington. Often- 
times he would have to cover the distance twice a month. He bore 
a double burden — the care of his diocese, the problem of the national 
Catholic organizations — and he shirked not the two-fold burden. 

The same outstanding qualities which characterized his work in 
the old organization — patience, foresight, perseverance, great admin- 
istrative ability, tolerance, and a great wisdom which all who dealt 
with him regarded with the deepest deference and respect — were 
applied in the development of the new. His intense devotion to the 
ideals of the Conference and his unsparing labors in behalf of his 
own department undoubtedly hastened his death ; but before he died 
he had the satisfaction of learning through the recent letter of His 
Holiness, Pope Pius XI, of the Holy Father's appreciation of these 
eight pioneer years of effort and the Supreme Pontiff's declaration 
in that letter that "the Conference is not only useful but necessary 
to the Bishops of the United States." 

Bishop Muldoon 's own department, the scope of which included 
the fields of industrial relations, citizenship, social work, and rural 
welfare, presented many difficulties, but under his wise administra- 
tion as Episcopal Chairman, it developed into a most helpful clearing 
house for Catholic social teaching, a bureau of information and 
standards with regard to the fields mentioned above, and an active 
organization assisting in promoting civic, social and economic welfare. 
Growing out of the Social Action Department there developed during 
Bishop Muldoon 's regime a number of important conferences and 
committees, among which may be mentioned the Catholic Conference 
on Industrial Problems, the Catholic Rural Life Conference, and the 
Catholic Committee on International Peace, all of which profited as 
a result of Bishop Muldoon 's planning and leadership and all of 
which reflected his own high standards of social justice and Christian 
brotherhood. 



300 CHARLES A. MCMAHON 

Only a few days before Bishop Muldoon's death, the Archbishops 
and Bishops of the United States, meeting in annual session at the 
Catholic University of America, sent him a message expressing their 
appreciation of his work as a member of the N. C. W. C. Administra- 
tive Committee and their joy over his improved health. In a standing 
vote of thanks the entire body of Bishops praised Bishop Muldoon 
and his fellow prelates of the Administrative Committee for their 
unceasing labors and unparalleled accomplishments. 

"If today," said His Eminence, Cardinal Hayes, in proposing 
this tribute, "we are, as a body, distinguished for a greater solidarity, 
a more progressive unity for the honor of God and the welfare of 
our fellowman, and the preservation and further extension of every- 
thing best in American life, we owe a debt of everlasting gratitude 
to these seven members of the American episcopate who, in hours of 
stress and strain, labored so successfully to make this hour possible. 

"Grown out of a wartime patriotic work into a peacetime agency, 
the Conference has gone through a probationary period from which 
it has now emerged — a strong instrumentality for good. ' ' 

Bishop Muldoon's personal part in the accomplishments both of 
the War Council and of the Welfare Conference pointed out by 
Cardinal Hayes undoubtedly cost him many years of life. The im- 
provement in his condition reported at that time proved of but short 
duration and he died a few days later, mourned in his diocese and 
throughout the nation by legions of friends and admirers, who sensed 
the passing of a great servant of God and an outstanding benefactor 
of humanity. 

This brief and altogether inadequate sketch of Bishop Muldoon's 
war and reconstruction services gives but a slight measure of the 
surpassing patriotism of this great prelate ; of his intense loyalty to 
his Church and to his Country ; of his burning zeal for all that would 
benefit humanity and hasten the reign of social justice throughout 
the world. Those who labored with Bishop Muldoon knew and loved 
him for these sterling characteristics. To them, as well as to the 
thousands who had not the privilege of intimate association with him 
but who aided in the promotion of his high ideals of social service, 
Bishop Muldoon's memory points the way like a beacon, pure and 
far-shining, to his own pathway of service — the service of God, 
Country and fellowman. 

Among the martyrs to Church and Country history has already 
written in letters of gold the name of Peter J. Muldoon. 

Charles A. McMahon, 
Washington, D. C. Editor, N. C. W. C. Bulletin. 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE 

MATERIAL FOR AMERICAN 

CATHOLIC HISTORY 

(Continued from January, 1928) 

PART III 

Travel Literature from 1815 to 1842 

After the death of Archbishop John Carroll in 1815, the Church 
in the United States began that growth in numbers and in activities, 
which was one of the most phenomenal in the history of 
Catholicism. "We have arbitrarily chosen the year 1842 as the 
terminus ad quern of our essay. During that year Canon Joseph 
Salzbacher of Vienna visited this country. His volume, Meine Reise 
nach Nord-Amerika im Jdhre 1842, is in reality the first extensive 
account of Catholicism in the United States by a foreigner. This 
volume is so completely concerned with the Church in this country 
that it is not possible to include it within the limits of this essay. 
It will be remembered that during this period (1815-1841) the 
Catholic Church in the United States was face to face with Pro- 
testant opposition, which had the result of strengthening the group- 
ing of Catholics all over the country. 

JOHN PALMER 

Journal of Travels Through the United States of North 

America and Lower Canada 

(1817) 

John Palmer was apparently a native of Lynn, in Norfolk. He 
sailed from Liverpool on March 28, 1817, on a visit to the United 
States( and Canada. During the voyage he had for companions 
William Corbett and his two sons. Soon after his return to Eng- 
land, he published his Journal of Travels Through the United States. 
It contains particulars relating to the prices of land and provisions, 
remarks on the country and people, an account of the commerce of 
the principal towns and an interesting account of two sea serpents 
said to have been seen off Marblehead. A Dutch translation ap- 
peared about two years after the original. Sydney Smith in the 
Edinburgh Review described the work as one having been written by 
a plain man, of good sense and sound judgment. 

301 



302 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

There is nothing exceptional recorded in the pages of Palmer's 
journal. On four occasions he mentions the Church, but they 
were only passing remarks. The first concerned the Church in 
Boston : 

There is but one Church of Catholics. (P. 185.) 

This refers to the Church of the Holy Cross. About a year after 
Palmer visited the city and made this observation, the Church of 
Saint Augustine was started. Of Philadelphia we read : 

/There were three Catholic churches in 1790, and four in 1810 
The Catholics are numerous in Philadelphia, supposed about 10,000. 
(P. 276.) 

Saint Augustine's Church, Philadelphia, was built in 1797, and 
is the fourth Church in this record. Of New York City it is said: 

There are two Catholic Churches. (P. 306.) 

These are old Saint Peter's Church and the new Saint Patrick's 
which was dedicated a few years before the visit of Palmer. The 
only other mention of the Church is that there is a Catholic Chapel 
at Cahokia. (P. 415.) 



DAVID B. WARDEN 

Statistical, Political and Historical Account of the 

United States 

(1818) 

David Bailie Warden was a native of Ireland, who came to the 
United States for the purpose of education. He received his Doctor's 
degree in Medicine at the New York Medical College. Soon after 
he was appointed as a secretary to the United States Consul in 
Holland and later held the same position in Paris, where he died 
at the age of 67, in 1845. He wrote numerous works all of which 
were well received by the public. Considering the volume we treat 
here, Edward Everett in a book review of the time of the first 
edition claimed that it contained more information about the United 
States than any other book in print. 

Warden relates of Massachusetts: 

Anabaptists, Jesuits and Quakers were banished in 1644, as 
"Incendiaries of the commonwealth, the infectors of persons in 
matters of religion, and the troublers of churches in all places 
where they have been." (I, p. 303.) 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 303 

and that in New Jersey the law read : 

All persons professing belief in the Faith of any Protestant Sect, 
and demeaning himself peaceably, shall be capable of being elected 
into any civil office, and shall freely participate of every privilege 
and immunity. (II, p. 48.) 

The above are but two examples of the early legislation which 
was enforced against the Catholics. 

Of Bardstown the traveler wrote: 

There is a Catholic Bishop, but of the Catholic profession there 
is a small number. (11, p. 337.) 

Bishop Flaget, when he arrived in Bardstown in 1811, only 
eight years before Warden wrote, found it destitute of all signs 
of Catholicity. Until a Church and house could be erected at Bards- 
town, the Bishop lived at St. Stephens at Priestland. In the entire 
diocese there were ten Churches and twenty-four stations visited 
by a handful of priests. 

In Louisiana things were not in such a primitive condition as 
regards Catholicism. Warden gives some very interesting figures 
regarding the salaries of missionaries in those parts: 

The clergy, before the late cession of Louisiana, consisted of a 
non-resident Bishop, who had $4,000 a year, from the revenues of 
certain Bishoprics in Mexico and Cuba; of two canons with a 
revenue each of $600 and twenty-five cures, of which five were for 
New Orleans and twenty for the different parishes of the provinces, 
each having from $360 to $480 a year. All these disbursements 
except the pay of the Bishop, and the expenses of the Chapel were 
paid by the Treasury of New Orleans, and amounted annually to 
the um of $13,000. The convent of the Ursulines, established in 
1727, by the Company of the West, for the education of female 
orphans contained a few years ago, twenty-eight nuns. The establish- 
ment is under the direction of thirteen religiouses. The same 
building contains a public school, established for the instruction 
of day scholars, at a dollar a year, of whom at the above period 
the number was eighty. (II, p. 551.) 

The following regulations he says are those of Georgetown and 
were the same as those of the other Catholic Colleges in the country : 

The Catholic College of Georgetown, founded in 1790, erected 
and supported by subscription, under the direction of the incor- 
porated clergy of Maryland. ... To be admitted as a pensioner, 
the student must be a Roman Catholic. If a Protestant, he boards 
in a house convenient to the College, where he enjoys equal advan- 
tages with the Catholics, except as to admission to the instruction and 
exercises of the Roman religion. (Ill, p. 201.) 



304 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

The following excerpt is interesting, very probably taken from 
some conversation: 

The Roman Catholic denomination is more numerous in Mary- 
land and Louisiana, than in any other state. The Roman Catholics 
of Maryland are chiefly Irish, those of Louisiana of French origin. 
Some years ago, the number in Maryland was 75,000. In Baltimore 
there is an Archbishop and four Bishops, and three churches; in 
Boston a church and a Bishop ; in New York two Churches and 
a Bishsop; in Philadelphia four churches and a Bishop; in Bards- 
town, one; in Kentucky, one; in Louisiana, one; with two canons 
and twenty-five curates, who receive about $500 a year. (Ill, p. 484.) 

The author was most likely informed that there was an arch- 
bishop at Baltimore and four bishops under him. At that time 
there was no Bishop in Philadelphia, Bishop Conwell not being 
consecrated until the following year. The mention of Bardstown 
and Kentucky doubtless are in reference to the same See. 

There is a passing mention of the Catholics in New York, and 
a statement that the Catholic Congregations in Pennsylvania in 
1802 numbered eleven. 

JACQUES MILBERT 

Inteneraire Pittoresque du Fleuve d 'Hudson 
(1821) 

Jacques Milbert, who was a Catholic, visited this country in 
1821. He toured the northern part of the State of New York 
spending most of his time in that section. He made a brief stay 
in New York City, where he first saw Bishop Cheverus, and later 
traveled to Boston and met the Bishop personally. There is not 
a great deal of matter in the book for our purpose, but the few 
references that are found are valuable. 

In his introduction Milbert gives us a very concise picture of 
Bishop Cheverus. It points out the reverence in which this prelate 
was held in the minds of all, both Catholics and non-Catholics. 
Nor are we forced to wonder at this when viewing the zeal, the 
charity, the poverty and the humility of the Apostle of Boston, 
The account isi as follows : 

It was at New York, that I had the occasion to see for the first 
time, M. de Cheverus. Induced by his reputation of pastoral elo- 
quence, I attended one of his exhortations. His sweet and persuasive 
voice had such an effect on me, that I had the desire to know 
him more intimately. Some time after, on going to Boston, I had 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 305 

the honor of being presented to this gentleman, who welcomed me 
with the greatest cordiality, and who said to me on showing me 
the one room that he occupies in a house, "You see the Episcopal 
palace, it is open to the whole world." Such is the sway of virtue 
on hearts that in this city, which contains a great number of 
dissenting sects, all opposed in practice and spirit, the name of the 
French Bishop is never pronounced but with veneration by all 
mouths. In fact who could help but be moved, on seeing this ven- 
erable minister of the gospel, alone and on foot at all hours of 
the day and night, in all seasons, carrying miles distant, consolations 
to the afflicted, secret help to the needy, words of concord and 
peace to divided families. (XIV-XVI.) 

The author then tells of the Bishop visiting him when he was 
sick. In the body of the book Milbert relates that on two occasions 
he was present at the consecration of churches in Northern New 
York. The first was that consecrated by Bishop Connolly at Utica 
on August 19, 1821 : 

In an isolated place there is an elegant new Catholic church 
constructed of wood and in the Gothic style; I assisted at the 
ceremony of consecration, which was made by the Bishop of New 
York. (I, p. 154.) 

A little later he says of the Church at Carthage, New York: 

I must not omit that on a hill, there rises a little church, sur- 
mounted by a clock and lantern. It has been constructed at the 
expense of M. Leray de Chamont, and is destined for the worship 
of Irish Catholics, who with a certain number of English and 
Americans, form almost the entire population of the town. M. 
Connolly, Bishop of New York, made the consecration during my 
stay at Leray- Ville. It is to serve the two-fold purpose of Church 
and public school, for in the United States, each community, of 
whatever little importance it might be, is obliged to have a school, 
and to support at its own expense a master, etc. (II, p. 29.) 

Nothing else to our purpose is recorded except a word about 
the Church at Boston: 

The Catholics possess a church in Boston, and a chapel in the 
cemetery of that city. The venerable ecclesiastics who serve the 
Catholic Church of Boston, go often to preach the gospel to the 
savages of the Penobscot, a place situated at tTie eastern extremity 
of the State of Maine. (II, p. 20.) 

The chapel of the Penobscots was located at Point Pleasant 
and attended by Father Komagne, who made his vsdnter quarters 
at the church at Newcastle. Bishop Cheverus visited this Indian 
mission the year after his consecration and confirmed 122 souls. 
The Bishop was received with enthusiasm by the Indians, for he 



306 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

had been their missionary. Bishop Plessis visited the mission at 
the request of Bishop Cheverus in 1815, and he himself spent two 
months of the follow^ing year among them. In 1825 Bishop Fenwick 
wrote that there were about 400 souls at the mission and they 
were at that time without a ^ pastor. 



WILLIAM H. BLANE 

An Excursion dj the United States and Canada 
(1822-1823) 

After traveling through almost all of Great Britain and Ireland 
as well as the most of the Continent, especially Holland, France, 
Switzerland and Italy, Blane determined to visit the United States. 
He was desirous of seeing the New World and of being personally 
acquainted with the conditions here, the descriptions which he read 
being apparently filled with contradictions. He set sail from England 
in the summer of 1822, and having arrived in this country visited 
most of the large cities of the coast and went as far west as St. Louis. 
One chapter of his book is devoted to a summary of a religious 
conditions of the country, but there is very little in it for any re- 
ligious kind. After a fair description of the Baltimore Cathedral, 
Blane adds: 

This Cathedral was built by a lottery, which is no doubt a moral 
md convenient method of raising money, but which might induce a 
heretic to suppose that the builders were at the same time serving 
God and Mamon. (P. 35.) 

There were two lotteries held for the erection of the Cathedral. 
The j&rst was held in 1804, and referred to by Charles W. Janson in 
his journal of America. There was a second held in 1819 and 
doubtless is the one to which Blane here makes reference. 

Like the other travelers of this period, Blane could not refrain 
from telling all that he had heard about the Hogan case, being, as 
are all of these accounts, a non-Catholic view of the whole affair : 

The Roman Catholics are not very numerous in the United States, 
and the following anecdote may tend to prove that some persons 
among them are disposed to be wiser than in the good old times. 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 307 

Mr. Hogan, the officiating priest in the Catholic Cathedral in 
Philadelphia, gave great offense to the zealous, by leaving out the 
more absurd of the ritual. The Bishops, finding that he was obstinate 
in his error, fulminated against him the sentence of excommunication. 
This sentence, which cursed every individual member in Mr. Hogan 's 
body, was printed in most of the journals of the day, in one of which 
I read it. Mr. Hogan, however, laid the whole case before his con- 
gregation, who desired him to set at naught the aforesaid sentence. 
Being supported by the majority of the subscribers who built the 
Cathedral, Mr. Hogan continued to officiate. The Catholic Bishop 
then applied to the Pope, who also excommunicated Mr. Hogan ; and 
some fanatics, several of whom were Irishmen, animated by this 
sacred diploma, seized upon the Cathedral and prevented Mr. Hogan 
from officiating. Upon this, the whole affair was laid before the 
judicial court of the State of Pennsylvania, which, in conformity 
with the law of the United States, decided that the people who built 
the Cathedral had a right, not only to appoint their own officiating 
priest, but even if they please to change their place of worship, one 
day into a mosque, and the next day into a barn, or, in other words, 
to do what they liked with it. All this made a great noise at the 
time, and just before I left the United States, I was informed that 
the grand jury of Philadelphia had presented the Pope as a nuisance 
for having stirred up contention among the inhabitants of their city, 
and for having interfered in the spiritual concerns of the United 
States. The reader may imagine the ridicule which this occasioned. 
(P. 489.) 

G. C. BELTRAMI 

A Pilgrimage in Europe and America 
(1823) 

Beltrami, a French traveler, came to the United States in 1823, 
evidently for the purpose of exploring the Northwest Territory. 
He fell in with the expedition of Major Long at Fort St. Peter and 
continued with him for a time. In his account, Beltrami claims 
that he was harshly treated by Long and for that reason separated 
from his company. He then continued his independent explora- 
tions and claims for himself the discovery of what he named Lake 
Julia, the "most northern sources of the Mississippi, sources until 
now unknown." There is little known about the life of the author, 
except what is here recorded, taken from his own book. 

Beltrami does not seem to have missed an instance that would 
reflect unfavorably upon the Church. His first instance is that of 
the Hogan case and the Church of Philadelphia : 

The Catholic Church of St. Mary has recently been the scene of 
a great scandal. The congregation actually came to blows about a 



308 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M, 

priest who was the choice of the people, but rejected by the Bishop 
and his partisans. This is the way in which our holy religion is 
everywhere honored and recommended by the conduct of its pro- 
fessors. (II, p. 44.) 

Likewise in St. Louis he became aware that aU was not as it 
should be, and he writes: 

The Catholics are the most numerous in St. Louis, but their 
priests here as elsewhere, bring shame and contempt on Catholicism. 
They arrogate a spiritual jurisdiction over balls, polite amusements, 
etc., and pry into family secrets; then they sow discord among some 
and disgust others with their interference, and thus scatter schism 
and scandal in all directions. Instead of gaining proselj^es, they 
make apostates. It seems that even here they are resolved to justify 
the often repeated accusation, that Bishops and Jesuits are the fittest 
instruments for the oppression and degradation of mankind. It is 
hoped that a more enlightened clergy will arise and see the danger 
of defiling religion. (II, p. 125.) 

That such was true is too well known. It was the greatest ob- 
stacle that met Bishop Du Bourg after his consecration. Scandals 
and infidel opposition had caused the region along the Mississippi to 
be most barren and almost void of religion. The European priests 
who had come to the aid of Bishop Du Bourg began at once to revive 
the faith in those parts. Some few of them faltered before the obsta- 
cles and difficulties and the almost impossible task that was theirs. 

The Jesuits were, it seems, the avowed enemies of Beltrami. 
Speaking of the Indians at La Plata, he states that they have been 
trained by the Jesuits to follow their (Jesuits) wills in everything. 
He then laments the fact that this society is trying to re-establish 
their dominion over the world. (II, p. 165.) When he deems it weU 
to praise the work of the French missionaries in general, the Jesuits 
are excluded, and Bishop Du Bourg, as we wiU quote below, is 
accused of Ultra-Jesuitism. The traveler was not unaware of the 
fact that the Indians were not to be judged as to religious profession 
by the religious articles they carried. The same fact was noticed at 
an earlier date and mentioned by Charlevoix and Chateaubriand. 
The latter may have derived this knowledge from Beltrami, as was 
the case in other statements that he makes. In this matter Beltrami 
says: 

Religious external signs might lead one to the conclusion that 
these savages (those at Fort St. Peter) are Catholics or at least 
Christians, for almost all of them, particularly the women, wear 
crosses. (II, p. 212.) 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 309 

He explains that to draw the conclusion that these Indians were 
Christians would be incorrect. The Red men came in possession of 
the crosses when the missionaries distributed them. After the Black 
Robes had departed the crosses reminded the Indians of their former 
hopes and the piety of the missionaries, and became their favorite 
ornaments. 

At Red River, below St, Louis, he made the following observa- 
tion: 

Two Catholic priests have also established themselves here, but as 
neither the Government nor the Company gave them any means of 
subsistence, they went away, and the church, constructed of the 
trunks of trees, is already fallen into ruins. 

Their departure is more to be regretted as not only does it deprive 
these regions of every source of instruction, which could be derived 
from these ecclesiastics alone, but the Bois Brules will relapse into 
their former state of barbarism by losing whatever good they have 
gained from their evangelical precepts. 

Then follows a section mentioned before as having been misquoted 
by Chateaubriand: 

To do justice to truth, the French missionaries, when not Jesuits, 
have invariably distinguished themselves everywhere by an exemplary 
life, befitting their profession. The religious sincerity, their apostolic 
charity, their remoteness from austerity and fanaticism fix in these 
countries memorable epochs in the annals of Christianity. (II, p. 
354.) 

Florissant, Missouri, was only at this time starting to take shape 
as a religious center. Our author noted this development : 

M. Du Bourg, the Bishop of St. Louis, has already formed an 
establishment of nuns, well calculated to promote the education of 
the daughters of persons residing here, and also another of the 
Jesuits, by whose means he proposes to spread the Catholic religion 
among the Indians dispersed over the border countries. May they 
answer the evangelical and philanthropic views of this prelate, if 
he sincerely entertain such! But the Ultra Jesuitism which he has 
hitherto promulgated authorizes the belief that he is merely the 
zealous tool of the Junta of Montrouge. Several well informed per- 
sons have assured me that the principle of these gentry is in perfect 
accordance with the vulgar maxim, "To stick by one another." (II, 
p. 494.) 



310 REV. JOSEPH PAUL BTAN, A. F. M. 

The nuns mentioned here are the Ladies of the Sacred Heart, who 
had come from France and opened a school at St. Charles in 1818. 
It was only after some years that the school was moved to Florissant. 
The Jesuits were those who had been at Whitemarsh when the novi- 
ciate was broken up in 1823. Father Van Quickenbome and his 
novices accepted the invitation of Bishop Du Bourg and settled on 
a farm near Florissant. 

A typical case of Indian devotion for their missionary is related 
of the natives at Sioux Portage, where they heard that he was at 
hand, and they flocked about him and: 

asked for their common father, M. Acquaroni, an Italian priest who 
was resident among them for three of four years. He is vicar of the 
Cathedral at New Orleans, coadjutor of abbe Moni, both of whom 
are models of virtue. (II, p. 497.) 

Father Acquaroni was a Lazarist, who attended the mission here 
as well as at St. Charles and Dardennes. Father John A. Moni was 
the rector of the Cathedral in New Orleans at the time of his death 
in 1842. 

JAMES FENIMORE COOPER 

Notions of Americans; Picked up by a Traveling Bachelor 

(1824-1828) 

Cooper hardly needs an introduction. He was not a traveler in 
America, but a native, having been bom in Burlington, New Jersey. 
His Spy and Last of the Mohicans, are two of his works that are 
widely read even in our own day. The volume that we here con- 
sider, Notions of Americans, purport to be notes taken by an English- 
man and published by Cooper. Who the author was we do not know. 
The book does not contain a great amount that is to our purpose. 
There are but two references, the first being to Philadelphia during 
the visit of LaFayette. 

Among the thousands that gathered around that venerable French- 
man, were aU the clergy of the city. They were more than sixty in 
number, and at the head appeared the Protestant Episcopal Bishop, 
with the Bishop of the Roman Catholic Church at his side. The 
former, who is a native of the country, and one of the oldest divines, 
delivered the sentiments of his brethren; but had the latter, who is 
a foreigner, been of greater age and longer service, he would have 
been, undoubtedly, selected to have performed the same ceremony. . . 
although in theory, all denominations in the United States are equal 
before the law, there is, in point of fact, no country in the world 
that is more decidedly Protestant than this, and yet I do believe it 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 311 

would give scandal to the whole nation, to learn that a slight or 
offense of any nature were given to a priest, merely because he hap- 
pened to belong to the Eoman Catholic communion. (II, p. 136.) 

It was in October, 1824, that LaFayette visited Philadelphia. 
Bishop Conwell and Bishop White, of the Protestant Church, were 
the two who are here mentioned as being at the head of the Proces- 
sion. The second remark concerning Catholics is a general one: 

The Roman Catholics are the most numerous in Maryland and 
Louisiana. The first was a Roman Catholic colony and the latter, as 
you know, has been both French and Spanish. The Floridas must 
also contain some Catholics. Many of the Irish who came to this 
country, and are settled in the more northern states, are also Cath- 
olics; but including all I should not think that they rank higher, in 
point of numbers, than the sixth or seventh sect, after allowing for 
aU the subdivisions among the Protestants themselves. (II, p. 232.) 

The numbers of Catholics at this time was not generally known. 
There was, too, a feeling on the part of many that the Church was 
not to succeed in this country. 



CARL BERNHARD, DUKE OF SAX WEIMAR 

Travels through North America 
(1825-1826) 

Bemhard, the Duke of Sax Weimar, was a military officer in the 
service of the King of Netherland. From his earliest years, he had 
desired to visit the new world, more from curiosity than from any 
other motive. The journal of his travels was kept in order that on 
his return to Europe he might satisfy the inquiries of parents and 
friends. His notes were read by a number of the friends and they 
desired that the book be published. After some persuasion Bernhard 
yielded to this entreaty. He started his journey from Ghent in April, 
1825, after he had been given an eighteen months leave of absence by 
the King, and a government boat was at his disposal to cross the 
Atlantic. He arrived home in July, 1826. 

Very early in his tour, Bemhard visited Baltimore, where he met 
Archbishop Marechal, of whom he writes : 

I was introduced in the Church to the Archbishop of Baltimore, 
M. Marechal, who is the Catholic Primate of the United States. He 
is a native of France, and has resided in the United States since 1792, 
whither he first came as a missionary. He is spoken of as a man of 
great activity and much spirit. His exterior is of great simplicity; 
he is of small stature and animated. When he first addressed me, 



312 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

with his book under his arm, I took him for a French teacher, but he 
very soon presented himself to me as the Archbishop. 

The State of Maryland contains the greatest number of Catholics, 
with the exception of the States of Louisiana and Florida, where the 
Catholics, on account of the wealth they possess, have some influence. 
(I, p. 163.) 

Marechal was ordained priest in 1792 and had come to America 
before saying his first Mass. Bernhard then relates : 

I was twice in the Catholic Cathedral, the first time on Sumday, 
October 30th. The desire of hearing good music decided me on going 
to this church, and I had no occasions to regret it. . . . The Charity 
sermon, by Mr. Wheeler, on Charity and pleasure of doing good, was 
very edifying. The text had been chosen to move the hearts of the 
congregation, on behalf of the Catholic Poor school. Several days 
after I returned to the Cathedral in company with Mr. Vallenilla, of 
the Columbian legation, to see Dr. Fenwick consecrated Bishop of 
Boston. The Church was crowded. ... I do not remember to have 
heard such good music for a long time. . . . The ceremony lasted 
very long. I remained from ten o'clock until two and then left the 
church. The service continued until three P. M. The Archbishop 
himself officiated in pontificalibus, with a mitre of gold cloth, and 
his gilded croisier-staff. He was served by the Bishops of Charleston 
and Philadelphia, who wore mitres of cloth of silver. The first, Mr. 
England, delivered a long sermon, with a strong Irish accent, of 
which I did not understand much, except that he drew a comparison 
between a republican state citizen and a good Catholic. He spoke 
with much vehemence, and was very declamatory. It is said that 
this prelate is one of the pillars of the Romanish Church in the 
United States. (I, p. 168.) 

Father Wheeler, who is mentioned here, became the chaplain to 
the Sisters at the Visitation Convent at Georgetown the following 
year. He was theologian for Father Matthews at the first Baltimore 
Council. In 1832, he fell a victim to cholera, while helping those 
already afflicted with the disease. Bishop Fenwick wais consecrated 
on All Saints' day, 1825. The Bishop of Philadelphia at this time 
was Bishop Conwell. 

The next Catholic center that attracted Bernhard was New Or- 
leans. He describes the Cathedral and then says: 

On Sundays and holydays, this church is visited by the beau 
monde; except on these occasions, I found that the most of the wor- 
shippers consisted only of blacks and colored people, the chief part of 
them females. (II, p. 56.) 

A short sketch of Bishop Du Bourg follows and we here find the 
first traveler who mentioned that the Episcopal Palace was a "quon- 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 313 

dam nunnery." The Ursulines had removed to the outskirts of the 
city and the Bishop had taken their house as his palace. 

I paid a visit to the Bishop of Louisiana, Mr. Dubourg, and was 
very politely received. He is a Jesuit, a native of St. Domingo, and 
appears to be about sixty years old. He delivers himself very well, 
and conversed with me concerning the disturbances in the diocese of 
Ghent, in the time of Prince Broglio, in which he as counsellor and 
friend of that Prince, took an active part. In his chamber, I saw a 
very fine portrait of Pius VII, a copy of one painted by Camuccini, 
and given by the Pope to the deceased duke of Saxe-Gotha. The 
Bishop inhabited a quandam nunnery, the greater part of which he 
had assigned for and established a school for boys. The Bishop 
returned my visit on the next day. (II, p. 64.) 

He also relates that the Bishop told him how he had acquired a 
set of French Encyclopedao in Flanders, when a good Catholic peas- 
ant was about to bum them, because they contained articles against 
the Church. (II, p. 83.) He then proceeds to St. Charles, concern- 
ing which place he wrote : 

The place may contain 1,000 inhabitants who nearly all belong to 
the Catholic faith, and have a small wooden church. I spoke to the 
present pastor, Verheggen, a native of Ghent, a young man, who, 
with Abbe Maehout, in Pensacola, and many other young students 
from Flanders, accompanied Bishop Dubourg on his return from 
Europe. Abbe Verheggen told me that eight Flanders clergymen 
were appointed as pastors through the State, or placed in the Semi- 
nary five miles from St. Genevieve. (II, p. 99.) 

It seems probable that the author is here referring to Father 
Verhaegen, who was among the Jesuits at "Whitemarsh, and answered 
Bishop Du Bourg's invitation to go into his new diocese. If this is 
so, the priest did not accompany the Bishop from Europe. It is 
certain that Father Verhaegen was still in the West, and was made 
President of the new College at St. Louis a few years later. 

Father C. Maehaut, who was then pastor in Pensacola, was ap- 
pointed rector of the Cathedral in New Orleans in 1842. 

On board the steamer at Cincinnati Bernhard made the acquaint- 
ance of a priest, of whom he writes: 

Among the passengers was Abbe Martial, a Frenchman, who had 
kept a boarding school in New Orleans for a long time, and was at 
that time employed by the Bishop of Kentucky to Bardstown, on 
whose account he was to travel in France and Italy. (II, p. 134.) 

Father Martial was a very dear friend of Bishop Du Bourg, The 
college which he directed was on the site of the new Ursuline Con- 
vent. This good priest was another of the cholera victims. As 



314 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F, M. 

regards his errand in Europe, we can find no evidence. Shea men- 
tions that Father Nerinckx and Chabrat were in Europe to collect 
funds in 1821, but there is no mention of Father Martial, nor of his 
having ever been under the jurisdiction of Bishop Flaget. Cincin- 
nati itself offered much for the traveler to see. His description of 
the incidentals is valuable : 

I called on Bishop Fenwick, but he was not at home. I have met 
with a clergyman who was a native of Hildeshiem, his name was 
Rese, who was educated in the Propaganda in Rome. This man 
showed me the old and new Cathedral. The former was built of 
wood, resembling a German village church; in its interior the splen- 
did episcopal seat is particularly distinguished. The altar has but 
few ornaments, with the exception of four silver chandeliers, 
which the Queen of Eturia gave to Bishop Fenwick for his church, 
and a gilded tabernacle, the gift of Pope Pius the seventh. . . . The 
church has not any bells; with respect to these the clergy expected 
some contribution from Italy. The Vicar General of the Bishop was 
Abbe Hill. He had formerly been a captain in the British army, and, 
having become a Catholic while in Italy, entered the Dominican 
order. He was said to be a great preacher. (II, p. 137.) 

Even when he had departed from the country, Bernhard con- 
tinued to record American Catholic History, It is about a certain 
Father Richards, a fellow passenger on the return trip across the 
Atlantic : 

With regard to Abbe Richards I heard it stated that he had been 
originally a Protestant minister in Virginia, and had removed to 
Montreal, to endeavor to make proselytes in the seminary of that 
place, but in his controversies, he became so won to the Catholic 
Faith, that he was not only converted, but likewise took the orders 
of the Catholic Priesthood. (II, p. 205.) 

The only priest we can find record of as being in the States at 
that time under this name, is Father Richards of the New Orleans 
Diocese, who was later Vicar General. There is a passing mention 
of a church in Philadelphia, and Fredrickstown. 

JAMES STUART 

Three Years in North America 
(1828-1831) 

James Stuart was born in Duneam in 1775. He attended the 
public schools of Edinburgh, and, after graduation from the Univer- 
sity of Edinburgh, was admitted to the Society of the Writers to 



TRAVEL LTTERATXJRE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 315 

the Signet. He was a keen politician of the Whig side and suffered 
a number of personal attacks because of his political affiliations. 
These led him into much trouble and in March, 1822, he killed Sir 
Alexander BosweU in a duel. He fled to Paris and there gave 
himself up to the Ambassador. Returned to England for trial he 
was acquitted. A few years later he sailed for America, and in 1833 
published his Three Years in North America. He showed therein a 
strong bias in favor of the Americans and, following hard upon Mrs. 
TroUope along the Mississippi and Ohio, he lost no opportunity of 
contradicting the ill humored contention that appeared in her book 
of travels. After his return to England he became the editor of the 
Courier. He died at Notting HiU, London, in November, 1849. He 
was married but left no family. 

Stuart is the only traveler who left in his account a mention of 
the demonstrations with which the people of the United States greeted 
the news of the Catholic Emancipation Bill. He writes of this in two 
different places: 

While I was at Philadelphia the news arrived there of the Eoyal 
assent being given to the Catholic Emancipation Bill. Great rejoic- 
ings took place. The mayor ordered the bells, especially the great 
old bell which first proclaimed the independence of the United States 
in 1776, to be tolled, and to ring during the whole day. Public re- 
joicings on this occasion took place in all the towns of the United 
States, especially at New York and Baltimore. Contributions had 
been sent to the subscriptions in Ireland for the forwarding of Cath- 
olic Emancipation from the United States, especially from Maryland, 
a considerable part of the population of which consists of Roman 
Catholics. (I, p. 378.) 

I was at Philadelphia when the news of the emancipation of the 
Catholics in Ireland arrived and I do not believe that greater public 
joy was shown in London, on account of that long delayed triumph 
of Justice and liberality, than in Philadelphia. (II, p. 574.) 

We judge that this rejoicing was spread over the United States, 
and while there is no record available to tell to what extent 
American money was an aid to the cause, it was probably consider- 
able, for Catholics of Maryland were fairly wealthy. It is a pleasing 
thought, too, to know that the same Liberty Bell which rang out the 
freedom of the United States was later to sound the freedom of the 
Catholics in Great Britain and Ireland. 

Stuart goes on to speak of the Catholics : 

The gentleman at present at the head of that body is Charles 
Carroll. It was at his expense chiefly that the Roman Catholic 



316 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

Cathedral at Baltimore was built. The present number of Roman 
Catholics is calculated at 500,000; some persons make it higher by 
200,000 or 300,000. (I, p. 378.) 

Stuart most likely means that Charles Carroll was then the out- 
standing Catholic lajonan. He was at this time the only surviving 
signer of the Declaration of Independence. Carroll can hardly be said 
to have seen to the erection of the Baltimore Cathedral, chiefly at his 
expense. There were two lotteries held to raise money for the erection 
of the Cathedral, one in 1804, which John Carroll won and turned 
over to the Cathedral, and the other in 1819. The money raised by 
these two lotteries, together with the private subscriptions of the 
people of Baltimore and the sale of pews, made up the greater amount 
of the cost of the building. Charles Carroll had built the Church of 
St. Mary at Annapolis out of his own funds. Concerning the appear- 
ance of the Cathedral, he says : 

It is very large and handsome . . . the interior is well fitted, and 
there are a few good pictures; the organ is very fine. (I, p. 392.) 

The only other mention of the Church is concerned with the "West. 
In Louisville he noted : 

Father Abel, an eloquent preacher, in soliciting subscriptions for 
a Catholic paper charged the Catholics of the United States with 
supineness and lukewarmness in not encouraging such publications. 
There were, he said, 700,000 in the United States and only four peri- 
odical publications, ill supported, published at Boston, Baltimore, 
Charleston and some other city, the name of which did not reach my 
ear. (II, p. 327.) 

Father Robert A. Abel, who is here mentioned, was most likely 
in his own church of St. Louis when Stuart heard him speak. This 
church was built by Father Abel and consecrated by Bishop Flaget 
about the time that Stuart was in that vicinity. This priest was a 
close friend of the Bishop and accompanied him on many of his trips 
as well as making a number of tours for him. The Bishop was with 
Father Abel when news arrived from Rome that the Holy See had 
accepted the former's resignation. The newspaper, the place of pub- 
lication of which Stuart had failed to catch, was probably the one for 
which subscriptions were being taken, namely, the Catholic Telegraph 
of Cincinnati, founded by Bishop Fenwick that same year. It is 
noted, too, that Father Abel was not aawre of the Truth Teller, pub- 
lished in New York since 1825; or of the Catholic Press, which ap- 
peared in Hartford in 1829. 



I 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 317 

LORENZO DE ZAVOLA 

VlAGE A LOS EsTADOS-UnIDOS DEL NORTE DE AMERICA 

(1829) 

Lorenzo de Zavola is a little known character. We have found 
nothing of his life in any encyclopedia and his own book gives no 
hint as to whom he might have been. He entered the United States 
at New Orleans after having toured Mexico, which accounts for his 
frequent comparison of our Churches with those of Mexico. He is 
evidently a Catholic for he shows familiarity with all things Catholic. 
He traveled up the Mississippi and Ohio, then to Niagara and down 
to New York and New England, with a short trip to Philadelphia, 
Baltimore and Washington. The book was published in Paris in 
1834. 

The first mention of things Catholic is at New Orleans : 

As in all Catholic countries, Sunday is a day of diversions in New 
Orleans. The shops of the Catholics are open; there are dances, 
music and feasts. . . . The cathedral is a small church, following 
no regular line of architecture, and which is nothing when compared 
with the churches of Mexico. The altars are like those of our towns 
except that the images are much larger ... in the Catholic Church 
the Negro and the white, the slave and the master, the noble and the 
poor are gathered before the same altar. Here there is a temporary 
forgetting of all human distinctions. ... In this sacred place there 
disappears the stamp of degradation from the forehead of the slave 
and he is admitted with the rich and free and offers up his chants 
and prayers with them to the God of nature. In the Protestant 
Church it is not so. The colored people are excluded or separated 
into one place by a lattice work or ballustrade. The most miserable 
slave receives from the hand of the Catholic priest all the consolations 
of religion. . . . Father Antonio de Sedella, a Capuchin, is the 
mouthpiece of the negroes, and is respected by aU classes of the 
population. He is a Spanish priest, being esteemed for his friend- 
liness, his tolerance and other virtues. (Page 25.) 

At Cincinnati the author wrote : 

There are eight Churches here, one of them a Roman Catholic 
Cathedral. (Page 70.) 

Baltimore is the next place that drew a comment from the author 
concerning the Catholic faith. The Cathedral at Baltimore, he says: 

Is one of the finest churches in the United States. It can not be 
compared with the cathedrals of Mexico and Puebla, and much less 
with the ancient edifices of Europe. Notwithstanding, the interior 



318 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

of the church is very pleasing because of its cleanliness, its paintings 
and its statues. Another Catholic edifice that draws the attention of 
the traveler in Baltimore, is the chapel of the College of St. Mary's. 
(P. 199.) 

There follows a description of the chapel of the College and, like 
most others, is very favorable. At Washington the traveler did not 
fail to notice Georgetown College, but was not aware that the insti- 
tution was under the Jesuits, or that there was a regular tuition for 
the students there. He writes: 

A mile from Washington is Georgetown, in which place there is 
a convent of humble nuns and brothers of the Visitation, having as 
their principal occupation the free education of the youths confided 
to their care. (P. 259.) 

The only other mention in regard to the Church is, that in New 
York all Churches are governed by trustees, 

GODFREY T. VINGE 

Six Months in America 
(1831-1832) 

Godfrey T. Vinge was an English barrister, who, after visiting 
the various countries of Europe, came to the United States. He 
came, as he says in his preface, "alone, un-bewifed and un-be- 
vehicled, as a man ought to travel, and with the determination of 
being, as far as an Englishman can be, unprejudiced." His inten- 
tion was to see in the space of six months all that he could of the 
United States, and, after reading his succinct and straightforward ac- 
count, one does not wonder that he covered as much ground as he 
did in six months. His two volumes make excellent and interesting 
reading. The Catholic Church seems to have received mention where- 
ever there was anything that would attract the attention of a traveler, 
who was making such a rapid tour of the country. 

The first Catholic reference in Vinge is concerning Baltimore. 
He states that when the city is approached by water, one of the most 
conspicuous sites is the Roman Catholic Cathedral. 

The Archbishop of Maryland is the Metropolitan of the States. 
The Roman Catholic Cathedral is a handsome building, with a dome 
like the Pantheon. The inside, which is divided into pews, contains 
two very good pictures of the French school: a descent from the 
cross, by Paul Guerin, presented by Louis XVI; and St. Louis 
burying his dead soldiers before Tunis, by Steabon, presented by 



TRAVEL LTTERATURK AS SOURCE MATERIAL 319 

Charles X. . . . St. Mary's College and Baltimore College are 
justly celebrated throughout the country. (I, p. 122.) 

The last mentioned painting by Steabon hangs in one of the 
elass rooms of Caldwell Hall at the Catholic University of America. 

It was shortly before the death of Charles Carroll, in 1832, that 
Vinge wrote of him : 

Mr. Carroll is the most extraordinary individual in America. 
This venerable old gentleman is in his 90th year, is exceedingly 
cheerful, enjoys perfect health, and is in good possession of his 
faculties. He is the only survivor of the patriots who signed the 
Declaration of Independence on July 4th, 1776. He has always 
adhered to the Federal principles and his valuable estate is one of 
the few that have descended in direct line from the first possessor. 
Mr. Carroll is the grandfather of Ladies Wellesley and Caermar- 
then. (I, p. 134.) 

Of Georgetown College and the Visitation Convent the author 
writes : 

The College at Georgetown is a Catholic establishment, its mem- 
bers are Jesuits, and who are increasing their influence, by pur- 
chasing lands, etc. Attached to the College is a nunnery of the 
Sisters of the Visitation, containing about fifty nuns. They tell 
there of a Hohenlohe Miracle, (I, p. 146.) 

The miracle that is referred to here was one performed after 
union in prayer with Prince Alexander Hohenlohe of Bamburg. 
The subject of this particular miracle was Sister Beatrix Myers, 
and was followed by a second in the person of Sister Apollonia 
Digges. Mrs. Trollope mentions in her book that she saw on the 
streets of Washington, Mrs. Mattingly, who was the first American 
to obtain relief from sickness by the intercession of and union of 
prayer with the Priest-Prince. 

Turning then to the West, our traveler does not relate any more 
Catholic information until he arrived at Mackinac. He visited this 
town on two occasions. On the first he simply remarked : 

Mackinac is the rendezvous of the Northwest American Mis- 
sionary establishment. It contains six missionaries, of whom four 
were Presbyterians, one a Catholic and one of the Church of 
England, and a large establishment for the instruction of one hun- 
dred children of whatever persuasion. (H, p. 112.) 

A few days later he entered the following account : 



320 BEV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

Our evening's entertainment was rather of a novel description. 
A Catholic priest, whom we had previously left at Mackinac, and 
who was known to be an eloquent man, was going to preach in the 
chapel, and accordingly many of us went to hear him. He had 
come to the Island for the sole purpose of holding a religious con- 
troversy with some of the Presbyterian clergy. The expected meet- 
ing did not take place, and, having been or fancying himself to 
have been very much wronged, he entered into a long explanation 
of the whole affair. He read letters and papers, and commented on 
them in his robes from the altar; he made a long tirade, in which 
sarcasm and ridicule were successfully prominent, and wound up 
his speach more suited to the bar than the pulpit, by accusing his 
adversary of telling a thumper. Whether he was in the right or the 
wrong is little to the purpose ; in common, I believe, with everyone 
that heard him, I thought the whole proceeding was exceedingly 
disgraceful. (II, p. 120.) 

As the Catholic priests appeared in Ohio and Michigan to care 
for the Catholic faithful, ministers of the sects started to assail 
the doctrines of the Church and the morals of her priests and 
people. Many places witnessed priests who rose in defense of the 
Church. It is evident that the priest spoken of by Vinge at Macki- 
nac was Father Mazzuchelli. Although there was little or no effect 
on Vinge, it does not follow that it had no effect and was looked 
upon as disgraceful by all who heard him. It is recorded that at 
one of these talks, there were three converts to the Church. It 
was because of this constant attack on the Church that Bishop 
Fenwick founded the Catholic Telegraph. 

CHARLES ALEXIS DE TOCQUEVILLE 

Democracy est America 
(1831-1832) 

Charles Alexis de Tocqueville was born in Vemeuil, in France, on 
July 29th, 1805. He was the grandson of Malesherbes, the defender 
of Louis XIV. As a judge at Versailles in 1830, he formed a friend- 
ship with Gustave de Beaumont, with whom he traveled to America 
in 1831. Two publications resulted from this trip. The first was a 
collective work of the two on the penitentiary system of the United 
States. A few years later De Tocqueville published his celebrated 
book. La Democratie en Amerique. This work won for him admis- 
sion to the Academic des Sciences Morales et Politiques, in 1838, and 
to the French Academy in 1841. A copy of La Democratie with anno- 
tations by Bishop Brute, the first incumbent of the See of Vineennes, 
is preserved in the Library of St. Sulpice. De TocqueviUe held that 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 321 

democracy could exist only by seeking a moral support in religion, 
and that religion could prosper only by accommodating itself to 
democracy. In regarding the exactions of Catholicism as too severe 
the author leaves the impression that at the time of his visit he was 
but half Catholic. The book has long been known as one of the fairest 
analysis of American institutions. That he clearly foresaw what 
strides the Church was to make in America is shown by the following 
quotations which need no comment: 

About fifty years ago Ireland began to pour a Catholic popula- 
tion into the United States; on the other hand the Catholics in 
America made proselytes, and at the present moment more than a 
million Christians professing the truths of the Church are to be met 
with in the union. The Catholics are faithful to the observances of 
their religion ; they are fervent and zealous in the support and belief 
of their doctrines. Nevertheless they constitute the most republican 
and the most democratic class in America ; and although the fact may 
surprise the observer at first sight, the causes by which it is occasioned 
may easily be discovered upon reflection. 

In think that the Catholic religion has erroneously been looked 
upon as the natural enemy of Democracy. Amongst the various 
sects of Christians, Catholicism seems to me, on the contrary, to be 
one of those which are most favorable to the equality of conditions. 
In the Catholic Church, the religious community is composed of only 
two elements, the priest and the people. The priest alone rises above 
the rank of his flock, and all below him are equal. 

On doctrinal points the Catholic Church places all human capa- 
cities on a level; it subjects the wise and the ignorant, the man of 
genius and the vulgar crowd, to the details of the same creed; it 
imposes the same observances on the rich and the needy, it inflicts 
the same austerities upon the strong and the weak, it lisitens to no 
compromise with mortal man, but reducing all the human race to 
the same standard, it confounds all the distinctions of society at the 
foot of the same altar even as they are confounded in the sight of 
God, If Catholicism predisposes the faithful to obedience, it cer- 
tainly does not prepare them for inequality; but the contrary may 
be said of Protestantism, which generally tends to make men inde- 
pendent, more than to render them equal. 

Catholicism is like an absolute monarchy; if the sovereign be 
removed, all the other classes of society are more equal than they 
are in republics. It has not unfrequently occurred that the Catholic 
priest has left the service of the altar to mix with the governing 
powers of society, and to take his place among the civil gradations 
of men. This religious influence has sometimes been used to secure 
the interests of that political state of things to which he belonged. 
At other times Catholics have taken the side of aristocracy from a 
spirit of religion. 



322 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

But no sooner is the priesthood entirely separated from the gov- 
ernment, as is the ease in the United States, than it is found that no 
class of men are more naturally disposed than the Catholics to trans- 
fuse the doctrine of equality of conditions into the political world. 
If, then, the Catholic citizens of the United States are not forcibly 
led by the nature of their tenets to adopt democratic and republican 
principles, at least they are not necessarily opposed to them; and 
their social position, as well as their limited number, obliges them to 
adopt these principles and opinions. Most of the Catholics are poor 
and they have no chance to take a part in the government unless it 
be open to all citizens. They constitute a minority, and all rights 
must be respected to insure to them the free exercise of their own 
privileges. These two causes induce them, unconsciously, to adopt 
political doctrines which they would perhaps support with less zeal 
if they were rich and preponderant. 

The Catholic clergy of the United States has never attempted to 
oppose this political tendency, but seeks rather to justify its results. 
The priests of America have divided the intellectual world into two 
parts; in the one they place the doctrines of revealed religion, which 
command their assent; in the other they leave those truths which 
they believe to have been freely left open to the researches of political 
inquiry. Thus the Catholics of the United States are at the same 
time the most faithful believers and the most zealous citizens. 

It may be asserted that in the United States no religious doctrine 
displays the slightest hostility to democratic and republican institu- 
tions. The clergy of all the different sects hold the same language, 
their opinions are consonant to the laws, and the human intellect 
flows onward in one sole current. (I, p. 304.) 

In America religion is a distinct sphere, in which the priest is 
sovereign, but out of which he takes care never to go. Within its 
limits he is master of the mind ; beyond them he leaves men to them- 
selves, and surrenders to the independence and instability which be- 
longs to their nature and age. I have seen no country in which 
Christianity is clothed with fewer forms, figures and observances 
than in the United States; or where it presents more distinct, more 
simple, or more general notions to the mind. Although the Chris- 
tians of America are divided into a multitude of sects, they all look 
upon their religion in the same light. The same applies to the Roman 
Catholic as well as to the other forms of belief. There are no Roman 
priests who show less taste for the minute individual observances for 
extraordinary or peculiar means of salvation, or who cling more to 
the spirit and less to the letter of the law, than the Roman Catholic 
priests of the United States. Nowhere is that doctrine of the Church, 
which prohibits the worship reserved to God alone from being offered 
to the saints, more clearly inculcated and more generally followed. 
Yet the Roman Catholics are very submissive and very sincere. 
(II, p. 28.) 

America is the most democratic country in the world and it is at 
the same time (according to reports worthy of belief) the country in 
which the Roman Catholic religion makes the most progress. At first 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 323 

sight this is surprising. Two things must be accurately distinguished : 
equality inclines men to wish to form their own opinions ; but, on the 
other hand, it imbues them with the taste and idea of unity, sim- 
plicity and impartiality in the power which governs society. Men 
living in democratic ages are therefore very prone to shake off all 
religious authority; but if they consent to subject themselves to any 
authority of this kind, they choose at least that it should be single 
and uniform. Religious powers not radiating from a common center 
are naturally repugnant to their minds; and they almost as readily 
conceive that there should be no religion as that there should be 
several. At the present time, more than at any preceding one, the 
Roman Catholics are seen to lapse into infidelity, and Protestants to 
be converted to Roman Catholicism. If the Roman Catholic be con- 
sidered within the pale of the Church, it would seem to be losing 
ground; without the pale to be gaining it. Nor is this circumstance 
difficult of explanation. The men of our days are naturally disposed 
to believe; but, as soon as they have any religion, they immediately 
find in themselves a latent propensity which urges them unconsciously 
towards Catholicism. Many of the practices and doctrines of the 
Catholic Church astonish them ; but they feel a secret admiration for 
its discipline and its unity attracts them. If Catholicism could at 
length withdraw itself from the political animosities to which it has 
given rise, I have hardly any doubt but that the same spirit of the 
age, which appears to be so opposed to it, would become so favorable 
as to admit of its great and sudden advancement. One of the most 
ordinary weaknesses of the human intellect is to seek to reconcile 
contrary principles, and to purchase peace at the expense of logic. 
Thus there have never been, and never will be men, who, after having 
submitted some portion of their religious belief to the principle of 
authority, will seek to exempt several other parts of their faith from 
its influence, and to keep their minds floating at random between 
liberty and obedience. But I am inclined to believe that the number 
of these believers will be less in democratic than in other ages; and 
that our posterity will tend more and more to a single division into 
two parts — some relinquishing Christianity entirely and others re- 
turning to the bosom of Rome. (II, p. 30.) 

FRANCES M. TROLLOPE 

Domestic Manners of the Americans 
(1832) 
Frances Tollope is remembered as the author of the most prejjw- 
diced and most warmly discussed of all British books of American 
travel, and the mother of two novelists, Anthony and Thomas Trol- 
lope. Born in 1780 as Frances Milton, she married Thomas Anthony 
Trollope, a graduate of Oxford. After a number of unfortunate 
speculations had thrown them into poverty, Mrs. Trollope came to 
the United States with her two daughters and a son, in 1827. She 



324 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

was a friend of Fanny Wright, the well known lecturer, and thought 
that through her she would be able to secure a position for at least 
the boy. She opened a bazaar at Cincinnati, but this venture proved a 
total failure. In 1831, Mrs. Trollope returned to England in a frame 
of mind very unfriendly to the Americans, She had made a few 
friends in Cincinnati, but on the whole was disappointed. She im- 
mediately published her Domestic Mcmners of the Americans, which 
was eagerly read in England. Soon after this the family fled from 
England to escape its creditors, and Mrs. Trollope thereafter sup- 
ported the family by literary work in Belgium. She published other 
books of travel and many novels, writing steadily until her death in 
1863. Her Domestic Manners was read by thousands in this country 
and there was a bitter feeling aroused towards the author and the 
EngUsh people in general. All of her references to the Catholic 
Church are creditable to the Church. 

The first remark about the Church is a tribute to its unity : 

The Catholics alone seem exempt from the fury of division and 
subdivision that have seized upon every other persuasion. Having 
the Pope for their common head, regulates, I presume, their move- 
ments, and prevents the outrageous display of individual whims 
which every other sect is permitted. (P. 99.) 

This is closely followed by words in praise of Bishop Edward 
Fenwick of Cincinnati, who was a native of Maryland, She says of 
the prelate : 

I had the pleasure of being introduced to the Catholic Bishop of 
Cincinnati and have never known in any country a priest of a 
character and bearing more truly apostolic. He was an American, 
but I should never have know it from his pronunciation and 
manner. He received his education partly in England, and partly 
in France, His manners were highly polished, his piety active and 
sincere, and infinitely more mild and tolerant than that of the 
factious secretarians, who form the great majority of the American 
priesthood. (P, 100,) 

In Baltimore Mrs. Trollope attended services in the Cathedral, 
She very minutely describes the interior and exterior of that edifice, 
which she later claims to be the only church in the United States 
with any pretense to splendor. She also states that : 

The prelate is a Cardinal and bears, moreover, the title of Arch- 
bishop of Baltimore, (P. 167,) 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 325 

James Whitfield was then Bishop of Baltimore, but we know 
not under what consideration he bore the title of Cardinal. The 
Chapel of St. Mary's attracted her attention, and a very careful 
study of the same is entered into her book. In Washington there 
was a simple remark : 

The churches here are not superb, but the Episcopal and Cath- 
olic church are attended by elegantly dressed persons. (P. 186.) 

Here also a trip was made to Georgetown, where she enters into 
detail about the Convent of the Visitation : 

At Georgetown there is a nunnery where many ladies are edu- 
cated, and at a little distance from it a College of Jesuits for the 
education of young men, whereas their advertisements state, "the 
humanities are taught." We attended Mass at the nunnery, where 
female voices that performed the chant were very pleasing. The 
shadowy form of the veiled abbess in her little sacred parlor, seen 
through a grating and a black curtain, but rendered clearly visible 
by the light of a gothic window behind her, drew a good deal of 
our attention. . . . The convent has a considerable enclosure 
attached to it where I frequently saw, from the heights above it, 
dark figures in awful black veils, walking solemnly up and down. 

The American lady who was the subject of one of Prince Hohen- 
lohe's miracles, was pointed out to us in Washington. All the 
world declares that her recovery was marvelous. (P. 187.) 

The woman who is here referred to as being the subject of a 
miracle was Mrs. Ann Mattingly, a sister of the mayor of Wash- 
ington. Shea has a very complete account of the miracle in his 
History of the Catholic Church (Vol. Ill, p. 85.) 

Of the New York churches she says : 

They are plain but very neat, and kept in perfect repair within 
and without, but I saw none with the least pretension to splendor; 
the Catholic Cathedral in Baltimore is the only one in America 
which has. (P. 273.) 

STEPHEN DAVIS 

Notes of a Tour in America 
(1832-1833) 

Stephen Davis was a Protestant minister from the north of Ire- 
land, who was in the United States for the purpose of making a 
study of the condition of the Protestant Church in this country 
and to take up collections for the Church in Ireland. What he 



326 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

records in the way of the informaiton concerning Catholics, was in 
warning to the Protestants of this country that the Catholic Church 
was spreading and should be watched. 

The first facts that we gather from reading his report is a cor- 
rection of the almanac figures regarding the Catholic population 
and a tribute to the zeal of the Catholics: 

Roman Catholics are reported in the almanac to be 500,000 but 
should be 800,000. All denominations are at work, but none more 
so than the Roman Catholics in very part of the country, and in 
the valley of of the Mississippi most particularly. Their zeal, in- 
deed in America, and in every part of the British Dominions is 
worthy of a better cause, and if it were properly considered it 
would put Protestants everywhere to the blush and would stimulate 
their exertions to show them their errors. (P. 23.) 

A very interesting account of Catholic activities was copied from 
the Connecticut Observer: 

It is pleasing to know that some are not unobservant of the 
progress of Popery there. A writer in the Connecticut Observer has 
the following remarks upon it: "The population attached to the 
Roman Church in the Valley of the Mississippi is about 500,000, 
and they boast of an increase of about 40,000 in that region last 
year. Between 20 and 30 Jesuits recently arrived from Europe, to 
go to the Mississippi Valley. Twelve more are on their way to 
enter Michigan. Five Jesuits lately arrived in New York from 
Antwerp, with the same design. But recently, five nuns from the 
Convent at Georgetown, took their departure for Mobile, with the 
intention of establishing in that vicinity schools for female children 
and youth. There is in the Western States a band or brotherhood 
of young Catholic priests, who bind themselves by a vow, 'to spend 
three years in teaching youth,' before they shall attempt to enter 
the ministry, and the members of it are constantly on the alert in 
the Western States. Many of their chapels are known to be built 
in the Mississippi Valley by money sent from Rome. In Pennsyl- 
vania, since July, four individuals have been promoted to the priest- 
hood: in Massachusetts, one or two. During the past year, Cath- 
olic Church have been completed, or nearly so, in Burlington, Vt. ; 
St. Louis, Miss. ; Washington County, Ky. ; Clearfield and Newry, 
Penna., and in the City of New York. 

On the 30th of September 100 persons were confirmed in Eliza- 
bethtown, Penna. ; 25 in Clearfield ; 52 in Huntington, and 16 in 
Newry, Penna. On the 29th of August, 26 in Hartford, Conn., 22 
of whom were converts from Protestantism; 40 in Wilmington, 
Del. ; 27 in Burlington, Vt., and 43 in St. Louis. A few years age 
a few poor Catholic Canadians constituted the entire Catholic popu- 
lation of Burlington, Vermont; now it is said to exceed 10,000 in 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 327 

number. In a section of Missouri, where six years ago there was 
but eight Catholics, there are now 550. In the College De Propa- 
ganda Fide, at Rome, there are several youth of the American 
Indian tribes being educated to return as missionaries among their 
kindred ; and the best scholar in that institution is a native (white) 
of Kentucky, who will probably return as a missionary to his native 
State. He possesses fine talents. These are but a few of the facts 
well authenticated. " ( P. 24. ) 

The minister found an opportunity to arouse the flame of zeal 
in the hearts of the young men who were preparing for the Protes- 
tant ministry. It was his chief aim to have them care for the 
"poor Irish," who were mostly led by the errors of Rome. Speak- 
ing of his stay at the Hamilton Institute in New York, he states : 

I addressed them upon the circumstances of Ireland, and the 
most likely means, through the Divine blessing, to obtain the favor- 
able attention of Roman Catholics, whose interests many of them 
are anxious to promote, when their studies are completed, in the 
Valley of the Mississippi. (P. 75.) 

Without details, he remarks that there is a Roman Catholic 
College and nunnery at Georgetown (P. 95) ; and goes on with very 
minute details about the inscriptions on the walls of the Cathedral 
at Baltimore. (P. 109.) Finally he quotes verbatim from the 
Eclectic Review, a long extract about Popery (P. 141), and there is 
no doubt that the visitor was impressed and probably upset by the 
strength which the Church displayed at the time of his visit. 



E. S. ABDY 

Journal of a Residence and Tour in the United States 
(1833-1834) 

Edward S. Abdy was born in 1791, at Albyns, Essex. He was 
educated at Jesus College, Cambridge, where he obtained a fellow- 
ship. His rather verbose work was read extensively at the time of 
its appearance, though its interest was quite temporary. He despaired 
of Slavery because those with whom he spoke on this subject would 
not admit that it was an evil. He claimed that the bragging of 
Americans was a necessary part of our Democracy. Previous to his 
visit to America, he was known for an essay, The Water Cure, of 
which he was not however the author, but only the translator from 
the German. He mentions of the Church a few rather lengthy 
accounts ; 



328 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

All the remarks of Abdy in regard to the Church are concerned 
with the spread of the faith and the prejudice that was then in 
evidence against the Church, He mentions that at Norwick, Vir- 
ginia, where the stage stopped for a while, he entered into conver- 
sation with a man who had recently "adjured Calvin for the 
Pope," whose conversion was brought about entirely by what 
he considered a misrepresentation of the primitive Church. This 
convert, with the aid of a priest, had succeeded in cooling the heat 
of hostility against the Church and : 

Though there were only two Catholic families among them, they 
contrived to raise $555 for a church. From one store alone they 
got $60; one man having given $25 and another $10. They all 
declared that they had been completely deceived and now were 
convinced that, the thunders of the Vatican had ceased, and that 
they would be neither boiled alive, nor condemned, when dead to 
eternal perdition. 

That the number of Roman Catholics is increasing in the United 
States can not be disputed, whether the cause is to be found in 
conversions or from emigration from Europe. The papal Church 
has probably gained by the rancorous abuse and animosity with 
which its doctrines, real or imputed, are assailed by almost all 
other sects, who agree in nothing but in the hatred of a common 
foe. (in, p. 93.) 

It is about the same trend of affairs that he mentions in New 
England : 

As we came out of Boston, we passed the ruins of a Catholic 
Convent, which had not long before been destroyed by a mob, 
excited by a spirit of religious intolerance against an innocent 
community of helpless women and children. They had been told 
that a young person was forcibly confined there, and, having been 
prepared for any kind of violence by some inflammatory sermons 
that had just been preached from an orthodox pulpit, these advo- 
cates for summary conviction and speedy punishment, assembled in 
full force and fury at the doors of the hated building and set fire 
to it. . . . (Ill, p. 258.) 

An account of this outrage follows. Mention is made of the 
animosity towards Catholics in the different parts of the country, 
with excerpts from a report of the secretary of the Hartford Edu- 
cation Society in 1833, and from a talk of Doctor Scudder. Another 
quotation from a book printed in Boston at that time can almost be 
supposed to be the real cause which led to the Charlestown fire : 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 329 

It is a subject that demands the most serious consideration of 
the judicial department of our nation, whether they should allow 
Roman Catholic priests to establish nunneries where the "Black 
Veil ' ' is taken. Such in fact are prisons in which females are kept 
locked up forever. It is true that they enter them voluntarily at 
first, but the question is, do they voluntarily remain there? . . . 
the bare mention of a wish to leave might, in many instances, be 
followed with a deadly poisonous draught. (Ill, p. 259.) 

Abdy concludes this subject by saying that the Catholics are 
not far behind their opponents in this manner of acting : 

If we may judge from certain resolutions they lately passed at 
New Orleans, against a Presbyterian minister, for slandering them 
in an address he had delivered in Connecticut . . . had it not been 
for the Catholic Bishop, the Irish at Boston and the neighborhood 
would have retaliated on the Protestant churches and the College 
at Cambridge, for the insult thus offered to their religion. It is 
said they had provided arms for themselves. The dislike which 
prevails almost universally against the Irish does not originate 
entirely in religious differences. One of the most fruitful sources 
of the jealousy is from the working classes, who claim that these 
intruders take the bread out of their mouths, by overstocking the 
labor market. (Ill, p. 260.) 

CHARLES A. MURRAY 

Travels in North America 
(1834-1836) 

The Honorable Charles Augustus Murray was for a time Master 
of the Household to Queen Victoria. By birth he was a grand- 
son of Lord Murray, Bishop of St. David's. His traveling in 
America included a year's residence among the Pawnee Indians of 
Missouri, about whom he is mostly concerned ia his volumes. The 
references to the Catholic Church are few and of no great conse- 
quence, his chief remarks being, like those of others of this period, 
confined to the spread of the faith and the zeal of the Catholic 
priests. 

At the time of Murray's visit to the West, the Cathedral at St. 
Louis was building and there was a great deal of talk about it. 
Murray states that all who knew he was to stop at St. Louis advised 
him to inspect the Cathedral, which was one of the attractions in 
that part of the country. The advice was taken and he visited the 
rising church on two occasions, but did not arrive at the same con- 
clusions as the others. He claimed that he could see nothing there 



330 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

to call for all the praise that had been given to it. In the second 
volume there is but one reference to the Church. It is a general 
remark : 

The Episcopalians and the Roman Catholics (exclusive of the 
colored population) are about equal in number, but the latter are 
increasing more rapidly, especially in the Western States. Cer- 
tainly there are two qualities beyond any other, that distinguish 
the Roman Catholic religion, and those are, first, the plastic readi- 
ness with which it adapts itself to the circumstances, habits and 
political opinions of mankind, so that although it has been for cen- 
turies in Europe, the most powerful engine in the hands of des- 
potism, its tendency seems in the United States to gather beneath 
its banner the most democratic republicans. The second quality 
referred to above, is no less remarkable, namely, the zeal and 
enterprise with which it inspires its priests to toil, travel and 
endure every kind of hardship in spreading its doctrine and gaining 
converts. In this labor, especially among the negroes and the In- 
dians, they put to shame the zeal and exertions of all other Chris- 
tian sects, nor do they labor without effect. During my stay in 
Missouri I observed that the Romanish faith gained ground with a 
rapidity that outstripped all competition. (II, p. 308.) 

HARRIET MARTINEAU 

Retrospect of Western Travel; Society in America 
(1834-1836) 

Harriet Martineau, one of the most versatile and energetic of 
all women publicists, was born in 1802 in Norwich, England, the 
daughter of a cloth manufacturer. After a sickly childhood, she 
was thrown midway in her twenties upon her own resources. She 
was unable to enter the teaching profession, owing to her marked 
deafness. She at once entered upon the career of authorship that 
lasted until her death in 1876. Though frail of body and frequently 
ill, she never seemed tired. After a day of work with the needle, 
by which means she first made sure of her living, she would write 
until two or three in the morning. Her first stories were religious 
in character and received a wide circulation. Her first real success 
came after reading Adam Smith and other economists, and executed 
the idea of writing a series of tales to illustrate the principles of 
political economy to the masses. The demand for these tales ran 
into the thousands. This work being completed, she visited America, 
where she was already well known as an author, and was every- 
where welcomed. On her return to England she published two 
works of three volumes each, Society in America and Retrospect of 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 331 

Western Travel. The former is very heavy, being a systematic 
scrutiny of the American application of the principles laid down in 
the Constitution and Declaration of Independence. The second re- 
cords in an interesting fashion, her impressions and descriptions and 
incidents of her travel in America. As source material for Catholic 
Church history they contain little. In her Society in America, we 
read: 

The hatred to Catholics also approaches too nearly in its irre- 
ligious character to the oppression of the negro. It is pleaded by 
some who must mourn the persecution the Catholics are undergoing 
at present in the United States, that there is a very prevalent 
ignorance on the subject of the Catholic religion, and that dreadful 
slanders are being circulated by a few wicked, who deceive a great 
many weak persons. This is just the case ; but there is that in the 
true Christian religion which should intercept the hatred, whatever 
may be the ignorance . . . the question, "Where is thy faith?" 
might reasonably be put to the Presbyterian clergyman who 
preached three long denunciations against the Catholics in Boston, 
the Sunday before the burning of the Charlestown Convent; and 
also to parents, who put into their children's hands, as religious 
books, the foul libels against the Catholics which are circulated 
throughout the country. ... I was seriously told by several 
persons in the South and West, that the Catholics in America are 
employed by the Pope, in league with the Emperor of Austria and 
the Irish, to exploit the Union. The vast and rapid spread of the 
Catholic faith in the United States has excited observation and 
grew with this rumor . . . it is found so impossible to supply the 
demand for priests, that the term of education has been shortened 
two years. The Catholic Church is democratic in its policies and 
is modified by the spirit of the time in America ; and its professors 
are not a set of men who can be priest ridden to any fatal extent. 
(II, p. 234.) 

There follows a plea for the toleration of Catholics on the 
ground that if the faith is false it will decay, or at least remain 
harmless; and because what is more to the point, the principles of 
this country require that a man be left free as regards his religious 
belief and practices. This plea for tolerance is not common in the 
books of travelers. Miss Martineau's spirit of fair play, which runs 
through all her works, is found here in favor of the Catholics, 
although she herself was of the Protestant persuasion. 

In her volumes, Retrospect of Western Travel, the first mention 
is brief and not of value : 

My first introduction was to the Catholic Bishop. (II, p. 50.) 



332 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

The Bishop here mentioned is Bishop Fenwick of Cincinnati. 
The only other mention of things Catholic is a return to what was 
touched upon in her first work. She says that the city of Cincinnati 
is threatened by the spirit at work among the people. In part, it 
reads : 

A third direction in which this illiberality shows itself is toward 
the Catholics. The Catholic religion spreads rapidly in many and 
most of the recently settled parts of the United States, and its 
increase produces an almost insane dread among some Protestants, 
who fail to see that no evils that the Catholic religion can produce 
in the present state of society can be so effective and dangerous 
as the bigotry by which it is proposed to put it down. The re- 
moval to Cincinnati of Doctor Beecher, an ostentatious and virulent 
foe of the Catholics, has much quickened the spirit of alarm in that 
region. ... It is hoped that all parties will remember that Doctor 
Beecher preached, in Boston, three vituperative sermons against 
the Catholics the Sunday before the burning of the Charlestown 
Convent by a Boston mob. Circumstances have also shown them 
by this time, how any kind of faith grows under persecution, and 
above all, it may be hoped that the richer classes of citizens will 
become more aware than they have yet proved themselves to be of 
their republican (to say nothing of their human) obligation to 
refrain from encroaching, in the smallest particulars, on their 
brethrens' rights of opinion and liberty of conscience. (II, p. 55.) 

FRANCIS J. GRUND 

The Americans in their Moral, Social and Political 

Relations 

(1837) 

Francis J. Grund was a native of Germany and for years a resi- 
dent of the United States. Beyond this there is little known of his 
life. His book was warmly received in America, and the reviews 
of the time of its publication are favorable to it. He is also the 
author or at least the editor of another work, Aristocracy in Amer- 
ica. Grund claimed that he did not write the book, and that it was 
the work of a German nobleman, but the general opinion is that 
Grund was not only the editor, but the author of this work. 

The first reference of Grund is misleading. Speaking of the 
Roman Catholic Seminaries in this country he says : 

There are five Roman Catholic seminaries, at Baltimore, Em- 
mitsburg, Bardstown, Charlestown and Perry County. (I, p. 243.) 

These are only the first five seminaries that were founded. They 
were, St. Mary 's at Baltimore, which was founded in 1791 ; Mt. St. 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERLVL 333 

Mary's at Emmitsburg, founded in 1808; St. Thomas Seminary, 
founded at Bardstown by Bishop Flaget in 1811 and discontinued 
in 1869; that at Charlestown opened by Bishop England in 1882; 
and that at Missouri opened by Bishop Du Bourg in 1818, In the 
year that Grund wrote there were four other seminaries in this 
country. In 1829 there was one established in Boston and another 
in Cincinnati, and in 1832 the Philadelphia and the New York semi- 
naries were opened. The year previous to this account of Grund, 
the New York seminary had been moved from Nyack to the 
Thousand Islands location, where it remained for a short time. 

Another mention of the faith is in a chart in which the different 
religions are recorded. The Catholics are listed as having: 

340 clergymen, 383 churches and no record of the number of com- 
municants. 

A. F. DE BACOURT 

SoUVENraS D'UN DiPLOMATE: LETTERS InTIMES SUB 

L ' Amerique 
(1837-1842) 

Bacourt was born in France in 1801 and received an excellent 
elementary training and then entered the diplomatic service about 
the age of twenty-one. He held a number of important posts before 
resigning under M. de Lamartine, while at Turin. He then published 
the letters of Mirabeau. He was a personal friend and secretary of 
Talleyrand and was with this personage during his last moments. He 
wrote his Memoirs of Talleyrand, which he forbid to be published 
before 1888. He returned to the diplomatic service of France and 
was sent to the United States as minister from 1837 to 1842. During 
the time he was in this country he traveled a great deal, and with 
his foresight predicted a number of events, including the struggle 
between the North and South. The book, as is indicated in the 
title, is a series of his letters to France during his residence in this 
country. 

The most detailed as well as the first Catholic data that we find 
in these letters, is that which was written from Baltimore during 
his first days in America. An interesting picture of Archbishop 
Eccleston can be derived from these pages. There is also much 
contained in the conversation between these two Catholics: 

I have just returned from a visit to the Archbishop, who re- 
ceived me very well. He is a handsome man, of forty years of age 



334 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A, F. M. 

at most, who has the best manners I have yet seen in America. An 
old sulpician, he passed ten years ago, two years at Issy, near Paris ; 
he speaks French very well, and inquired with much interest about 
the life of M. de Tallyrand,, which until now he appears to have 
credited. But he was delighted with what I told him of it, and 
begged me to repeat it to the director of the seminary, whom I 
am to visit this evening, and who it seems attaches a great im- 
portance to this affair. We also spoke of Msgr. Forbin-Janson, 
who has been in the United States for the last eight months. I 
profited by this occasion to beg the Archbishop to prevail upon 
Mr. de Janson to speak more moderately about France and its 
present government, for I have heard that in New York and New 
Orleans, he had expressed himself in the pulpit in the most violent 
manner against us, accusing us of being Atheists. The Archbishop 
took what I said in good part, and replied, "M. de Janson is a man 
of intelligence, but too ardent ; he is wrong in introducing politics 
into his sermons. I always avoid it, even in this country, where 
priests have a right to say what they please. Although born in 
America and as good a republican as anyone, I do not vote, and 
never try to influence my parishioners as to how they shall vote. 
It would only be in the case of the liberty of my religion being 
threatened that I should assert my right as an American citizen. 
I have already requested M. de Janson to be more moderate, but 
it is not to be wondered at that he should sometimes wander from 
his subject, for he preaches too much. Just imagine, he has 
preached two hundred times in four months. He is very wrong in 
attacking the King of France. This sovereign has shown himself 
favorable to religion, and since he commenced his reign has made 
none but an excellent choice of Bishops, etc." 

The Archbishop spoke also of the progress of Catholicism in 
America, and even in the State of Massachusetts, where thirty 
years ago there were not ten Catholic families, now there are forty 
Catholic Churches and a Bishop at Boston, the most Puritanical 
city in the United States. There are numerous conversions every- 
where, and almost all Irish and German emigrants are Catholic. 
This progress has been apparent in New England also where the 
Protestants are so ardently zealous. There are in the United States 
fourteen Bishops, and they talk of creating two new Sees; the 
Catholic population will soon reach a million. The increased number 
of Bishops and the building of churches are facts more remarkable, 
because the revenues of the clergy and the Church are covered by 
subscriptions and the rent of seats in the church. 

The Archbishop took me into his Cathedral, the interior of which 
is in as bad taste as the exterior, but he is very proud of this 
monument, which has cost the Catholics a great deal of money. 
(P. 47.) 

Mention of Msgr. Forbin de Janson, the Bishop of Nancy and 
Toul, wiU be made again in the letters of the diplomat, telling 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 335 

of the labors of that prelate, who was virtually an exile from 
France. 

The following day found the French minister at the Seminary 
and College of St. Mary, concerning which place he wrote rather 
lengthy accounts: 

Before leaving Baltimore I went with the Count Menou to visit 
the Seminary of St. Sulpice, which is composed of ten priests and 
five of these are French, and thirteen pupils. The college, which 
adjoins it, is under the direction of the same priests and has three 
hundred pupils, one half of whom are Protestants. The Abbe 
Chauch, who is the head of the College, was born at Baltimore. He 
is a distinguished man in his conversation and manners. The Semi- 
nary was founded in 1791, by five French Sulpicians, who came 
to the United States to escape the persecution; they have had to 
contend with a thousand difficulties, which they have overcome 
with great courage, and later were able to found the College which 
is more prosperous than the Seminary, for which they could only 
get recruits from the foreigners. Americans had little taste for a 
life of meditation, their feverish activity ill fits them for a uniform 
and peaceful life. 

The principal of the Seminary is the Abbe Delnot. Born in 
Vivarais, he came here twenty-five year ago. Although he is less 
distinguished than the Abbe Chauch, I think he is, notwithstanding 
his common appearance, an able man. He was very much inter- 
ested in the Christian death of M. de Tallyrand. He has already 
been informed of what I had said to Msgr. Eccleston on the subject 
in the morning; it delighted him. He spoke with much feeling of 
the St. Sulpice in Paris, of the Abbe Garnier, and of M. Emmery, 
etc. These good priests showed me every detail of their seminary, 
the college and their little Gothic Chapel, which is far better than 
the Cathedral. They related to me a very singular fact concerning 
the establishment of Catholic Bishoprics in the United States. The 
promoter of the first seat was Jefferson, who was said to be an 
unbeliever in any religion. Observing the tendency of the Ameri- 
can Catholics to follow the English Catholic Church, even after 
their separation, he thought this might produce trouble, and whilst 
minister at Paris, having induced the American government to 
adopt his views, he was authorized to obtain the creating of a 
Bishopric at Baltimore, which thus became the head of the Church 
in the United States and will soon have fifteen assistant Bishops. 

M. de Menou says that the Bishop was much pleased with my 
visit. He took it for granted that I had acted in my official capa- 
city and from instructions given by the King. I begged M. de 
Menou to assure him, that I had acted entirely from personal feel- 
ing. (P. 54.) 

The reference to Jefferson and the erection of the See of Balti- 
more is one that is made even today. It was not our Paris minister 



336 REV. JOSEPH PAXJL RYAN, A. F. M. 

that brought this about. The fact is that the Papal nuncio at 
Paris was ordered by the Holy See to consult Jefferson regarding 
John Carroll, in order that he would have a better idea of the 
sentiments of Americans in this regard. Jefferson then wrote to 
this country saying that he had been consulted, though he never 
claimed for himself that he had been instrumental in the erection 
of the first American See. That this mistaken notion of affairs has 
come down to us is not surprising, when we read here that the 
Sulpicians at St. Mary's, those who trained the priests of America, 
firmly believed this to be true. 

From Washington a number of letters were written. They have 
to do with the business of the Government chiefly, and a few re- 
marks on the social life of the Capital, but here and there we catch 
a mention of the pastor and the Church. The first letter was 
written a few days after he arrived in the city. 

The little Catholic Church of which I am a parishioner is neat 
and well kept. The Mass that I attended, although a low Mass, 
lasted more than an hour on account of a short sermon preached 
and of a great number of communicants, the half of whom at least 
were negroes and negresses. The French legation has a pew, for 
which it pays yearly. Eight days after my arrival, the Cure sent 
to M. Pageot the rent due, and a message by the beadle to say 
that the pew would be of no use to me as I was a Protestant ; they 
read that in the newspaper. 

The Church mentioned here is St. Patrick's. Mention is made 
of it in another letter: 

I paid a visit to my cure yesterday. He is an American by birth, 
but brought up in Liege. He returned to America during the 
French Revolution. He came to Washington, which was being 
built, and thinking that it would become a city of importance, 
bought a large tract of land. During the last thirty-five years, by 
the aid of subscriptions from Catholics, he has built on this land 
a pretty church, a presbytery, a small hospital where the Sisters of 
Charity take care of the sick, and a school where fifty poor chil- 
dren are educated gratuitously. The Abbe Matteus seems to me 
to be an honest man, distinguished only for his charity, perhaps 
the highest of all distinctions. He told me that there are now in 
Washington three churches and more than six thousand Catholics; 
that is about one-third of the whole population. (P. 81.) 

Father Matteus is no other than the Very Rev. William 
Matthews, who had been Vicar General Apostolic of the Diocese of 
Philadelphia during the Hogan trouble. Another remark that is 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 337 

worth quoting here marks a feeling that was in the hearts of many 
at that time : 

M. Matthews, the Catholic Cure, tells me that President Tyler's 
sister, who is a Catholic, lives here in Washington. The President 
has so much respect for the Catholics, that it is reported he will 
join their religion. I do not believe it. (P. 380.) 

Of the Western States there is but one mention : 

Mr. Benton says that in all the new States of the West there is 
a large number of Protestants who have been converted to the 
Catholic Church on account of the doubts caused by the infinite 
number of Protestant sects. Young Protestants are educated in 
Catholic schools, their parents confiding them with a feeling of 
perfect security to the integrity and enlightenment of the Catholic 
clergy of America. (P. 73.) 

The following was written from Boston, while there with a 
party of Eoyal French visitors : 

There are fifty-two churches in the city and suburbs, of which 
four are Catholic. Nearby is a convent of Benedictines, which was 
broken into, pillaged and burnt by the Bostonians three years ago, 
from pure curiosity to see what was going on there. In conse- 
quence of this the Bishop of Boston sent the nuns to their prin- 
cipal house in Canada. Afterwards he claimed damage from the 
City of Boston and the Legislature of Massachusetts. On their 
refusal he declared that he would leave the ruins just as they were. 
As the ground belongs to the Catholic Church, he had a right to 
do as he pleased, and this determination annoys the Protestants 
very much, because all the strangers view the ruins and, with 
astonishment, ask the cause. (P. 152.) 

The convent mentioned here is that of the Ursulines which was 
burned in 1834. It is here mistaken for a Benedictine institution 
because it was situated on Mt. St. Benedict, in Boston. Neither 
the city nor the State ever paid the claims that were filed after this 
disaster. 

The following was written after a service in the Cathedral at 
Baltimore, on September 30, 1840: 

The high Mass, with the music of Madame d'Houterire and 
company lasted nearly four hours, thanks to a Jesuit who delivered 
a sermon for an hour and a half in honor of St. Ignatius Loyola. 
(P. 178.) 

After a short history of the Acadians, Bacourt tells an interest- 
ing account of those who were left on the banks of the St. Jean : 



338 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 



Here is a curious fact attached to the lamentable history. Some 
of these people escaped on the shores of the river St. Jean, and 
no more was heard of them until fifty years after. ... in 1803 
some English and American engineers went to the river St. Jean 
to seek traces of the boundaries . . . imagine the astonishment to 
find a population of 1,000 or 1,200 Frenchmen, whose existence 
was unknown to the world. They retained their customs and re- 
ligion, and during half a century, the Catholic clergy had sent 
them priests, and had kept the secret of their retreat so well, that 
no one in England or the United States knew or suspected their 
existence. (P. 186.) 

Of Bishop de Forbin-Janson, of whom we made mention before, 
Bacourt wrote in 1841: 

I have just heard that Msgr. de Forbin-Janson, the former 
Bishop of Nancy, and wandering preacher in the United States, is 
about to build a French church and French hospital. I sent this 
turbulent Bishop my modest personal offering of 500 francs, and 
will write to Paris asking the aid of the Government. Subscrip- 
tions from the King and Queen would make a good impression 
here, and I shall recommend it. (P. 270.) 

The church was actually erected at this time. The cornerstone 
was laid on October 11, 1841, and the Church called by the name of 
St. Vincent de Paul. It was dedicated in the summer of 1842. 
The total cost of the edifice was about $38,000. That all did not 
run smoothly during the time of building can be gathered from 
another mention of the exiled Bishop: 

Msgr. Forbin-Janson has left here after having quarrelled with 
everybody; his church is hardly above ground; let anybody finish 
it who wants to. (P. 316.) 

It does not seem that the Bishop of Nancy lost interest in the 
Church when he left the country, for it was he who, a few years 
later, induced the priests of the Society of Mary to take the church 
under their care. 

Another account of the church in New York is in regard to the 
school question: 

An unfortunate event has taken place here. The Catholic Bishop 
of New York is old, infirm and childish ; they have given him a coad- 
jutor, Mr. Hughes, made on this account Bishop in partibus Barian- 
opolis. Mr. Hughes, who is an Irishman by birth, is very hotheaded 
and full of imprudent zeal, which has caused him to commit a fault 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 339 

very injurious to the interests of Catholicism in this country. Every 
year the Legislature of New York votes the funds to be distributed 
amongst the primary schools, all directed by Protestants. The Cath- 
olics have protested against this measure, and demand a part of these 
funds for schools founded by them. This protest has been taken into 
consideration and sustained by many influential persons who recog- 
nize that as Catholics pay their share of the taxes, by the aid of 
which the schools are kept up, it is only just that they should have 
their share in the distribution. Bishop Hughes has insisted in the 
religious assemblies that justice should be done. If he had kept to 
this, nothing could have been better, and he would have before long 
obtained what he asked, but this is what he took into his head to do: 
The general election for one-third of the legislature being close at 
hand, he called a meeting, more political than religious, where he 
gave an incendiary discourse, in which he confided himself, not to 
generalities, but designated twelve candidates favorable to the dis- 
tribution of the funds to Catholics. He so inflamed his audience, 
most of whom were poor Irish workmen, that in the excitement they 
behaved in a manner very much to be regretted. The next day the 
newspapers threw fire and flames against the Bishop, whom they 
accused of stirring up civil war. The twelve candidates designated 
by this prelate protested, and if they were elected it is probable they 
would not vote but against the Catholics; besides these senseless 
agitations of the clergy do a great deal of harm. (P. 343.) 

In April, 1842, Bacourt wrote in this regard: 

There has been a riot in New York, on the occasion of the Munici- 
pal elections. In this riot they sacked Bishop Hughes' house, to 
punish him for having taken such an active part in political ques- 
tions ; but he is only coadjutor, and an incumbent, Mgr. Dubois, who 
is 83 years old, was not at all respected by the mob, notwithstanding 
his great age and infirmities. The authorities arrived two hours 
after the pillage. (P. 387.) 

JAMES S. BUCKINGHAM 

America: Historical, Statistic and Descriptive. Eastern and 
"Western States of America. Slave States of 
America 
(1838-1842) 

James Silk Buckingham has been regarded as one of the most 
intelligent, energetic and liberal of British visitors to America before 
the Civil War. His previous life fitted him to fulfill this apprecia- 
tion that has been given to him. He was born at Flushing, in 1786, 
and at an early age was sent to a naval academy at Falmouth. At 
the age of nine he was appointed to a ship and sailed the seas until 



340 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

he witnessed a sailor expire after having been "flogged around the 
fleet" for desertion. Marrying at nineteen, he was left penniless by 
the speculations of a trustee of the estate he had inherited, and he 
commenced a remarkably varied and active career. He entered the 
field of journalism, first in England and then in India. From 1832 
to 1837 he sat as a member of Parliament. He then traveled in 
America, lecturing on temperance and other reforms which he had 
espoused. He was a voluminous writer and his travels in Syria, 
Palestine and the Continent all led to the publication of useful 
books. On his American tour he wrote three books. The first to 
appear was his, America: Historical, Statistic and Descriptive, which 
appeared in three volumes in 1841. A year later he published, 
Eastern and Western States of America, also in three volumes; and 
before the end of the same year his Slave States of America, a two- 
volume work, was on the market. All eight volumes are replete with 
Catholic data of that period. 

In his America: Historical, Statistic and Descriptive, there are a 
number of passing references which we will just mention: In New 
York State there were twenty-five Roman Catholic congregations. 
The City of Washington had three Churches and a Catholic College 
of Theology. Volume I, pages 386 to 397 contain a short history of 
Maryland. On page 408 of the same volume there is a lengthy 
description of the Cathedral at Baltimore. Of Philadelphia he states 
that the Catholic churches are on the increase and mentions St. John's 
Church. He also remarks that Girard, the founder of the College 
of that name, is a nominal Catholic. In the cities of Rochester and 
Albany there are two churches, in the State of New Hampshire and 
Providence, R. I., there was one. 

In more detailed manner he mentions the construction of the 
church at Buffalo, New York: 

The new Catholic Church is built outside and over the old one, 
which is left standing in the middle of the new edifice, so that the 
congregation may continue their worship, until the exterior church 
is finished. (Ill, p. 39.) 

Of Baltimore and the charitable works there carried on he says : 
The superintendence of the Hospital is under the Catholics of 

Baltimore; twelve nuns, called Sisters of Charity, are always in the 

house and subject to the superintending Sister of their own order. 
The Baltimore Infirmary is another institution attached to the 

Medical Hospital college ; this also is superintended in all its domestic 

arrangements by the Catholic Sisters of Charity. 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 341 

A Catholic orphan asylum, for the education and support of the 
Catholic orphans, is under the management of the Sistersi of Charity. 
(I, p. 417.) 

Of the state of the Church in general in that city he writes : 

The Roman Catholics far outstrip any other sect, in numbers and 
zeal. Besides their large and imposing Cathedral, by far the most 
prominent of all public buildings in the city, they have churches and 
chapels scattered over all parts of the town, and others rising up in 
every direction. The last new one that we saw just opened, has 
inscribed in large letters on the outside, "The Church of Mount 
Carmel and the Sacred Heart." The Catholic Archbishop and all 
the subordinate priesthood, are learned, pious, and clever men; the 
Sisters of Charity have among their number many intelligent and 
devoted women, and these, with the seminary for the education of 
Catholic youth, secure not merely the permanence of the present 
supremacy of Catholic numbers and Catholic influence, but its still 
further steady and progressive increase. (I, p. 439.) 

Boston received a good deal of the traveler's attention. He states 
that Mass was first said in the city in 1788. (Ill, p. 299.) This is 
a reference to Father Poterie, who arrived in Boston from Angers 
and received faculties from Carroll on December, 24, 1788. Of the 
condition of the Church there at the time of his visit, it is observed 
that: 

The Catholic population is very numerous, there being no less 
than 10,000 members of the Church, or one-eighth of the whole popu- 
lation of Boston (P. 344), and they are increasing in number. (P. 
348.) 

The history of the Ursulines in Boston is related in a few words : 

A convent of Ursuline nuns also exists in Boston. This was 
originally of four nuns, who were invited here by Bishop Cheverus 
in 1820, and maintained by a provision made for them in the will 
of a Catholic gentleman named Thayer. They were employed for the 
first six years in the instruction of females ; and having at that time 
increased in numbers, they removed to Charlestown, one of the 
suburbs of Boston, and there established the Ursuline community on 
Mount St. Benedict. This was in 1826, and they continued there 
until 1834, when the convent was destroyed by an intolerant mob of 
incendiaries and the nuns and inmates were obliged to save them- 
selves by flight. The Convent has never been rebuilt at Charlestown, 
but the nuns now inhabit a large house near Pearl Street in Boston, 
and still continue the occupation of teaching female children. By 
this practice there is no doubt that they make many converts to their 
faith, and even add to their own number as nuns. (Ill, p. 348.) 



342 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

In his three volumes, Eastern and Western States, Buckingham 
remarks in passing that there is one Catholic Church in each of the 
following cities: 

Portland, Maine ; Salem, Mass. ; Worcester, Mass. ; New Haven, 
Conn. ; Wheeling, Va. ; Louisville, Ky. ; in Pittsburg there are two 
Churches; in Bardstown a Catholic College, and a total of six con- 
gregations in Maine. 

The following recorded conversation is interesting and gives one 
an idea of the bitterness that was in the hearts of the missionaries 
in Maine : 

In conversing with a clergyman of Boston, Bomaseen, an Indian 
captured in Maine, said that his people had been taught by the 
Jesuits to believe that the Virgin Mary was a French lady, and that 
her son, the Blessed Jesus Christ, had been murdered by the English ; 
but that He had risen from the dead and gone to Heaven ; and that 
all who wished to gain his favor there must avenge His death by 
making war upon the English. To this the English divine is said 
to have replied, taking a tankard of wine in his hand, "Jesus Christ 
gives us a good religion, like the good wine in this cup; God's book 
is the Bible, which holds this good drink ; Englishmen give it to them 
pure, that is, we present the Holy Book to you in your own language ; 
French priests hear you confess your sins and take beaver for it; 
Englishmen never sell pardons, they are free, and come from God 
only. (I, p. 139.) 

The next reference to Catholics is quite different. It is indicative 
of the change that had come and the greater spirit of tolerance and 
goodwill, at least on the part of the people : 

The Roman Catholics of the City, though not much given to 
Revivals, any more than are the Episcopalians, who rarely join them, 
are not nevertheless inactive, but in another way. It was thought 
desirable to build a Catholic Church at Fairmount, near the water 
works of Philadelphia, where a number of visitors are usually gath- 
ered on Sundays, for the pleasure of the excursion. But it was 
difficult to raise the funds for this purpose by the ordinary process 
of subscriptions; a fair was got up, to be held at the Masonic Hall, 
in Chestnut Street, just opposite the Morris House, where we resided. 
In any other country than this, none but the persons of Catholic belief 
and persuasion would have sent articles to this fair or bazaar for 
sale, or stood at stalls for the purpose of selling them to raise money 
for such a purpose. But here Protestants vied with Catholics in 
making and preparing novelties, and sending their contributions to 
the funds. The sum raised was considerable and said to amount 
upwards of $5,000, This cooperation of Protestants with Catholics 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 343 

to erect a religious edifice for the latter, would seem more extraordi- 
nary and inexplicable from the fact, that in no part of the Christian 
world is there more alarm expressed at the progress of Romanism as 
it is called than here. Sermons are preached against it, tracts are 
extensively circulated to counteract it, and all the horror and alarm 
which the High and Low Church Protestants of England and Ireland 
profess to feel at the growth of Romanism in Britain, is at least as 
warmly expressed here. (I. p. 566.) 

Arriving in Baltimore at the time of the Breckenridge Case and 
witnessing the whole affair, he wrote : 

The great topic of excitement during our stay in Baltimore was, 
however, a public controversy between the Presbyterians and Roman 
Catholics, which had heretofore been carried on in the pulpit, in 
maga2anes and in public meetings, but had now found a new arena 
in the Criminal Court of Law, The Rev. Robert Breckenridge, a 
clergyman of Kentucky, but long resident here, was the champion of 
the Presbyterian side; and his disposition and temperament fitted 
him for a controversialist of the most unbending, fiery, zealous and 
ardent kind. II, p. 102.) 

Buckingham goes on to describe the case, which was one of libel 
filed by James L. Macguire. The court sat for eight days, at the end 
of which the jury could not agree, ten being for the conviction of 
Breckenridge and two against it. Buckingham states that this was a 
disappointment to all, both Catholics and Protestants hoping for a 
decision that would be favorable to them. 

Of Ohio the traveler relates : 

The Roman Catholics are thought to be increasing rapidly, their 
present number being about 30,000. (II, p. 343.) 

Of Cincinnati there is much recorded : 

The largest and most prominent Church is the Catholic Cathedral, 
with its florid facade, its small towers and turrets, and its lofty 
central spire, surmounted by a cross. (II, p. 391.) 

The Catholics, with a population of 12,000, are not only the most 
numerous, but said to be the most active, most zealous and most 
rapidly increasing, their unity giving them great advantages in this 
respect. 

Of the schools, the Athenaeum, the most efficient of all, is under 
the direction of the Roman Catholics, with a more splendid edifice 
than either of the Protestant establishments, with abler teachers, 
more zealous proselytizers, and a larger number of students and 
pupils than any other single institution. (P. 393.) 

The Athenaeum, a Roman Catholic college in this city, is educat- 
ing about 2,000 children under the Society of Jesus. (II, p. 342.) 



344 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

Passing on to St. Louis this quick observer found even more to 
relate in favor of Catholic activity : 

There are six Catholic Churches, the principal one being the 
Cathedral, a large, fine building, nearly in the center of the city, 
capable of accommodating 3,000 worshippers without inconvenience. 
The other places of Catholic worship are the Jesuits' College, the 
nunnery, the hospital, the asylum and various other chapels under 
the direction of the Catholic clergy. The number of Catholic wor- 
shippers here amount to 12,000, or more than half of the Church 
going population of the city, and these are continually augmented 
by the fresh arrivals of German and Irish emigrants belonging to the 
Catholic Church, no less than 340 Germans having arrived in one 
boat from New Orleans during our stay in St. Louis. To meet the 
increasing wants of such a population, two splendid Catholic Churches 
are now building, one attached to the Jesuit College, and the other 
at the south extremity of the town. To raise funds for these, the 
Catholic Bishop, Rosate, has gone to Rome, from whence the most 
liberal aid is readily secured for the erection of churches and the 
propagation of Catholic Faith in distant lands. Nearly all the best 
educational and benevolent establishments of St. Louis are in the 
hands of the Catholics; and they manage them with such skill and 
attention, that this alone entitles them to the highest praise, and 
gives them great influence in society. 

The Jesuits' College is called the University of St. Louis, the 
president and professors, of which there are ten, are all members of 
the Society of Jesus, and under these are eight masters or tutors. 
They are all Catholics and the greatest number are Belgians, though 
among them are also Italians, Spanish and Irish. Nothing seems to 
be wanting that is essential to such an institution. The University 
is incorporated by Charter or Act of Congress, passed in 1832, en- 
titling them to confer degrees. 

The Convent of the Sacred Heart is a Roman Catholic establish- 
ment for the education of females. The ladies of the Sisterhood 
whom we saw were altogether the most agreeable ladies I have yet 
seen as nuns. 

Attached to this convent is an orphan asylum for girls, and in 
another part of tht city is an orphan asylum for boys, both under 
the direction of those indefatigable messengers of peace and mercy, 
the Sisters of Charity. There is also a General Hospital, with a 
marine department for boatmen, and a lunatic asylum, all under the 
direction of the Sisters of Charity. (Ill, p. 90.) 

A little further on, he remarks concerning the other Catholic 
centers of the State of Missouri : 

Of the religious bodies the Roman Catholics are thought to have 
the predominance in numbers. They have two colleges, one in the 
vicinity of St. Louis, and the other south of Bois Brule. There are 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 345 

several convents in the State, at which, females are educated; and 
the Catholic Cler^, with the Bishop of St. Louis at their head, are 
very numerous, intelligent and zealous in their calling. (Ill, p. 106.) 

Speaking of the mounds along the Mississippi, he says: 
The most prominent of all these mounds is one, now called the 
Trappist Mound, from the fact that a monastery of the order of La 
Trappe was established here in the early days of the French settle- 
ments, and portions of the buildings and trees by which it was sur- 
rounded still remain. (Ill, p. 140.) 

Buckingham then touches upon the life of Charles Carroll who 
had recently died. He mentions that at the signing of the Declara- 
tion the Catholic had put his entire fortune behind the cause by 
signing, * ' Charles Carroll of Carrollton. ' ' The funeral of the patriot 
is referred to, and the fact that three of his daughters had married 
into the English peerage. He concludes with the remark : 

So that Patriotism, virtue, wealth, and honors are all happily 
blended with the venerable name of Carroll of Carrollton. (Ill, 
p. 151.) 

The city of Chicago offered a rather poor Catholic showing at the 
time of Buckingham's visit. It was another case of rebellion which 
fortunately ended well. After saying that there are two Catholic 
Churches there, he continues: 

Considerable excitement was occasioned during our stay here, 
by an expected riot among the Irish Catholics, on behalf of a priest 
who was a favorite among them. It appears that this reverend father 
had in some manner caused the Church of which he was pastor, and 
certain lands, house and furniture attached to it to be made by legal 
instrument, his own individual and exclusive property; and demean- 
ing himself thus in secure and immovable possession, he defied all his 
ecclesiastical superiors. He had been for some long time intemperate, 
and it was alleged that he had also committed extensive frauds. This 
is certain, that the Catholic Bishop of the Diocese, and the Vicar 
General from St. Louis had come on to Chicago from the South, for 
the purpose of forcing the priest to surrender the property which 
he unlawfully held, and then publicly to excommunicate him. The 
expectation of this ceremony drew crowds of Protestants together 
on the Sunday morning it was appointed to take place; and the 
sympathy felt by the Irish laborers on the canal, here pretty numer- 
ous for one of their own priests, who freely drank whiskey with them, 
was such, that they had declared that they would clear the church, 
if any attempt was made to excommunicate their favorite. The 
Bishop and the Vicar General hearing this went among the men, and 
addressed them on the subject, reminding them of their allegiance 



346 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

to the Church, and their duty of obedience to its decrees; told them 
that they knew no distinction of nation or habit among Catholics, 
but that the only distinction that must be maintained, was between 
worthy and unworthy, the faithful and the unfaithful sons of the 
Church, and concluded by warning them that if they offered the 
slightest resistance to any public ceremony enjoined by the Church, 
they would incur the guilt of sacrilege, and be accordingly subjected 
to the very pains and penalties of excommunication which they wished 
to avert from another. This had the effect of calming them into 
submission, and the priest learning this, consented to sign over to 
his superiors the property of the Church which he had unlawfully 
withheld from it, and to leave the town the following day, so that 
all further proceedings were stayed against him, (III, p. 263.) 

The strength of the Church in Illinois and the promise of rapid) 
growth was clearly visible at this time. We read that there were 
thirty Churches and at least 5,000 members. Of the future of the 
Church in that State, Buckingham says: 

The increase of population, from German and Irish settlers, will 
no doubt increase the Catholic adherents still more rapidly than 
those of any other Church, though the whole population, native as 
well as foreign, is growing rapidly every year. (Ill, p. 281.) 

Detroit had been the See of a Bishop for a few years before the 
visit of our traveler, but had not grown as rapidly as the other episco- 
pal cities he had visited. He sums up the Catholic activities of the 
city briefly : 

There are two Catholic Churches; one a large Cathedral for the 
French population, and the other a smaller church for the Irish and 
Germans; an orphan asylum, a German free school, and a French 
female charity school. (Ill, p. 388.) 

The State of Michigan he accounts for as foUows: 

The Roman Catholics exceed the whole of the Protestants united, 
numbering about 20,000, of whom about 10,000 are of French descent, 
8,000 English, Irish and German, and the remainder converted In- 
dians and half-breeds. (Ill, p. 419.) 

In his two volumes, Slave States, Buckingham makes a number of 
passing references to the Church as he did in his two other works. 
He mentions: 

There was one Catholic Church in the cities of Augusta, Rich- 
mond and Columbia; two in Savannah; two Churches and a weekly 
Catholic paper in Charleston. The States of Virginia and Tennessee 
are said to have but a few Catholic congregations. 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 347 

The State of Louisiana was to Buckingham, as to others, a section 
of great Catholic activities: 

The predominant religion of the State has always been Roman 
Catholic, the subdivision of the area being into twenty ecclesiastical 
parishes, each of which is supplied with priests from the old Cathe- 
dral of New Orleans. Since the cession of the territory to the United 
States and its incorporation into the Union, the Protestant sects have 
somewhat increased. (I, p. 309.) 

His impressions of New Orleans were very favorable and much of 
the Catholic life of the city is related : 

In 1727, a large party of Jesuits and Ursulines arrived from 
France, and established themselves in a convent, on land granted to 
them by the city. 

In 1763 the Jesuits were expelled from all the dominions of the 
Kings of France, Spain and Naples, by a decree of Clement XIII, 
and they were accordingly obliged to leave New Orleans. Their 
property which was seized and sold under an order of the Council, 
then procured $180,000, and it is said that the same property is now 
worth $15,000,000, at least, merely as land, exclusive of the buildings 
and improvements made on it, so great has been the increase in the 
value of land within the city. (I, p. 312.) 

The oldest and most remarkable building is the Cathedral. This 
edifice was commenced in 1792 and completed in 1794 at the expense 
of Don Andre Almonaster, Perpetual Rigidor, and Alvarez Real, on 
condition of Mass being offered for the soul of its founder every 
Saturday evening, a condition which is rigidly fulfilled. The first 
curate of the parish that was appointed to this Cathedral, was An- 
tonio de Sedella, who filled that office for upwards of fifty years, 
having come to New Orleans in 1779 and dying in 1837, at the age 
of 90 years. He is buried at the foot of the altar at which he served 
so long and faithfully, and has left behind him a reputation for 
virtue and benevolence, which many a Christian pastor might be 
proud to enjoy. (I, p. 327.) 

The other two religious edifices of the Catholics, comprehend the 
Ursuline Convent, founded in 1733, now more than a century old, 
and the most ancient edifice existing in the city ; the Ursuline Chapel, 
built in 1787, and St. Antoine 's, or the mortuary chapel, at which all 
the funeral services are now performed. A larger and more splendid 
building is intended to be erected, under the name of St. Patrick's 
Church, the design of which is to be in imitation of York Munster. 
(I, p. 328.) 

The Ursuline Nuns, in their convent, now removed from the city 
as their valuable property within the city was recently sold at a 
greatly increased value, for the benefit of the funds, have a boarding 
school for young ladies, which is accounted one of the best in the 
State, The Sisters of Charity also have a large establishment for 



348 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

young ladies in the parish of St. James, where everything required 
is taught with great ability. In the Convent of the Opelousas is 
another excellent female school, and the Jesuits have an excellent 
establishment at the same place for the education of boys, which is 
conducted by ten professors and teachers from France. These are, 
of course, all Catholic schools, though many Protestants have their 
children taught at them from the great attention bestowed on the 
pupils and the advancement in every branch of learning. (I, p. 361.) 

FREDERICK MARRYAT 

A Diary in America 
(1839) 

Captain Frederick Marryat, the well-known novelist, was forty- 
five years of age when he arrived in America. He was at that time 
almost as widely read in this country as in Europe. He was born 
in England and was a naval officer during the Napoleonic "Wars. He 
retired to civil life in 1830, about a year after his first book had 
appeared in this country. He had seen a great deal of the world 
during his naval career, and had toured Europe after his retirement. 
It was, according to his own account, during his wanderings in 
Europe that he decided to visit America, to make a study of this 
country for a comparison with that of Switzerland. He was also 
perplexed by the different accounts of the country that he had read 
and was desirous of finding the truth for himself. He was well 
received in this country, and his visit to New York coincided with 
the first presentation of a nautical drama. The Ocean Wolf, which 
he had written. In all his comments he was most fair to all that he 
saw in this country, and contradicted a number of previous writers, 
who had been unfavorable to American Institutions. We have ob- 
served in this work, that while he was not attached to the Church, 
and claimed not to be opposed to it, he quotes from a number of 
writers who were professedly enemies of Catholicism. 

In a general statistical account of all the religions of the country 
he says of the Catholics : 

Congregations, 433; Ministers, 389 ; Population, 800,000. (P. 202.) 

A little further on he mentions that the Protestant religion is 
showing a decided loss in this country and then mentions the growth 
of the Catholic cause, quoting a number of authors in regard to the 
increase and possible future of the Church in the United States : 

If the Protestant cause is growing weaker every day from the 
disunions and indifference, there is one creed which is as rapidly 
gaining strength. I refer to the Catholic Church, which is silently, 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 349 

but surely advancing. Its great field is in the West, where in some 
States, almost all are Catholics, or from neglect and ignorance alto- 
gether indifferent as to religion. The Catholic priests are diligent, 
and make a large number of converts every year and the Catholic 
population is added to by the number of Irish and German emigrants 
to the West, who are almost all of them of the Catholic persuasion. 
Although it is not forty years since the first Roman Catholic See 
was created, there are now in the United States, a Catholic popula- 
tion of 800,000 souls under the government of the Pope, an arch- 
bishop, twelve bishops and 433 priests. The number of Churches is 
about 401; Mass houses, about 300; colleges, 10; of seminaries for 
young men, 9 ; theological seminaries, 5 ; noviciates for Jesuits, mon- 
asteries, convents, with academies attached, 31 ; seminaries for young 
ladies, 30 ; schools of the Sisters of Charity, 29 ; an academy for col- 
ored girls at Baltimore; a female infant school and seven Catholic 
newspapers. (P. 220.) 

The following quotations are from different sources concerning the 
Church. The first is taken from de Tocqueville, which we have 
already included in our consideration of that author's work. The 
second is from the author of A Voice in America, who, like de 
Tocqueville, foresaw the growth of the Church in America, due to 
the democratic spirit found therein. Then follows a quotation from 
Harriet Martineau's Society in America, which we had occasion to 
mention when treating the works of that author. A certain Doctor 
Reid is next quoted as follows : 

I found the people at this time under some uneasiness, in relation 
to the spread of Romanism. The partisans of that system are greatly 
assisted from Europe by supplies of money and teachers. The 
teachers have usually acquired more competency than the native in- 
structors; and this is a temptation to parents who are seeking accom- 
plishments for their children, and who have a high idea of European 
refinements. It appeared that out of four schools, provided for the 
wants of the town (Lexington, Kentucky) three were in the hands of 
Catholics. (P. 221.) 

This minister, Reid, goes at some length to show that the Pope, 
who is in fear of expulsion from Europe, is preparing for himself a 
place in the new world. This he says, is being accomplished by the 
Leopold Society and the education of youth, Protestant as well as 
Catholic. He urges that this manner of procedure be watched, be- 
cause, "Popery and Jesuitism are one." The author, Marryat, then 
proceeds : 

Judge Halburton asserts, that all America will be Catholic. That 
all America west of the Allighenies will eventually be Catholic I 



350 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

have no doubt, as the Catholics are already in the majority, and 
there is nothing, as Mr. Cooper observes, to prevent any State from 
establishing that or any other religion as the religion of the State; 
and this is one of the dark clouds which hang over the destiny of the 
Western Hemisphere. . . . Indeed what with their revivals, their 
music and their singing, every class and sect in the States have even 
now fallen into Catholicism so far, that religion has become more 
of an appeal to the senses than to calm and sober judgment. (P. 222.) 

In a footnote Marryat pays the following tribute to the Catholic 
teachers : 

The Catholic priests who instruct, are to my knowledge the best 
educated men in the country. It was a pleasure to be in their com- 
pany. (P. 223.) 

An earlier mention of Catholics in this work, is in connection with 
the burning of the Charlestown Convent : 

The Americans are excessively curious, especially the mob; they 
cannot bear anything like a secret — that's unconstitutional. It may 
be remembered that the Catholic Convent, near Boston, which has 
existed for many years, was attacked by a mob and pulled down. I 
was inquiring into the causes of this outrage in a country where all 
forms of religion are tolerated, and an American gentleman told me 
that although other reasons had been adduced for it, he fully be- 
lieved, in his own mind, that the majority of the mob were influenced 
more by curiosity than any other feeling. (P. 28.) 

CHAELES LYELL 

Travels in North America 
(1841-1842) 

Charles Lyell, the famous geologist, made his first visit to the 
United States in 1841. He was already known as the author of 
Principles of Geology, which gave to the world the nomenclature for 
the geological eras. He was born in Scotland in 1797, the son of a 
botanist. His primary reason for coming to America was scientific, 
and he was successful in this purpose. He estimated the rate at 
which the falls were receding at Niagara, and so forth. He was a 
man of great freshness of mind and intellectually curious, matured 
by an unusual education. He had been graduated from Oxford, had 
trained for the bar, and traveled extensively in Europe. He made a 
second visit to the United States and left a record of it, but this is 
outside the limit of this essay and consequently will not be considered. 
The first trip, which is recorded in Travels in North America, con- 



TRAVEL LITERATUKE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 351 

tained little of interest in the Church. Of the school question LyeU 
remarked : 

In New York the Eoman Catholic priests have recently agitated 
with no small success for a separate allotment of their share of the 
Education Fund. They have allied themselves, as in the Belgian 
Revolution, with the extreme democracy to carry their point, and 
may materially retard the progress of education. But there is no 
reason to apprehend that any one sect in New England will have 
power to play the same game, and these States are the chief colon- 
izers of the West. (I, p. 121.) 

This movement was not for a new law, but for the enforcement 
of the school law of 1812, It was turned down by the City Com- 
mittee and then taken to the State Legislature. The Catholics lost 
their point, but gained in some measure, in that the State was in the 
future to control the educative system and Catholics were in a posi- 
tion to elect members to the State board. The bad effects of the 
measure were related in the excerpts we have taken from Bacourt. 

It is interesting to note that this author felt that the Tractarian 
Movement was finding its way into the American Universities (I, p. 
272), and also another point which was noticed: 

I had no opportunity of witnessing the good example said to be 
given by the Roman Catholic Clergy in prohibiting all invidious 
distinctions in their Churches. (I, p. 212.) 

Lyell could see the storm that was gathering against the Catholics 
when he wrote: 

Some of the more highly educated class, especially lawyers, ex- 
pressed their alarm at the growing strength of the Democratic party 
in Ohio, owing to the influx of Irish and German laborers, nearly all 
Roman Catholics and very ignorant. These new comers, they said, 
had lately turned the election against a majority of native Americans, 
their superiors in wealth and mental culture. (II, p. 79.) 

JOSEPH STURGB 

A Visit to the United States 
(1841) 

Joseph Sturge was born at Elberton on August 2, 1793. After 
he had finished school he undertook to assist his father in farming. 
From his earliest years he had espoused the anti-slavery cause and 
was one of the founders of the Anti-slavery Society, whose program 
called for entire and immediate emancipation. He traveled through 
the British Isles to arouse interest in this cause, and, after a trip to 



352 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A, F. M, 

the "West Indies, he succeeded in having an Abolition bill passed by- 
Parliament. He traveled to the United States in 1841 vsdth the poet 
Whittier, to observe the conditions of the slaves. On his return to 
England he published his, Visit to the United States. The active and 
unpopular part that he took in these reform movements he considered 
to be his duty as a Christian. On one occasion in 1850, he succeeded 
in stemming the tide of anti-papal agitation in Birmingham. He 
died at Birmingham in 1859. 

Concerning the slave question in the United States, he says in 
regard to the Catholic Church: 

I was informed not long since, even the Roman Catholics, who 
are more free from the contamination than many other religious 
bodies, had in some part of the State, sold several of their own 
Church members, and applied the proceeds to the erection of a place 
of worship. We called on the Roman Catholic Bishop to inquire into 
the truth of this, but he was from home. When in Philadelphia, I 
gave the particulars to a priest in conversation, and said I would be 
glad to be furnished the means of contradicting it. I have not heard 
from him since. (P. 45.) 

CHARLES DICKENS 

American Notes 
(1842) 
Charles Dickens, the great English novelist, after finishing his 
Barnaby Rudge, felt the need of some change of mental activity. To 
this end he started to vtrite the Clock, intending to visit Ireland and 
America and in these countries to write descriptive papers for the 
new novel. This work was soon discontinued, but his desire to seek 
fresh fields remained. He set out for America in January, 1842, and 
returned to England the following June after a reception that might 
well have turned his head, to write his American Notes. He had 
been run after, stared at and cheered with greater enthusiasm than 
if he had been a crown potentate. The American people felt that his 
Notes, as well as his endeavor to enlighten them on the matter of 
copyright, were but poor return for the welcome he had received at 
their hands. When he returned to this country in 1867 and delivered 
R series of readings in a number of our cities, America seems to have 
forgotten and to have forgiven him, and flocked to hear his dis- 
courses. As the public were, so must the Church historian be disap- 
pointed in the contents of American Notes. Only on two occasions 
did Dickens find Catholic institutions that he thought worthy of 
mention. The first reads: 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 353 

At Georgetown, in the suburbs, there is a Jesuit College, delight- 
fully situated, and so far as I had the opportunity of seeing, well 
managed. Many persons who are not members of the Romanish 
Church avail themselves, I believe, of these institutions, and of the 
advantageous opportunities they afford for the education of their 
children. (Chap. VIII.) 

The Roman Catholic religion introduced here by the early settlers, 
prevails here extensively. Among the public institutions are a Jesuit 
College, a College of the Ladies of the Sacred Heart, and a large 
chapel attached to the College, which was in course of erection at the 
time of my visit, and was intended to be consecrated on the second of 
December the following year. The architect of this building is one 
of the reverend fathers of the school, and the works proceed under 
his sole direction. The organ will be sent from Belgium. 

In addition to these establishments there is a Roman Catholic 
Cathedral, dedicated to St. Francis Xavier, and a hospital founded 
by the munificence of a deceased resident who was a member of that 
Church. It also sends missionaries from hence among the Indian 
tribes. Chap. XII.) 

Summary 

The final period of our essay, while the shortest of the three, 
found in this country the greatest number of travelers, due to the 
facility of transatlantic travel. The records of these visitors are large 
in territorial extent, due to the rapidity with which the 
Church in the United States had spread. This growth of the Church 
attracted the attention of the foreigner as well as that of the Ameri- 
can, and the same fears are expressed in this regard. These works 
contain as well some mention of the outbreaks against the Church, 
which was the result of this unwarranted fear. A few pleas for 
tolerance are found in these accounts, Harriet Martineau entering 
one in each of her works. There is a constant admiration of various 
Catholic edifices such as the Cathedrals at Baltimore and New Or- 
leans and the Gothic Chapel at St. Mary's Seminary in Baltimore. 
Catholic schools receive the highest praise, even from those who were 
in fear because of their belief of the bad influences of the Catholic 
Educational System. The schools of the Jesuits and the Ursulines 
are the most frequently mentioned. Many of these writings are re- 
plete with statistics, noticeably that of Stephen Davis, who used them 
to warn non-Catholics of the rise of Catholicism as a power. Mention 
is made of the attempt to pass favorable legislation in New York in 
regard to school support, and the unhappy outcome was foreseen, 

A greater number of Catholic persons are mentioned in the books 
of this period than were in the two earlier ones, most attention being 



354 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

given to Bishops Marechal, Dubourg and Cheverus, with one fine 
account of the Sulpicians in Baltimore. The Catholic clergy as a 
whole are remarked as both educated and zealous. The work of de 
Tocqueville contains an excellent treatment of the appropriateness 
of Catholicism in the American Democracy. James Silk Buckingham, 
who, in eight large volumes, has written a very complete account of 
the entire country, mentions the Catholic activities wherever he found 
them. His accounts are at times only passing references to the exist- 
ence of a church in a certain section. The greatest value of the 
works of this period is to be found in the comments upon the Cath- 
olic clergy and the apprehension caused by the growth of the Church. 

PART IV 

General Summary 

Travel literature as a source for American Church history con- 
tains many more references than will probably be supposed on first 
thought. While it is true that there is recorded a good amount 
of information, it is as a whole of small importance. Those parts of 
the country which witnessed Catholic activities, were all visited by 
foreigners. In the period previous to the Revolution, the hazards of 
a transatljantic voyage was not conducive to American travel. The 
condition of the country prevented those who did visit the country 
from traveling about to any great extent. During the hundred years 
before our separation from England, there were only seven travelers 
who have left us records of any extensive travel in this country. Two 
of these, Charlevoix and Bossu, visited most of the Mississippi and 
Lake settlements, the others visiting mainly the cities of 
Atlantic coast. During the Revolution, travel was confined to the 
war area and restricted to those engaged in the conflict. During the 
period from the close of the war until 1815, no less than forty Euro- 
peans, mostly English and French, wrote accounts of their American 
travels. Each of these thirty years is considered by one or another 
of these travelers. The mode of travel was still primitive and the 
geographical extent of their wanderings is not much greater than 
those of the first period. There was toward the end of this period 
an occasional visit to the cities of Ohio and Western Pennsylvania, 
which places were being gradually settled. The following years 
(1815-1842) witnessed travel of greater territorial extent. The 
Westward Movement was afoot, towns were springing up almost over 
night and this phenominal growth attracted the attention of the 
European. The frontier towns were frequently visited; and trans- 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 355 

portation on the rivers and well organized stage lines made travel 
between the larger cities of the East of comparative ease. During 
the last period there was hardly a city of any size that was not visited 
and which did not receive at least passing mention in one or another 
of the travel accounts of over one hundred writers. The Southern 
States are not extensively treated in these books, but those of the 
country north of the Mason-Dixon line, as well as the entire Missis- 
sippi Valley, received frequent and extensive treatment and comment 
by the visitors. The travel literature which is here considered, in 
regard to the territory which it concerns, follows the Western Move- 
ment and contains a fair account of social and economic conditions. 

The Catholic Church has not been excluded from these writings. 
A summary of the entire travel literature gives one a fair view of 
the condition of the Church in any particular period. The centers 
of Catholic activity quite naturally receive the greatest amount of 
attention. Baltimore, Boston, New York and New Orleans presented 
the best fields for observation of the Church, with St. Louis and 
Cincinnati growing into prominence toward the end of this period. 
The Jesuits and the Ursulines were frequently noticed, the former 
because of theii* missionary work among the Indians and their educa- 
tional endeavors, the latter because of the successful young ladies' 
academies established by that order. A few passages stand out 
among those we have found in these works. Milbert's short sketch 
of Bishop Cheverus and Bernard's account of and appreciation of 
Charles CarroU are typical of the admiration in which these two 
prominent Catholics were held by the public. Harriet Martineau's 
pleas for toleration is evidence of the feelings entertained even by 
Protestants at the time when the Church was suffering from the 
intolerance of her enemies. Abbe Robin, in his pen picture of Boston 
in Revolutionary days, gives one a fair insight into the conditions 
which prevailed throughout al|I the New England settlements. De 
Tocqueville has left us a very clear exposition of the reasons why 
the Catholic faith is in perfect accord with all the principles of 
American democracy and the propriety of the Church existing in 
this country. The Gallipolis Colony has been quite fully treated by 
Thomas Ashe. Carl Bernhard was in the Baltimore Cathedral during 
the consecration of Bishop Benedict Fenwick of Boston and carefully 
sets down the details of the ceremony. Others record interviews with 
Bishops and priests and these are valuable. 

As a general rule it might be said, that whatever is mentioned in 
these travel accounts concerning the Church, is always in a spirit 
of respect and praise. Those who viewed with fear the evident ad- 



356 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A, F. M. 

vanee of the Church in this country could not help praising her 
works. The prelates of the Church are invariably referred to as 
learned and zealous men, suited for their elevated positions. The 
clergy in general are likewise praised. Missionary endeavor among 
the Indians is recorded in a pleasant manner and marked with 
success. Schools under Catholic auspices and charitable works in 
general are referred to in a manner that leaves no doubt as to the 
favorable impression these institutions made upon visitors. Very 
early in the century the Catholic Cathedrals drew words of admira- 
tion from the most critical of writers. The zeal of Catholics is 
commented upon probably more than anything else. 

There is little for which the Church is adversely criticized 
by these travelers. Trusteeism and the Hogan case in par- 
ieular drew forth a few bitter remarks upon the Church of Phila- 
delphia and reflected upon the entire Church in America. The 
building of a church by lottery was condemned by some and highly 
praised by others. Vinge relates an incident at Mackinac which to 
his mind was disgraceful to the Church, but investigation on this 
point indicates that this was but a personal opinion of Vinge. Bel- 
trami, who seems an avowed enemy of the Society of Jesus, lost no 
opportunity of condemning them and all their works. His account 
leaves no room for one to doubt his prejudices. Smyth has referred 
to the same Society in a like manner, when he wrote of their activities 
in Maryland. Moreau de St. Mery, being embittered by an unfor- 
tunate event in Philadelphia, gives way to a number of harsh 
remarks concerning the Church and the ministers in that part. Bishop 
Hughes of New York was criticised by Bacourt because of his stand 
in the school question. That the Frenchman was justified in his 
remarks has been proved by the outcome of the event which he fore- 
told. Bishop Plessis laments the delay of Bishop Connolly in coming 
to his new See, and questions the action which resulted in the sub- 
stitution of the administrator of the New York Diocese without 
having taken the proper means to effect this substitution. These are 
the only complaints l^odged against the Church and her actions in 
these works. 

Great as is the comment upon the Church in this travel literature, 
there was much of import that passed unnoticed. There is little 
mention of the early Spanish missions of Florida, California, Texas 
and Arizona, The early missionary work in New York is not treated 
iin any suitable fashion, and the work among the Indians on the 
Lakes and in the Mississippi Valley had no contemporary recorder 
until the time of Charlevoix. For information concerning these 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 357 

above mentioned activities of the Church in America, we can in no 
wise depend upon travel literature. In those places where there was 
considerable travel and about which much was written, all mention 
of a number of outstanding factors of Church life is omitted. The 
number of travelers who have mentioned the early settlement of 
Maryland, have all failed to mention that there was a toleration act 
in force under Catholic rule. The intolerance in New York is not 
mentioned in any detail, although St. John de Crevecoeur, who suf- 
fered under this intolerance, wrote some account of his stay in that 
State. The part which Catholics took in the Revolution is not men- 
tioned even by the Abbe Robin. There is no mention of the Cath- 
olics who served on the Commission to Quebec. An outstanding 
omission is that of Bishop John Carroll, who is only mentioned in 
passing. At no period did the Catholics of New York attract any 
amount of attention from non-Catholics other than at the time of the 
attempted School Bill. We look in vain for a real explanation of 
the cause of Trusteeism, or for a defender of the Church in that 
issue. Sympathy was ever with Hogan and his ilk. There is abso- 
Ifate silence about the different Provincial Councils of the period. 
Persons of high station in the Church were entirely overlooked, as 
was the case with Bishops Kelly, Neale, Whitfield, Rosatl and Con- 
well, as well as Mrs. Seton. Others were but mentioned in conneo- 
tion with some other item as is the case with Bishops Dubois, Egan, 
Flaget and England. Added to these is a list of minor activities of 
the Church which are not even alluded to, and though it is not a 
surprising fact, there is an absolute lack of knowledge of the inner 
life of the Church in this country. 

In conclusion we might say that the remarks of the traveler are 
an aid in following the history of the Church. Of this nature are the 
works of Plessis and Bacourt; of Smyth in regard to the Acadians; 
Charlevoix and Bossu for a view of the Mississippi Valley; Robin 
for his portrayal of the city of Boston and the Acadians in Maryland ; 
The Journal of a French Traveler for an excellent picture of condi- 
tions in Maryland at the time of his visit; and to numerous others 
who throw Hght on the anti-Catholic conditions in this country, and 
give us a few glimpses into the characters of numerous persons. Yet 
with all this, we can say that this travel literature can not be looked 
upon in any instance as absolutely indispensable source material. 
There is not a reference in these pages that open our view to new 
knowledge of the past. The standard American Church histories 
contain, from other sources, all that is here contained and recorded 
by travelers. At best our visitors have left us in their records, aids 



358 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

to forming mental pictures of the times, and some personal apprecia- 
tion of the characters in our history, with which the writer of history 
might be abl£ to possess a broader view of the activities that he must 
relate. 



APPENDIX 

This index has reference to the works used in this essay, indicating 
the location of the excerpts from these books. In the references the 
following symbols will be used: To indicate works of Buckingham, 
(A) will refer to his America, (E&W) to his Eastern and Western 
States, (SS) to his Slave States. Harriet Martineau's works will be 
referred to by (Ret.) for Retrospect of Western Travel, and (Soc.) 
for Society in America. AHR refers to the American Historical 
Review. 

Abel, Father; Stuart, II, 327. 

Acquaroni, Father, Beltrami, II, 497. 

Albany, N. Y. ; Buckingham, (A) II, 313; Plessis, I, 163. 

Almonaster, Don Andre; Buckingham, (SS) I, 137; Ashe, 336. 

Acadians; Robin, 43; Smyth, I, 249; Moreau de St. Mery, 95; Ba- 

court, 186. 
Athenaeum (Cinn.) ; Buckingham, (E&W) II, 342, 393. 
Augusta, Ga. ; Buckingham, (SS) I, 165. 

Baltimore; Trollope, 167; Bernhard, I, 163; Buckingham, (A) I, 

417, 439; (E&W) II, 102; Bacourt, 47, 54. 
Cathedral : Davis, 109 ; Vinge, I, 122 ; Stuart, I, 392 ; Moreau de 

St. Mery, 88; Buckingham (A), I, 408; Zavola, 199. 
Built by lottery: Blane, 34; Janson, 102. {Vide St. Mary's.) 
Baltimore, Lord: Bernard, 138. 
Bardstown: Warden, II, 337; Bernhard, II, 134; Buckingham 

(E&W), II, 494. 
Bishops: Vide: Concanen, Connelly, Carroll, Dubois, Dubourg, Ec- 

cleston, Egan, England, Fenwick, B.; Fenwick, E. ; Flaget, 

Forbin-Janson, Hughes, Mareschal, Rese, Rosati. 
Bishops, election of: Bacourt, 54; Plessis, I, 151. 
Breckenridge : Buckingham (E&W), III, 39. 
Boston : Dankers, 388 ; Robin, 13 ; Milbert, III, 20 ; Kendall, II, 243 ; 

Palmer, 185; Buckingham (E&W), III, 299, 344; Bacourt, 152; 

Winterbotham, II, 140; Plessis, I, 143. 
Brosius, Father: Plessis, I, 154. 
Buffalo, N. Y.: Buckingham (A), III, 39. 

Calvert, Leonard: AHR, vol. 27, p. 76. 
Capuchins: Bossu, 24; Buckingham (SS), I, 327. 
Carroll, Charles: AHR, vol. 27, p. 73. 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 359 

. Carroll of Annapolis : AHR, vol. 27, p. 74. 
Carroll, Charles, of CarroUton; Buckingham (E&W), III, 151; 

Bernhard, 85; Stuart, I, 378; Vinge, I, 134. 
Carroll, John: Plessis, 138, 147, 149, II, 41; 

Promotion by Jefferson : Baeourt, 54 ; 

Interdict on St. Mary's, Philadelphia: Moreau de St. Mery, 365. 
Carthage, N. Y. : Milbert, II, 29. 
Carthusians: Carver, 142. 

Charities: Baeourt, 81; Buckingham (A), I, 417; (E&W), III, 119. 
Charlestown, Mass. : Vide UrsuUnes. 
Charleston, N. C: Buckingham (SS), I, 49, 55. 
Cheverus, Bishop : Milbert, XIV, XVI ; Plessis, I, 139, 146, 150. 
Chicago: Buckingham (E&W), III, 263. 
Cincinnati : Fordham, 191 ; Zavola, 70 ; Bernhard, II, 137 ; Trollope, 

100; Buckingham (E&W), II, 342, 391, 393. 
Cahokia : Brown, 29 ; Palmer, 415 ; Charlevoix, II, 217 ; Bossu, 159, 
Columbia: Chateaubriand, II, 139; Buckingham (SS), II, 26. 
Concanen, Bishop: Plessis, I, 151, 160. 
Confirmation conferred: Davis, 24; Plessis, I, 140; II, 53. 
Congregationalists : Anbrey, II, 65. 
Connelly, Bishop: Milbert, I, 154; II, 29; Plessis, I, 160. 
Controversy: (Baltimore) Buckingham (E&W), II, 102; (Mackinac) 
Vinge, II, 120. 

Delnot, Abbe: Baeourt, 54. 

Democracy, in Spanish colony: Chateaubriand, II, 125, in U. S. ; 

De Toequeville, I, 304, II, 30. 
Detroit: Liancourt, I, 265; Weld, 186 ; Buckingham (E&W), III, 388; 

Carver, 142 ; Plessis, II, 41. 
Diggs, Father ; AHR, vol. 27, p. 71, 73. 
Dubois, Bishop : Baeourt, 343, 387. 
Dubourg, Bishop: Beltrami, II, 494; Bernhard, II, 64, 83, 99. 

Eccleston, Bishop: Baeourt, 47. 

Education Fund, New York ; Baeourt, 343, 378 ; Lyell, I, 121. 

Egan, Bishop ; Plessis, I, 151, 160. 

Elizabeth, N. J. : Dankers, 147. 

Emancipation Bill, effect in Philadelphia : Stuart, I, 378 ; II, 574. 

England, Bishop : Bernhard, I, 168. 

English in Maine: Buckingham (E&W), I, 168. 

Fenwick, Benedict: Bernhard, I, 168; Plessis, I, 159. 

Fenwick, Edward: Bernhard, II, 137; Martineau (Ret), II, 50; 

Trollope, 100. 
Flaget, Bishop : Plessis, I, 151 ; II, 42, 53. 
Florissant, Mo. : Beltrami, II, 494. 
Forbin-Janson, Bishop : Baeourt, 47, 270, 316. 
Ford, Athenasius: Smyth, I, 249. 
Fort St. Peter: Beltrami, II, 212. 
FredericktovsTi : Bernhard, I, 185. 



360 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

French, in Maine: Buckingham (E&W), I, 139; at Gallipolis, Ashe, 
163; refugees of St. Domingo, Moreau de St. Mery, 55; false 
ideas of French in Massachusetts, Robin, 18. 

Frenchtown, Md. : Moreau de St. Mery, 95. 

Future of the Church: Marryat, 22; Neilson, 227; De Tocqueville, 
II, 30. 

Gallipolis : Ashe, 163. 

Georgetown : Davis, 95 ; Warden, III, 209 ; Zavola, 259 ; Dickens, Ch. 

VIII. 
Germans, at Reading, Pa. : Lianeourt, I, 26. 
Gerard: Buckingham (A) II, 40. 

Hill, Abbe : Bernhard, II, 137. 

Hogan : Beltrami, II, 44 ; Blane, 489. 

Hughes, Bishop: Barcourt, 343, 387. 

Hunter, Father: AHR, vol. 27, p. 70; Smyth, II, 94, 114. 

Illinois: Buckingham (E&W), III, 281. 

Immigration: Buckingham (E&W), III, 119 ; DeTocqueville, I, 304. 
Indians: Bossu, 26, 159; Carver, 142, 322, 325, 256; Chateaubriand, 
II, 95 ; Rochemont, I, 298 ; Weld, 186, 283 ; Kendall, III, 63 ; Ford- 
ham, 146 ; Milbert, II, 20 ; Davis, 23. 
at Loretto: Lianeourt, I, 322. 
at St. Peter : Beltrami, II, 212. 
at Sioux Portage : Beltrami, II, 497. 
in Maine: Plessis, I, 138 Buckingham (E&W), I, 139. 
Intolerance: Marryat, 28; Buckingham (A) II, 348; AHR, vol. 27, 
p. 82; Martineau (Ret.) II, 55; (Soc.) Ill, 234; Kendall, III, 63; 
Davis, 260 ; Abdy, II, 358 ; Warden, I, 303 II, 48 ; Anburey, II, 65. 
Irish Catholics : Plessis, I, 146, 

Jefferson, Thos. : Baeourt, 54. 

Jesuits: Davis, 24; Buckingham (E&W), III, 119; (SS), I, 312; 
Plessis, I, 160, 162. 
in Boston: Dankers, 388. 
Kaskaskias: Charlevoix, II, 277. 
Mississippi Valley : Charlevoix, II, 227. 
Maryland : AHR, vol. 27 ; Smyth, ii, 114. 

La Plata: Beltrami, II, 165. Vide: Hunter ; Diggs ; Lewis ; George- 
town ; St. Louis ; Cincinnati ; Fenwick, B. 

Kaskaskuias: Charlevoix, II, 221. 
Kentucky: Winterbotham, III, 149. 
Kohlmann, Father: Plessis, I, 160, 

La Plata : Beltrami, II, 165. 

Lewis, S. J., Father: Smyth, II, 94. 

Lexington, Ky. : Buckingham (E&W) II, 506; Marryat, 220. 

London, Bishop of, over Church in America : Robin, 44, 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 361 

Louisiana: Buckingham (SS), I, 309; Bossu, 24; Warden, II, 551; 

vide: New Orleans. 
Louisville: Stuart, II, 327; Buckingham (E&W), III, 20. 

Mackinac : Vinge, II, 113, 120. 

Maehout, Abbe: Bernhard, II, 99. 

Maine: Winterbotham, II, 221; Buckingham (E&W), I, 139, 169; 
Milbert, II, 20 ; Kendall, II, 62 ; Eochemont, I, 298 ; Plessis, I, 138. 

Malou, Father : Plessis, I, 162. 

Mareschal, Bishop : Bernhard, I, 163. 

Martial, Abbe: Bernhard, I, 163. 

Maryland : Bankers, 221 ; Burnaby, 54 ; AHR, vol. 27, p. 70 ; Robin, 
44; Smyth, II, 94, 114; Moreau de St. Mery, 88, 95; vide: Balti- 
more, St.Mary's. 

Massachusetts: Rochemont, I, 321; wde; Boston: Ursulines. 

Mathews, Father: Bacourt, 81. 

Matignon, Father : Plessis, I, 140, 170, 321. 

McQuade, Father: Plessis, I, 163. 

Mercier, Abbe: Charlevoix, II, 219; Bossu, 159. 

Michigan: Buckingham (E&W), III, 419. 

Missionaries: Chateaubriand, II, 96; Kendall, III, 60; Beltrami, II, 
354. 

Mississippi Valley: Charlevoix, II, 227. 

Morris, Andrew: Plessis, I, 158. 

Natchez : Charlevoix, II, 277. 

Negroes : Zavola, 25 ; Lyell, I, 212 ; Sturge, 45. 

New Hampshire: Buckingham (A), III, 227. 

New Haven: Buckingham (E&W), I, 388. 

New Jersey : Warden, II, 48 ; Bankers, 147. 

New Orleans: Ashe, 153; Zavola, 25; Buckingham (SS), I, 312, 327; 
Bernhard, II, 56. 

New York State: AHR, vol. 27, Buckingham (A), I, 189; Moreau de 
St. Mery, 163 ; Winterbotham, II, 317 ; Palmer, 306 ; Warden, II, 
317; Bavis, 73; Milbert, I, 154; II, 29; Bacourt, 343, 378; Lyell, 

I, 121 ; Plessis, 158. 

Norfolk : Moreau de St. Mery, 55 ; Liancourt, II, 17. 

Nuns : Vide : Sisters of Charity ; Visitation Nuns ; Ursulines. 

Ohio: Buckingham (E&W), II, 343; Lyell, II, 79. 

Periodicals, Cath. : Stuart, II, 327. 

Philadelphia: Kalm, I, 43; Burnaby, 60; AHR, vol. 27, p. 78; Robin, 
41 ; Moreau de St. Mery, 365 ; Buckingham (E&W), I, 566 ; Blane 
489; Buckingham (A), III, 40; 62, 64; Beltrami, II, 44; Stuart, 
I 378 

Pittsburgh: Buckingham (E&W), II, 179, Ashe, 28. 

Plowden : Narratives of Early Pennsylvania, 101. 

Politics: Bacourt, 343; 387; Be Tocqueville, I, 304; Lyell, I, 121; 

II, 79. 



362 REV. JOSEPH PAUL RYAN, A. F. M. 

Portland, Maine: Buckingham (E&W), I, 195; Plessis, I, 144. 

Poterie, Father: Plessis, I, 147. 

Pratt, Father : Plessis, I, 160. 

Priests : Vide : Fathers Abel, Acquaroni, Brosius, Delnot, SS. ; Diggs, 
S. J. ; Hill, 0. P. ; Hogan ; Hunter, S. J. ; Kohlmann, S. J. ; Lewis, 
S. J. ; Maehout, Malou, McQuade, Mereier, Martial, Mathews, 
Matignon, Poterie, Pratte, Rale, Ranza, Rese, Richards, Romagne, 
Rousselet, Sedella, St. Cosme, Sulpicians, Taumer, Thayer, Ver- 
heggen, Wheeler. 

Priests of Columbia : Chateaubriand, II, 136. 

Priests in General : Charlevoix, 277 ; DeTocqueville, II, 28 ; Bucking- 
ham (E&W), III, 106; Davis, 24; Marryat, 223. 

Providence, R. I.: Buckingham (A), III, 472, 



Rale, Father : Kendall, III, 63. 

Ranza, Father: Plessis, I, 162. 

Romagne, Father: Plessis, I, 139. 

Reading, Pa.: Liancourt, I, 26. 

Rese, Bishop : Bernhard, II, 137. 

Respect for Catholics: Buckingham (E&W), I, 566; Cooper, II, 136. 

Richard, Abbe; Plessis, II, 41. 

Richards, Father : Bernhard, II, 205. 

Richmond: Buckingham (SS), I, 422. 

Rochester: Buckingham (A), III, 66. 

Rousselet, Father : Plessis, I, 148. 



Savannah: Buckingham (SS), I, 121. 

Salem, Mass.: Buckingham (E&W), I, 276. 

Schools : Bacourt, 73, 343 ; Zavola, 259 ; Warden, II, 551 ; Marryat, 
223; Dickens, chaps. 8 and 12 ; Buckingham (A), I, 363; (E&W), 
III, 106, 119, 388; II, 494, 393, 342; TroUope, 187; Vinge, I, 
122, 146; Milbert, II, 29; Beltrami, II, 494; Plessis, I, 162; 

II, 43. 

Sedella, Father: Buckingham (SS), I, 327; Zavola, 25. 

Seminaries: Grund, I, 242; Bernard, II, 99; Bacourt, 54. 

Sioux Portage : Beltrami, II, 497. 

Sisters of Charity: Buckingham (A), I, 417, 439. 

South Carolina: Buckingham (SS), I, 45. 

Spanish Colonies: Chateaubriand, II, 125; vide: Louisiana: New 

Orleans. 
Spread of Catholicism : Bacourt, 73 ; Abdy, III, 93 ; Murray, II, 308 ; 

Davis, 24; Bacourt, 47; Buckingham (A), III, 344; (E&W), 

III, 281. 

St. Charles: Bernhard, II, 99. 

St. Louis: Beltrami, II, 125; Buckingham (E&W), III, 90-119; 

Dickins, chap. XII. 
St. Mary's: Zavola, 199; Vinge, I, 122; Bacourt, 54; Buckingham 

(A), I, 423; Trollope, 167. 



TRAVEL LITERATURE AS SOURCE MATERIAL 363 

Statistics: AHR, vol. 27, p. 70; Robin, 41; Winterbotham, 1383; 
Palmer, 276; Warden, II, 88; III, 484; Stuart, I, 289; Bacourt, 
81; Buckingham (E&W), II, 343, 393; III, 119, 419; (SS), I, 
312; (A) III, 344; Marryat, 202, 222; Plessis, I, 160. 

Stubenville, Ohio: Buckingham (E&W), II, 242. 

Sulpicians: Bossu, 159; Bacourt, 47, 54; Plessis, I, 139; vide: St. 
Mary's. 

Taumer, Father: Charlevoix, II, 219. 

Tennessee: Buckingham (SS), I, 269. 

Thayer, Father: Plessis, I, 148, 150. 

Tractarianism : Lyell, I, 271. 

Trappists: Buckingham (E&W), III, 140; Plessis, I, 162. 

Trusteeism: Moreau de St. Mery, 365; Winterbotham, II, 334. 

Tyler, President (Cath. Tendencies of) ; Bacourt, 380. 

Ursulines: Charlestown-Martineau (Soc), II, 234; (Ret.) II, 55; 

Abdy, III, 258; Bacourt, 152; Buckingham (A), III, 348; 

Marryat, 28. 
New Orleans-Buckingham (SS), I, 312, 328, 361; Warden, II, 551; 

Bossu, 24. 
Utica, N. Y. : Milbert, I, 154. 

Verheggen, Father: Bemhard, II, 99. 

Virginia: Bankers, 218; AHR, vol. 26, p. 743; Buckingham (SS), 
536 ; Abdy, III, 93. 

Visitation Nuns: Davis, 24; Vinge, I, 146; Trollope, 186; Bucking- 
ham (A), I, 363. 

Washington, D. C: Bacourt, 70, 81; Trollope, 186; Buckingham 

(A), I, 363. 
Wheeler, Father: Bemhard, I, 168. 
Wheeling, W. Va. : Buckingham (E&W), II, 258. 
Worcester, Mass.: Buckingham (E&W), I, 330; Plessis, I, 155. 

Zeal: Buckingham (E&W), II, 393; Murray, II, 308; Davis, 23. 



THE DARK AND THE BLOODY GROUND 

The exploration of what is now known as Kentucky occurred 
many years before the War of Independence of the English Colonies 
in America. For the Indians and the whites this region, one of the 
fairest in the world, had long been regarded as the hunter's paradise. 
Scores of adventurers, backwoodsmen, traders and pioneer settlers 
had traversed these primeval forests in search of fur animals and 
game. Of these early wanderers in the wilderness only fragments of 
tradition remain. One of the first explorers of whom there is any 
record was a certain Colonel Wood who came in 1654. Nearly a 
century later Dr. Thomas Walker of Virginia, explorer and surveyor, 
crossed the Cumberland, which he named, and proceeded to the 
headwaters of the Kentucky River.^ 

The person who was destined to settle permanently in Kentucky 
and to establish there a community was Daniel Boone. He himself 
stated that he "was ordained by God to settle the wilderness." He 
had heard about this territory from a stray hunter and Indian 
trader, John Finley by name. On May 1, 1769, he left his home on 
the Yadkin River in North Carolina and his purpose was "to wander 
through the wilderness of America in quest of Kentucky. ' ' ^ 

The first distinct effort at colonization was made by James Harrod, 
near Louisville, in 1774, and this was soon followed by many settle- 
ments, encouraged by Henderson and Company, who issued entry 
certificates of surveys for five hundred and sixty thousand acres of 
land. The colony came to be known as Transylvania. For a short 
period a sort of hegemony was established. Delegates were assembled 
at Boonesborough at the caU of Colonel Henderson. The represen- 
tatives of this parliament drew up certain laws for the government 
of the territory and then adjourned, never to meet again. On account 
of precarious titles the seventeen million acres now comprising the 
colony of Transylvania became involved in litigation. Then the gov- 
ernor of North Carolina declared the purchases and sales of this land 
illegal. Later the Virginia Assembly compromised with the proprie- 
tors, but disintegration of the settlements was already in progress.* 



•See Dr. Thomas Walker's Journal of 1750 (in Johnston's First Exploration* 
of Kentucky, Louisville, J. P. Morton, 1898). 

' Filson, John: Beginnings of Kentucky (1775) from Filaon's Daniel Boone 
(see Northwestern Leaflets No. 6). John Filson, Kentucky's first historian, pub- 
lished in substance the journals of the pioneer settler entitled: The Adventures 
of Colonel Daniel Boone, formerly a hunter. 

•Shaler, Nathaniel S.: Kentucky {American Commonwealth Series) Chap- 
ters 5-7. 

364 



THE DARK AND THE BLOODY GROUND 365 

As soon as the conflicting territorial claims of the different At- 
lantic seaboard states had been settled, and much of the disputed 
land had been ceded to the United States, the Kentucky people 
became strongly impressed with the necessity of a government for 
the rapidly growing settlements, the interests of which at times were 
very much at variance with the ultra-montane people of Virginia, 
for Kentucky was at the time of the American Revolution a county 
of that state. 

A contemporary account (1786) of this territory by a gentleman 
who resided there for many years, will give an accurate description 
of the land and its resources, as well as certain curious facts and 
observations regarding prehistoric times: 

"The Kentucky country is subject to and is part of the western 
extremity of the State of Virginia; is bounded by the river Ohio 
(which divides it from the land yet possessed by the savages, and 
by Virginia ceded to Congress) on the northwest; by a small river 
called the Great Sandy which divides it from Montgomery on the 
northeast (Montgomery county begins in the eastern district of Vir- 
ginia, and extending for many miles through a mountainous unin- 
habited country, strikes the Great Sandy and then running down it 
to its junction with the Ohio) ; by the Cumberland mountains on the 
southeast, and the line which divides Virginia and North Carolina 
(and which runs a due west course, striking the Mississippi about 
seventeen miles below the mouth of the Ohio) on the south. 

' ' The extent of this country from northeast to southwest, running 
with the meanders of the Ohio, whose general bearing is about south- 
west and by west, cannot be less than between six and seven hundred 
miles, and in width, from the Ohio to the Cumberland mountains, 
upwards of two hundred and fifty. 

"The principal rivers are the Ohio, Kentucky, Green River, Salt 
River, Licking, Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers. Pittsburg stands 
in the forks of the Monengalia and the Alligania, which are the most 
eastern and northern branches composing the Ohio, at the junction 
of which they obtain the common name of Ohio. 

"The falls or rapids of the river are in 38 deg. 30 min., are 
navigable for vessels of moderate burthen — are about a mile in length, 
and said to be about six hundred and eighty miles below Pittsburg, 
and about four hundred miles above the Ohio's junction with the 
Mississippi, and, except this small obstruction, glides with a gentle 
current from its formation to its mouth, and, as well as the other 
rivers of this country, abounds with excellent fish. 

"Besides a number of others in the interior parts of the country, 
there are three towns established at the Palls — one on the northwest 
or Indian side, called Clarksville; the other two are on the south- 
west , or Virginia; one just below the Falls called Campbells-Town, 
the other just above, called Louisville; the latter is the most ancient 
and populous, and was formerly almost the only landing place used 



366 PAUL J. FOIK, C. S. C, PH. D. 

in the country; but for a year of two past several others nearly vie 
with it, particularly a place called the Mouth of Limestone, near the 
upper extreme of the district. 

"The Kentucky river, which gives name to the country, and in 
the Indian language signifies bloody, is navigable, excepting the dry 
seasons, taking its meander-measure for upwards of two hundred 
miles — it is lost in the Ohio about seventy miles above the falls. 

"The Green River, which at present is the southern limits of the 
Kentucky settlements, is of nearly the dimensions with the Kentucky. 
It meets the Ohio about two hundred miles below the falls. 

Salt River is navigable in the wet season eighty miles, and puts 
into the Ohio twenty miles below the falls. 

"Licking is the least considerable river in the country, but it is 
navigable for nearly the same distance with the Salt River, and 
empties into the Ohio about one hundred and seventy miles above 
the falls. 

"The Cumberland River heads in the mountains of that names 
already mentioned, and, taking a circuitous course southwestwardly, 
visits North Carolina, and thence running northwestwardly, re-enters 
Virginia, and meets the Ohio about sixty miles above the junction 
of the latter with the Mississippi. 

* ' The Tennessee or Cherokee is a river nearly as large as the Ohio, 
takes its rise from several sources in Virginia and North Carolina, 
and, sweeping a large extent of fertile country, generally in a south- 
westwardly course, passing through Carolina, visits Georgia, and 
thence bending northwestwardly, is blended with the Ohio about 
twelve miles below the mouth of the Cumberland. 

"The country at present consists of seven counties, viz., Jefferson, 
Fayette, Lincoln, Nelson, Mercer, Bourbon, andMaddeson; and, with 
the rest of the counties of Virginia, send two members each to the 
General Assembly at Richmond. The county courts in this, as in 
every other part of the state, are held monthly, and as the magis- 
trates execute their office gratis, the administration of justice in this 
country is exceedingly cheap. 

"In the year 1782 it was erected into a separate district, when a 
General, or Supreme Court, was granted it, vested with every power 
in the Kentucky district which the General Court has in the eastern 
part of the state. 

"The country being already populous, and daily increasing in 
numbers, an application was made to the Legislature at the last ses- 
sion to have the Kentucky district erected into a separate state. In 
consequence of which, an act was passed for the purpose ; but as this 
act lays the district under some restrictions, perhaps not altogether 
consistent with the genius of a free people, it is rather probable the 
inhabitants will decline the proposed separation for the present. 

"The Presbyterian and Baptist denominations at present are the 
most numerous sects of religion in this country, and our correspondent 
is happy to say that those churches are generally supplied with pious, 
animated and rational pastors. 



THE DARK AND THE BLOODY GROUND 367 

"A college is also established in Kentucky by act of Assembly on 
the most liberal principles. It is called Transylvania Seminary, and 
is already endowed with about 10,000 acres of the first land in that 
country. 

As this country is very exclusive, so its soil is very various. The 
lands through which the Kentucky, Licking, and some of the branches 
of the Salt river run, generally speaking, exceed description. Its 
soil is eighteen inches to several feet deep, of a dark, chocolate color, 
and excels the jet black in fertility. Besides the kind already de- 
scribed, there are no less than four or five classes in the district of 
an inferior quality, and the eastern and southeastern parts of it are 
little less than a collection of mountains for near two hundred miles 
in length and one hundred miles in breadth. The western and south- 
western extreme is greatly injured by sunken grounds; and some 
parts of the country will, for many years, be rendered in some 
measure useless for want of timber. 

"After being reduced with a few crops of Indian corn, hemp, or 
oats, the soil seems very natural for wheat, which has been raised, 
in a dry season, to weigh sixty-three pounds per bushel. Excepting 
the parts just described, it is generally a high, level and healthy 
country. A circumstance peculiar to it is, that the farther from the 
rivers, the better the land. The intervals, or river bottoms, are 
mostly contracted, and but of the second quality in point of soil. 

"The principal timbers are black and white walnut, wild cherry 
tree, locust, of which there are two species, white ash, and two other 
kinds peculiar to this country, oaks of all sorts known in colder 
climates, mulberry in great abundance, and the mirtle or sugar tree 
is very plentiful and grows to an uncommon size. The underwood is 
principally spicewood and pawpaw, or wild cucumber; the latter 
bears a fruit not unlike a cucumber in shape, but very lucious to the 
smell and taste. 

' * The country abounds in many kinds of excellent wild grass, and, 
although English grass is not a native, yet it flourishes amazingly 
when once introduced. What is called the foul-meadow grass, and 
the cane of which weavers' reeds are composed, both grow spon- 
taneously here; the latter continuing green all the year, affords an 
excellent winter food for stock. 

"Iron ore in sufficient quantities, and of good quality, is found 
in the more broken parts of the country. 

"Its exemption from stone on the surface, while it affords the 
greatest abundance for all the purposes of domestic use, is a pecu- 
liarity of this country deserving of notice. The country, especially 
the interior parts of it, lies on a limestone quarry extremely well 
calculated both as to shape and situation for building. 

"The number of old forts found in this country are the admira- 
tion of the curious, and affords matter of much speculation. They 
are mostly of a circular form, situated on well chosen ground, and 
contiguous to water. When, by whom, and indeed for what purpose 
these were thrown up is uncertain. They are certainly very ancient ; 
there is not the least difference in the age or size of the timber grow- 



368 PAUL J. FOIK, C. S. C, PH. D. 

ing within these forts and that which grows without, and the oldest 
natives here have lost all tradition respecting them. They must have 
been the efforts of a people much more devoted to manual labor than 
our present race of Indians; and it is difficult to conceive how they 
could have been constructed without the use of iron tools. At a con- 
venient distance from these, there always stands a small mound of 
earth, thrown up in the form of a pyramid, and seems in some 
measure proportioned to the size of the adjacent fortifications. Upon 
examination they have been found to contain a large quantity of 
bones, and supposed to be of the human kind. 

"The Salt Springs, by the inhabitants called Salt Licks, with 
which this country are so amply supplied, are displays of that munifi- 
cence with which Heaven has distributed its bounties through this 
lower creation. Had it not been for the supply of salt these afforded, 
and the wild meat of which it was amply furnished, this country 
could not have been settled during the scarcity of that article. 

"The most noted of these Licks are, Bullet's Lick, Dummin's 
Lick, the upper and lower Blue Lick (the former of which discharges 
a quantity of salt water nearly sufficient to drive a mill), and the 
Great Bone Lick. This last mentioned takes its name from a number 
of bones of uncommon size, supposed to be elephants bones, in it. 

"To give a minute description of these Salt Licks, their number 
fullness, and the many philosophic conjectures respecting the origin 
of their saline particles, not to mention the many opinions respecting 
the bones found in the last mentioned one, would be a detail too 
lengthy for a newspaper. 

"These springs afford water sufficient to supply the whole western 
country with salt. It is now commonly sold in Kentucky from eight 
to twelve shillings the bushel, but may be made for half that sum. 

"The petrifying qualities of the waters of the Ohio, especially at 
the falls, may be justly ranked amongst the curiosities of the country. 
The rock on which the river runs had once been a soft yielding clay, 
as in many parts of it may be seen the roots of trees, nuts, and other 
kinds of vegetables turned into stone, and which now adhere to, and 
are become a part of the rock. 

"The healthfulness and temperature of the Kentucky climate — 
the exuberance of its soil — the enchanting beauties of its surface, 
especially in the vernal season, — are to the inhabitants of the North- 
em states real curiosities, and would transcend the belief of the less 
credulous. ' ' 

Another letter, dated August 12, 1786, from a gentleman in Con- 
necticut to some friend in Massachusetts verifies the observations 
stated above: 

"General Parsons, who some time since went to treat with the 
Indians, has lately returned, and informed me that from what dis- 
coveries he has made near the Ohio, he is confident America, some 
ages past, must have been inhabited by some civilized nation, who 



THE DARK AND THE BLOODY GROUND 369 

were acquainted with the arts, for in digging the trenches of a new 
fort, constructed on the Ohio, six hundred miles west of Fort Pitt, 
which is on the backpost of Pennsylvania, they came on brick work 
regularly laid, and found many sound bricks; — they also found the 
ruins of a town, and of a prodigious pyramid formed by art, designed, 
as he supposed, either for a place of worship, or for the burial of 
their dead, which has lain in ruins so long that he could perceive 
that there had been three growths of wood in it successively; and 
judges by every appearance that the latest works that appear were 
done at least six hundred years ago. He then dug up part of the 
jaw bone of an animal with three teeth in it, which three teeth as 
they lay in the jaw, took the space of two feet; these he brought 
home with him ; one weighs five pounds. He measured a thigh bone, 
which he also found, which was four feet nine inches long. The 
oldest Indian has no knowledge of the animal ; but they have a tradi- 
tion that once a great beast was there who drowned all the deer and 
the bears, and that the Great Being killed him with lightning in 
compassion to them, as nothing else could do it. " * 

An excerpt of a letter from a gentleman in the western country 
to a friend in New Haven, dated Fort Fenney, near the Miami, De- 
cember 22, 1785, adds a few facts that will give us an appreciation 
of the wonderful growth of the settlements within a decade of years : 

"The population of the country of Kentucky will amaze you; in 
June 1779, the whole number of inhabitants amounted to one hundred 
and seventy-six only, and now they exceed thirty thousand. I have 
now been thirty-nine days at this post, and there have passed thirty- 
four boats for the falls, and not more than one-third of the boats 



* Filson, in his History of Kentucky, says : ' ' What this animal is and by what 
means its ruins are found in Tartary and in America are questions of very diffi- 
cult decision. The bones bear a great resemblance to those of the elephant, but 
whence is it that these bones are found in climates where an elephant, a native 
of the torrid zone, cannot even subsist in his wild state, and in a state of servi- 
tude will not propagate f These are difficulties sufficient to stagger credulity 
itself and at length produced the inquiries of Doctor Hunter. That celebrated 
anatomist discovered a considerable difference between the shape and structure 
of the bones, and those of the elephant. He observed, from the form of the 
teeth, that they must have belonged to a carnivorous animal; whereas the ha,bit8 
of the elephant are foreign to such sustenance, and his jaws totally unprovided 
with all the teeth necessary for its use. And from the whole, he concluded, to 
the satisfaction of naturalists, that these bones belonged to a quadruped now 
unknown, and whose race is probably extinct, unless it may be found in the 
extensive continent of New Holland, whose recesses have not yet been pervaded 
by the curiosity or avidity of civilized man. Can then so great a link have 
perished from the chain of nature? Happy we that it has. How formidable 
an enemy to the human species, an animal as large as an elephant, the tyrant of 
the forests, perhaps the devourer of man. Nations, such as the Indians, must 
have been in perpetual alarm. The animosities among the various tribes must 
have stopped till the common enemy, who threatened the very existence of all, 
should be extirpated. To this circumstance we are probably indebted for a fact, 
which is perhaps singular in its kind, the extinction of a whole race of animals 
from the system of nature." 



370 PAUL J. FOIK, C. S. C, PH. D. 

which come to this country with settlers go as far down as this place. 
It is a moderate computation to number ten to a boat; this gives an 
addition of one thousand at least in the last forty days, and I am 
informed that one-half the settlers came through the wilderness from 
Virginia. I have not a doubt but three thousand men in arms might 
be paraded at this place in twelve days if necessary. 

"It will be as practicable to turn a torrent of water backward, 
as. to prevent the amazing emigration to this country ; and, like the 
general collection at the last day, they are of all nations, tongues, 
and languages, from China, from all parts of Europe, from our own 
country, and every part of America they are gathered. 

"The whole of that country is located, some of eight of ten loca- 
tions upon each other, that whoever purchases there, is sure to pur- 
chase a lawsuit, and a very uncertain title. 

"The principal settlement is Lexington, seventy miles southeast 
from this post. Louisville, at the falls of the Ohio, consists of about 
one hundred buildings, in three parallel streets, in an oblique direc- 
tion to the river ; it is a beautiful location, having the falls in front, 
and a view of the river in its course from the upper country. On 
the northwest side of the falls, the earth, or waters issuing through 
it, possess a petrifying quality beyond what I have seen at any other 
place; fish, birds, roots, vegetables, etc., are petrified and adhere to 
the flat rocks on the bottom, many of which we have gathered. 
• ••••«• 

"From every observation I can make I have not a doubt this 
country will be very speedily settled, and very great advantages may 
be made by those who are early in their adventures and speculations; 
and I have no more doubt that the United States will lose all the 
benefit they expect to derive from it, unless some more expeditious 
method for opening the settlement on this side of the river should 
be speedily adopted." 

With this rapid growth of population and the development of 
natural resources and trade, the Kentucky settlers yearned for separa- 
tion from Virginia. The specific reasons that prompted this action 
was drawn up by a committee appointed for the purpose during the 
last State convention : 

"Your committee having maturely considered the Important sub- 
ject to them referred are of the opinion that the situation of this 
district, upwards of five hundred miles from the present seat of 
government, with the intervention of a mountainous desert of two 
hundred miles, passable only at particular seasons, and never without 
danger from hostile nations of savages, precludes every idea of a 
connection of Republican principles, and originates many grievances, 
among which we reckon the following : 

1st. It destroys every possibility of application to supreme execu- 
tive power for support and protection in cases of emergency, and 
thereby subjects the district to continue (sic) hostilities and depre- 



THE DARK AND THE BLOODY GROUND 371 

dations of the savages; relaxes the execution of the laws, delays 
justice, and tends to loosen and dissever the bonds of government. 

2nd. It suspends the operation of the benign influence of mercy, 
by subjecting condemned persons, who may be deemed worthy of 
pardon to tedious, languishing, and destructive imprisonment. 

3rd It renders difficult and precarious the exercise of the first 
and dearest right of freeman — adequate representation — as no person 
properly qualified, can be expected at the hazard of his life to un- 
dergo the fatigue of long journeys, and to incur burthensome ex- 
penses, by devoting himself to the public service. 

4th. It subjects us to penalties and inflictions which arise from 
ignorance of the laws, many of which have their operation, and 
expire before they reach the district. 

5th. It renders a compliance with many of the duties required 
by sheriffs and clerks impracticable, and exposes those officers, under 
the present revenue law, to inevitable destruction. 

6th. It subjects the inhabitants to expensive and ruinous suits 
in the high court of appeals, and places the unfortunate poor, and 
the men of mediocrity completely in the power of the opulent. ' ' 

"Other grievances result from partial and retrospective laws, 
which are contrary to fundamental principles of free governments, 
and subversive of the inherent rights of freemen. Such are for in- 
stance : 

1st. The laws for the establishment and support of the district 
court, which at the same time that we are subjected to a general tax 
for the support of the civil list, and the erection of public buildings 
obliges us to build our own court-house, jail, and other buildings, by 
a special poll-tax imposed on the inhabitants of the district, and 
leaves several officers of the courts without any certain provision, 

2nd. The law imposing a tax of five shillings per hundred acres 
on lands previously sold, and directing payment thereof into the 
Registrar 's office at Richmond before the patent shall issue ; the same 
principles which sanctify this law, would authorize the legislation 
to impose five pounds per acre on lands previously sold by govern- 
ment on stipulated conditions, and for which an equivalent hath 
been paid ; and is equally subversive of justice as any of the statutes 
of the British parliament, that impelled the good people of America 
to arms. 

3rd. General laws, partial and injurious in their operations, such 
are the laws: 1st., concerning entries and surveys on the western 
waters; 2nd., concerning the appointments of sheriffs; 3rd., for pun- 
ishing certain offences injurious to the tranquility of this common- 
wealth: which last law prohibits us, whilst we experience all the 
calamities which flow from the predatory incursions of hostile sav- 
ages ; from attempting any offensive operation ; a savage unrestrained 
by any law, human or divine, despoils our property, murders of 
fellow citizens, then makes his escape to the northwest side of the 
Ohio, and is protected by this law. 



372 PAUL J. FOIK, C. S. C, PH. D. 

"Whereas, All men are bom equally free and independent, and 
have certain natural inherent, and inalienable rights, among which 
are the enjoying and defending life and liberty, acquiring possession, 
and protecting property, and pursuing and obtaining happiness and 
safety. 

"Resolved, therefore. That it is the indispensable duty of this 
convention, as they regard the prosperity and happiness of their 
constituents, themselves and posterity, to make application to the 
general assembly, at the ensuing session, for an act to seperate this 
district from the present government forever, on terms honorable to 
both, and injurious to neither: in order that it may enjoy all the 
advantages, privileges, and immunities of a free and sovereign and 
independent republic. Unanimously agreed to. ' ' 

The necessity of a separate government to meet the exigencies of 
the times and as clearly expressed in this application for statehood 
were fully justified by the happenings, especially the exasperating 
attacks of the savages even in the face of solemn treaty obligations 
with most of the tribes. A letter from Nashville, on the Cumberland 
River, dated May 28, 1785, states: 

"The inhabitants of the west country who live remote from this 
settlement, have lately been greatly alarmed by the Indians. Many 
white men have been killed within the last four weeks by the savages. 
All of the murders, so far as I can learn, have been committed by 
the Cherokees, and most of them, I believe, by the rascally tribe 
called the Chickemagoes. Since the late war there have been several 
instances of a careless traveler or hunter being killed by the Indians, 
but those instances were single and detached. Of late the murders 
are frequent, and three or four persons have been killed in company. 
Such are the consequences of the late treaty of peace with the In- 
dians. Are we to believe that peace was made for the purpose of 
bringing about a general war? Strange stories are circulated con- 
corning the treaty. It is said that the commissioner encouraged the 
Indians to take the land which they formerly sold. 

"It is said that they have given up the very path that leads to 
this country with hopes of preventing people from coming to settle 
on the waters of the Cumberland River. Also that after the com- 
missioners had flattered the Indians with the hope of large presents, 
some of the Chickemagoes were sent home greatly exasperated, with- 
out a single match coat. We do not think that the commissioners 
intended to make war, but they have occasioned it, and everybody 
here expects that Congress, or such commissioners as they may ap- 
point, will contrive to put out the fire which they have kindled and 
leave us a